User experience in technology mediated       human‐animal interaction              Heli Väätäjä       heli.vaataja@gmail.c...
Goals of the lecture  • Exemplify (HCI) studies with animals  • Increase understanding of issues related to     using anim...
Technology for animals?• What kind of technology?• For what purposes is the technology used for?• How do animals differ fr...
Animals and technology ‐ examples  Apes with apps  • http://youtu.be/3KGrXZ5pWko  Kittens with apps  • http://youtu.be/lNj...
Research results on dog’s cognition and emotion                     ‐ examples  • Dogs prefer color images of conspecifics...
Technology mediated human‐animal interaction ‐ definition                    (source: Rover@Home, Resner, 2001)7.10.2012  ...
Studies in HCI dealing with animals ‐                     themes7.10.2012                                     7
Studies on technology development ‐ examples  •   Remote training      (e.g. dogs: Rover@Home, Resner, 2001)  •   Tracking...
Concepts7.10.2012              9
Concepts  • Animal welfare        – “state  of  an  animal  and  the extent to which it is faring           well or ill in...
Concepts  • Stress        – “real  or  perceived perturbation to an organism’s physiological            homeostasis or psy...
Experience goals for animals –                  examples for dogs7.10.2012                                    12
The Five Freedoms as the fundamental experience goals for                          animals (FAWC)  Freedom                ...
Common Reasons for lowered welfare of dogs (list in Väätäjä et al. 2012,  created based on earlier research)  Fear of envi...
Examples of implications for technology development for dogs (see also                                Väätäjä et al. 2012)...
Assessing the dog’s (animal’s)      experience and effects of technology                 intervention7.10.2012            ...
Personality categories of dogs(MH mentality assessment test, 15329dogs, 164 breeds, 2002)                                 ...
Dog’s Personality vs. studies  • Different individuals react differently to different    stimuli (dimensions of a stimuli ...
Assessments with animals• No direct way to ask for impressions or  descriptions of experience:      – Other types of asses...
Possibilities for assessment (focus on dogs) (see Väätäjä et al.                          2012 for list of references)  • ...
Ethical issues7.10.2012                    21
Key difference between human participants and                  animals in research?• The human’s ability to give informed ...
In the focus:• The humane treatment of animals7.10.2012                           23
What to ask yourself?  • Is this research and use of animals absolutely    necessary and justified?  • How does this techn...
The 3 R’s – general principles guiding all experiments with                                   animals            (The prin...
Example how to approach ethical issues – Ethical Matrix              http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/bioethics/theory_pages/ma...
Code(s) of Ethics, Ethical guidelines  •   APA – American Psychological Association       – The Committee on Animal Resear...
Other sources related to ethical issues in animal                related research  • Research Design         – e.g.APA/CAR...
Conclusions  •   Previous research in related areas (animal cognition and behavior) needs      to be covered for planning ...
References      APA CARE. 2012. Guidelines for the use of nonhuman animals in behavioral profects in schools       (K‐12)....
References        Lee, S.P., Cheok, A.D., James, T.K.S., Debra, G.P.L., Jie, C.W., Chuang, W., Farbiz, F. 2006. A         ...
References       Strandberg, E. Jacobsson, J., Saetre, P. 2005. Direct genetic, maternal and litter effects on        beha...
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Vaataja 2012 ux technology mediated interaction humans-dogs

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Presentation for HCI students on user experience, design guidelines and ethical guidelines in technology mediated human animal interaction, presented at TUT Oct. 3rd, 2012.

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Vaataja 2012 ux technology mediated interaction humans-dogs

  1. 1. User experience in technology mediated human‐animal interaction Heli Väätäjä heli.vaataja@gmail.com Presented at TUT for HCI students Oct. 3rd, 2012 Material presented is created in collaboration with E. Pesonen Opinions expressed are of the presenter (Heli Väätäjä)
  2. 2. Goals of the lecture • Exemplify (HCI) studies with animals • Increase understanding of issues related to  using animals in studies and designing for  animals e.g. – Experience goals – Assessments – Ethical issues7.10.2012 2
  3. 3. Technology for animals?• What kind of technology?• For what purposes is the technology used for?• How do animals differ from humans?7.10.2012 3
  4. 4. Animals and technology ‐ examples Apes with apps • http://youtu.be/3KGrXZ5pWko Kittens with apps • http://youtu.be/lNjpC1Du0ss Dairy farm – cows and milking robots • http://youtu.be/oH0kCJGT7s0 Dog chasing laser pointer – do NOT implement this!  • http://youtu.be/vzQRndakkW07.10.2012 4
  5. 5. Research results on dog’s cognition and emotion ‐ examples • Dogs prefer color images of conspecifics over color images of  people, toys and alphabetic characters. (Study on dog’s visual  cognition, Somppi et al. 2012) • Dogs seem to use facial cues alone to differentiate individual  dogs and humans when visual paired comparisons of photos  of dogs and humans familiar and unfamiliar to the dog used  (Racca et al. 2010) • => previous research in related areas needs to be covered when planning research designs and design of technology in  our field ‐ this applies specifically also to technology mediated communication studies • => expertise on animal behavior, cognition, emotions etc needed, depending on the focus of the study.7.10.2012 e
  6. 6. Technology mediated human‐animal interaction ‐ definition  (source: Rover@Home, Resner, 2001)7.10.2012 6
  7. 7. Studies in HCI dealing with animals ‐ themes7.10.2012 7
  8. 8. Studies on technology development ‐ examples • Remote training (e.g. dogs: Rover@Home, Resner, 2001) • Tracking & remote command – e.g. search and rescue (also applications in  military use, hunting) (e.g. dogs: Britt et al. 2011) • Gaming with pets (e.g. hamsters: Metazoa Ludens, Cheok et al. 2011) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jx9Ovw5RaLU • Mediating touch to animal and movement of pet to human (e.g. chickens: Poultry.Internet, Lee et al. 2006) http://youtu.be/1x‐8EzuMiqU Note: this study is one of the best currently available examples on study design and reporting in the field of technology development available through ACM/IEEE when animals involved.7.10.2012 8
  9. 9. Concepts7.10.2012 9
  10. 10. Concepts • Animal welfare – “state  of  an  animal  and  the extent to which it is faring  well or ill in a particular situation or at a particular point in  its life. ‐‐there is no single, reliable measure of an animal’s  welfare” (NRC, 2009) – welfare of an animal includes its physical and mental state,  i.e. fitness and a sense of well‐being (FAWC) – Physical and psychological component included => take into account in development of technology and studies7.10.2012 10
  11. 11. Concepts • Stress – “real  or  perceived perturbation to an organism’s physiological  homeostasis or psychological well‐being.” (NRC, 2009) – "A  certain  amount  of  stress  is  a  normal  part  of  any  animal’s  life   and should not necessarily be considered detrimental to welfare.  Stress should be regarded as a welfare problem only when the degree  of perturbation is sufficiently acute or prolonged, and an animal’s  capacity to restore homeostasis is exceeded.“ (NRC, 2009) => When doing research: travel to site, experimental settings, new  surroundings, used technology (including sensors attached to animal),  persons present etc may increase stress levels of animals. Training to  environment, experimental setting, people present, used technology etc needed to ensure validity of research findings. If possible, doing research and studies in the everyday surroundings of the animal may be a better option.7.10.2012 11
  12. 12. Experience goals for animals – examples for dogs7.10.2012 12
  13. 13. The Five Freedoms as the fundamental experience goals for  animals (FAWC) Freedom How 1. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst By ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour. 2. Freedom form Discomfort By providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area. 3. Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease By prevention or rapid diagnosis and  treatment. 4. Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour By providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal’s own kind. Also: Possiblity to carry out  natural behaviors. 5. Freedom form Fear and Distress By ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering.7.10.2012 13
  14. 14. Common Reasons for lowered welfare of dogs (list in Väätäjä et al. 2012,  created based on earlier research)  Fear of environmental stimuli in urban environments, such as vehicles and noises Noise phobias Separation anxiety, that can be defined as a state of fear Too many, prolonged or too strong environmental stressors Unpredictable and uncontrollable aversive or attractive events Fear or aggression caused by the used training methods and/or mistreatment (such as physical punishment) Fear caused by the use of technologies or tools that create aversive stimuli Confinement, such as crating dogs for long‐periods of time Lacking environmental stimuli and possibility to express natural behaviors related to  exercise, eating and social encounters with humans and conspecifics. Leaving7.10.2012 alone for long periods of time 14
  15. 15. Examples of implications for technology development for dogs (see also Väätäjä et al. 2012) • Provide a possibility for learning, problem solving, co‐operation, and other natural  behaviors in reasonable amounts. “Reasonable” amount depends on the dog breed and  personality, for example. The role and feasibility of technology in this needs careful  consideration. • Avoid types of stressors that wind the dog up or make them fearful or anxious. Keeping the  dog in a calm state of mind enhances learning, enables concentration and potentially  prevents further problems, such as hyperactivity, phobias, excessive fears, anxiety and  aggression. • Give the animal the control over the environment, so that unexpected things do not happen  that scare or  make the dog anxious or overexcited.  • Avoid enabling too attractive activity that is in itself too rewarding such as chasing objects,  as this excites the dog and increases stress levels in long‐term and may lead to lowered  welfare and problem behavior(s). • Different individuals react differently to stimuli ‐ Respect the fact that dogs (animals) have different personalities. Take it into account in research designs and design of technology for  dogs. • Use prior information on animal cognition and behavior and other relevant fields of animal research when/if designing technology mediated interaction. This information is essential and on the other hand technology development enables new studies in animal behavior and  cognition as well. Relatively little is still known on e.g. dog cognition. Use multidisciplinary research teams in the projects.7.10.2012 15
  16. 16. Assessing the dog’s (animal’s)  experience and effects of technology intervention7.10.2012 16
  17. 17. Personality categories of dogs(MH mentality assessment test, 15329dogs, 164 breeds, 2002) Fearfulness/ Supertrait: Individual’s general propensity (tendency) to approach new things Fearlessness or objects and take risks Pray Aggressivene Playfulness Sociability Curiosity behavior ss More info: Svartberg & Forkman, 2002http://helivaataja.blogspot.fi/ Strandberg et al. 2005http://www.slideshare.net/heli.vaataja/ Svartberg, 2006luonne-ja-kayttaytyminen-testaamisesta-ja-tutkimustuloksista-g-rleiri-20120718 (c) Heli Väätäjä 18.7.2012 7.10.2012 17
  18. 18. Dog’s Personality vs. studies • Different individuals react differently to different stimuli (dimensions of a stimuli e.g.: intensity,  length) • Individuals used in the studies should not be excessive in the intensity of the reactions on fear,  aggressiveness as well as on slow or unable to  recover from used stimuli – Screening of dogs prior to the study for fearful and  aggressive behavior as well as for other behavior problems • E.g. CBARQ questionnaire http://vetapps.vet.upenn.edu/cbarq/7.10.2012 18
  19. 19. Assessments with animals• No direct way to ask for impressions or descriptions of experience: – Other types of assessments and measurements of  • dog’s reactions,  • emotions (affect) and  • possible behavioral changes  – in short and long term – For preferences and effects on welfare7.10.2012 19
  20. 20. Possibilities for assessment (focus on dogs) (see Väätäjä et al.  2012 for list of references) • questionnaires for dog owners or handlers on dog behavior  and signs of stress [9][13][14][24],  • observation of dog’s reactions, activity levels and behavior  ([21], see e.g. [14] for a list of signs of stress),  • measurement of physiological signals, such as heart rate or  blood cortisol [21] (note: these may rather be indicators of  arousal in general [16]) • preference or point of interest by eye‐tracking [28], • assessment of dog’s affective state by cognitive measures,  such as cognitive affective bias [16] • preference for using the developed solution over not using it  [2] [12]7.10.2012 20
  21. 21. Ethical issues7.10.2012 21
  22. 22. Key difference between human participants and  animals in research?• The human’s ability to give informed consent  marks the difference in the ethical treatment  of humans and animals (MRC)• The animals’ inability to speak, jointly with  the ability to suffer, has shaped the ethical  protocols (MRC)7.10.2012 22
  23. 23. In the focus:• The humane treatment of animals7.10.2012 23
  24. 24. What to ask yourself? • Is this research and use of animals absolutely necessary and justified? • How does this technology affect the welfare (psychological and physical) of the individual animal or species? – In the study – In long‐term use • What is the benefit compared to the cost? – See e.g. ISAE Ethics Committee7.10.2012 24
  25. 25. The 3 R’s – general principles guiding all experiments with  animals (The principles of humane experimental technique, Russel & Burch, 1959) R’s Explanation Replacement Effort to replace subjects with nonanimal ones or models whenever possible to do so while still achieving the  scientific objectives. Reduction Effort to reduce the number of animals used in the  experiment to the lowest number of individuals necessary to achieve the aims of the experiment and statistical power. Refinement Effort to design and conduct the study by using any approach which avoids or minimises the actual or potential pain, distress and other adverse effects experienced at any time during the life of the animals involved in the use of the studied or developed technology, and which enhances their well‐being.7.10.2012 25
  26. 26. Example how to approach ethical issues – Ethical Matrix http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/bioethics/theory_pages/matrix.htm Respect for Wellbeing (health Autonomy Justice (fairness) and welfare) (freedom/choice) Targeted organism e.g. Animal welfare;  e.g. behavioral Inherent species (e.g. dog) the Five Freedoms freedom behavior,  entitlement to  certain provisions Users (e.g.  … Freedom to adopt …. handler/owner/trai or not adopt ner) Public (e.g. owner,  … … Knowledge of the  family member,  real effects wider public) See Heleski et al. 2012 for a more comprehensive list of methods and examples7.10.2012 26
  27. 27. Code(s) of Ethics, Ethical guidelines • APA – American Psychological Association – The Committee on Animal Research and Ethics (CARE) • ACM – Association for Computing Machinery • IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers • MRC. Medical Research Council • National Research Council (NRC) • Animal Behaviour Society • International Society for Applied Ethology • National, EU etc. laws, regulations, ethical guidelines HAVE TO be followed whenever using animals in research and studies AND when developing technology!  (In Finland see e.g. Evira for laws and regulations) • NOTE: APA; ACM and IEEE have ethical guidelines and codes of conduct that are relevant for all research and work in our field7.10.2012 27
  28. 28. Other sources related to ethical issues in animal related research • Research Design  – e.g.APA/CARE • Reporting of the studies – ABS/ARRIVE guidelines (Kilkenny et al. 2010)7.10.2012 28
  29. 29. Conclusions • Previous research in related areas (animal cognition and behavior) needs to be covered for planning and conducting research designs in our field • Expertise on animal behavior, cognition, emotions etc needed, depending on the focus of the study • Humane treatment of animals is a key issue governing all research and  technology development dealing with animals • The five freedoms as the guiding principles of experience goals – in research designs and in technology development • Assessment of animal’s experience based on – Observations of behavioral changes, reactions, preferences etc. – Physiological measurements – Both psychological and physical well‐being should be assessed • The three R’s as the principles of humane treatment in research (Reduction, Replacement, Refinement) • Laws, regulations, ethical guidelines, etc. guide and govern the research with animals7.10.2012 29
  30. 30. References APA CARE. 2012. Guidelines for the use of nonhuman animals in behavioral profects in schools  (K‐12). Draft. www.apa.org/science/leadership/care/animal‐guideline.pdf Britt, W.R., Miller, J. Waggoner, P., Bevly, D.M., Hamilton, J.A. 2011. An embedded system for  real‐time navigation and remote command of a trained canine. Personal Ubiquitous Comput.  15, 1 (2011), 61‐74. Cheok, A.D., Tan, R.T.K.C., Peiris, R.L., Fernando, O.N.N., Soon, J.T.K., Wijesena, I.J.P., Sen, J.Y.P.  2011. Metazao Ludens: Mixed‐reality interaction and play for small pets and humans. IEEE  Transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics – part A: systems and humans, 41, 5, pp. 876‐ 891. Committee on Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals, National  Research Council. Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington,  DC: The National Academies Press, 2008. FAWC. Farm Animal Welfare Committee. The Five Freedoms.  http://www.defra.gov.uk/fawc/about/five‐freedoms/ Heleski, C.R., Anthony, R. 2012. Science alone is not always enough: The importance of ethical assessment for a more comprehensive view of equine welfare. J of Veterinary Behavior, 7,  169‐178. Kilkenny, C., Browne, W.J., Cuthill, I.C., Emerson, M., Altman, D.G. 2010. The ARRIVE guidelines  Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments. PLoS Biology, June 2010.  http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/downloaddoc.asp?id=1206&page=1357&skin=07.10.2012 30
  31. 31. References Lee, S.P., Cheok, A.D., James, T.K.S., Debra, G.P.L., Jie, C.W., Chuang, W., Farbiz, F. 2006. A  mobile pet wearable computer and mixed reality systems for human‐poultry interaction  through the internet. Personal Ubiquitous Comput. 10, 5 (2006), 301‐317.  Pirjo Lehtinen, Katariina Mäki: Luonnetesti koiranjalostuksen apuvälineenä, HETI 1, 19‐25,  2005 MRC. Medical Research Council position statement on research regulation and ethics. 2005.  http://www.mrc.ac.uk/consumption/idcplg?IdcService=GET_FILE&dID=5520&dDocName= MRC002462&allowInterrupt=1 NRC, National Research Council. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source  Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009. Racca, A., Amadei, E. Ligour, S.,Guo,K., Meints, K., Mills, D. Discrimination of human and dog  faces and inversion responses in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Animal cognition, 13(3)  (2010), 525‐533. Resner, B.I. Rover@Home: Computer mediated remote interaction between humans and  dogs. M.Sc. Thesis, MIT, 2001.  Russell, W.M.S., Burch, R.L 1959. The principles of Humane Experimental Technique.  Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, UK.7.10.2012 31
  32. 32. References Strandberg, E. Jacobsson, J., Saetre, P. 2005. Direct genetic, maternal and litter effects on  behaviour in German shepherd dogs in Sweden, Livestock production science, 93, 33‐42. Svartberg, K. 2006. Breed‐typical behaviour in dogs – Historical remnants or recent  constructs? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 96, 293‐313. Svartberg, K. Personality in Dogs, PhD Thesis, Uppsala, Sweden, 2003. Svartberg, K, Forkman, B. 2002. Personality traits in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris),  Applied Animal Behaviour Science 79, 133‐155 Väätäjä, H., Pesonen, E. 2012. Please, Don’t drive me nuts! Experience goals for dogs.  Workshop on ”How to utilize user experience goals in design?”, NordiCHI2012. Link to paper under workshop papers listing at https://sites.google.com/site/helivaataja/publications 7.10.2012 32

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