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Nouns

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Nouns

  1. 1. Nouns and Noun Phrase 名词与名词词组 Helen Yan
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>In this week, we will learn about nouns ( 名词 ): </li></ul><ul><li>1. Classification of nouns ( 名词分类 ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Jobs of nouns ( 名词的功能 ) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Number forms of nouns ( 名词的数 ) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Partitives ( 单位词 ) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Genitive Noun ( 名词属格 / 所有格 ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>名词是表示人或物的名称的词。名词可以根据其词汇意义,分为普通名词 ( Common Noun ) 和专有名词 ( Proper Noun ) 。普通名词又可分为物质名词 ( Material Noun ) 、抽象名词 ( Abstract Noun ) 、集体名词 ( Collective Noun ) 和个体名词 ( Individual Noun ) 。 </li></ul>
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  12. 12. Jobs of Nouns <ul><li>If Maria wants to wear her bathing suit, she needs a pool, a lake, or the sea to put it to use. Here in the desert, she is in the wrong environment to wear a bathing suit: It is not the right context. </li></ul><ul><li>What is wrong with this picture? </li></ul>Home
  13. 13. Jobs of Nouns Home
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  15. 15. Noun can be used as a subject complement when it is connected to the subject through a linking verb. A subject complement describes or renames the subject. Home
  16. 16. Discovery Activity 1: Countable versus uncountable Nouns <ul><li>Look at the words below. </li></ul><ul><li>1. If the word is a countable noun, label it C. </li></ul><ul><li>2. If the word a uncountable noun, label it NC. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>cat C happiness NC </li></ul>Carrot knowledge garbage chalk anger scanner muscle language health soap raindrop sadness C U U U C U U C C U C U U U C U
  17. 17. Discovery Activity 2 Adding Quantifying Phrases to uncountable Nouns <ul><li>1. On a separate sheet of paper, write at least one quantifying phrase that you can use with each uncountable noun below. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>bread: a slice of/a loaf of/a piece of </li></ul>1. ham 2. paper 3. butter 4. water 5. hair 6. wisdom 7. intelligence 8. grass Bit, piece, slice Bit, piece, scrap, sheet, slip, strip Knob, pat, slab drop Lock, wisp, thread A lot of, a little, pearls of Little, high, great, average Blade, clump, tuft
  18. 18. Exercise : Correct / Wrong <ul><li>1. We bought quite a lot of expensive furnitures for the new office. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Correct </li></ul><ul><li>b. Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>2. I bought a new luggage for my trip to Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Correct </li></ul><ul><li>b. Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>3. You have to use specialist equipments for this task. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Correct </li></ul><ul><li>b. Wrong </li></ul>b. 'furnitures' should be 'furniture'. b. 'a' should be 'some'. b. 'equipments' should be 'equipment'.
  19. 19. <ul><li>4. This information is out of date. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Correct </li></ul><ul><li>b. Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>5. There is a lot of rubbish on the streets of my city. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Correct </li></ul><ul><li>b. Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>6. My sister gave me a very useful piece of advice. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Correct </li></ul><ul><li>b. Wrong </li></ul>a. This sentence is grammatically correct. a. This sentence is grammatically correct. a. This sentence is grammatically correct.
  20. 20. <ul><li>7. The tourist guide gave me several informations about the castle. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Correct </li></ul><ul><li>b. Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>8. Teachers need to have a patience. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Correct </li></ul><ul><li>b. Wrong </li></ul>b. You cannot use 'several' with uncountable nouns. b. You need to delete 'a'.
  21. 21. Plural Nouns <ul><li>Here are the guidelines for creating plural nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Add s to form the plural of most nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>cat -> cats computer -> computers </li></ul><ul><li>2. Add es if the noun ends in s, sh, ch, or x. </li></ul><ul><li>wish -> wishes inch -> inches box -> boxes </li></ul><ul><li>3. If a noun ends in consonant -y, change the y to i and add es. </li></ul><ul><li>city -> cities lady -> ladies </li></ul><ul><li>4. If a noun ends in vowel -y, add s. Words ending in -quy don’t follow this rule (as in soliloquies ). </li></ul><ul><li>essay -> essays monkey -> monkeys </li></ul>
  22. 22. Discovery Activity 3: Nouns and “s” <ul><li>1. Look at the following list of words. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify which nouns are plural and which ones are nouns that simply end in s. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>linguistics: noun that ends in “s” </li></ul><ul><li>fans: plural word </li></ul>genius chess jeans news clothes parts fans alias Admirers scissors syllabus summons
  23. 23. <ul><li>As this Discovery Activity illustrates, not all nouns that end in “s” are plural words such as jeans, clothes, and scissors are nouns with only plural forms; other words such as genius and syllabus simply end in “s” with no plural meaning attached to this “s”. Since there are relatively few words that follow this pattern, it is not difficult for learners of English to become familiar with the most common of these and use them correctly. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Jobs of Nouns <ul><li>If Maria wants to wear her bathing suit, she needs a pool, a lake, or the sea to put it to use. Here in the desert, she is in the wrong environment to wear a bathing suit: It is not the right context. </li></ul><ul><li>What is wrong with this picture? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Jobs of Nouns
  26. 27. Noun can be used as a subject complement when it is connected to the subject through a linking verb. A subject complement describes or renames the subject.
  27. 28. Number forms of nouns <ul><li>名词的数 </li></ul><ul><li>数是个语法范畴,它是区别单复数名词的屈折变化形式。可数与不可数是英语名词最基本的类别。可数名词有单数与复数两种形式。 </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>名词复数的规则变化 ________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>一般情况加 -s   </li></ul><ul><li>1. 清辅音后读 /s/;   map-maps </li></ul><ul><li>2. 浊辅音和元音后读 /z/   bag-bags; car-cars ________________________________________________ 以 s, sh, ch, x 等结尾的词  加 -es   读 /iz/      bus-buses   watch-watches ________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>以 ce, se, ze, (d)ge 等结尾的词      加 -s   读 /iz/    license-licenses ________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>以辅音字母 +y 结尾的词变 y 为 i 再加 es   读 /z/     baby---babies ________________________________________________ </li></ul>名词的复数变化形式
  29. 30. <ul><li>3) 以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词变复数时: </li></ul><ul><li>   a. 加 s ,如: belief---beliefs   roof---roofs safe---safes   gulf---gulfs ;        </li></ul><ul><li>b. 去 f, fe 加 ves , </li></ul><ul><li>如: half---halves knife---knives      leaf---leaves   wolf---wolves wife---wives   life---lives   thief---thieves ;   </li></ul><ul><li>  c. 均可 , 如: handkerchief:        </li></ul><ul><li>handkerchiefs / handkerchieves </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>1)  以 y 结尾的专有名词,或元音字母 +y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加 s 变复数: </li></ul><ul><li>如:  two Marys      the Henrys     monkey---monkeys   holiday---holidays     比较: 层楼: storey ---storeys   story---stories 2) 以 o 结尾的名词,变复数时: </li></ul><ul><li>a. 加 s ,如: photo---photos    piano---pianos          radio---radios    zoo---zoos ;    b. 加 es ,如: potato--potatoes   tomato--tomatoes    c. 均可,如: zero---zeros / zeroes   </li></ul>其它名词复数的规则变化
  31. 32. <ul><li>3 )集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。 </li></ul><ul><li>如: people   police   cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people , a police , a cattle ,但可以说 a person , a policeman , a head of cattle, the English , the British , the French , the Chinese , the Japanese , the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用。 </li></ul><ul><li>如: The Chinese are industries and brave.  中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。 </li></ul><ul><li>4) 词尾加 -en </li></ul><ul><li>如: brother-brethren ( 兄弟 ), child-children, ox-oxen  </li></ul><ul><li>5) 外来词 </li></ul><ul><li>如: criterion-criteria( 标准 ), phenomenon-phenomena, syllabus-syllabi( 大纲 ) </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>1 )变内部元音 : foot-feet, man-men, mouse-mice, tooth-teeth, woman-women, goose-geese, louse-lice ( 虱子 ), salesman-salesmen, Englishman-Englishmen, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2 )单复同形 </li></ul><ul><li>如: deer , sheep , fish , means, series, bison ( 美国野牛 ), quail ( 鹌鹑 ), swine ( 猪 ), salmon ( 鲑鱼 ), trout ( 鳟鱼 ), grouse ( 松鸡 ), etc. </li></ul><ul><li>民族: Chinese, Japanese, Lebanese, Portuguese, Vietnamese, Swiss, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>汉语计量单位: li , jin , yuan , two li , three mu , four jin   </li></ul><ul><li>但除人民币元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如 : a dollar, two dollars;   a meter, two meters </li></ul>名词复数的不规则变化
  33. 34. <ul><li>3) 表示由两部分构成的东西 </li></ul><ul><li>如: glasses ( 眼镜 )   trousers,   clothes, pliers, scissors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair( 对,双 );   suit( 套 ); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers </li></ul><ul><li>4) 以 s 结尾,仍为单数的名词 </li></ul><ul><li>如: a. maths , politics , physics 等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。 </li></ul><ul><li>b. news 是不可数名词。 </li></ul><ul><li>c. the United States , the United Nations 应视为单数。 </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是 1945 年组建起来的。 </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Arabian Nights&quot; is a very interesting story-book. << 一千零一夜 >> 是一本非常有趣的故事书。 </li></ul><ul><li>5 ) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思 ,如: goods 货物, waters 水域, fishes (各种)鱼 </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>不同国家的人的单复数 </li></ul><ul><li>名称   总称 ( 谓语用复数 )  一个人   两个人      </li></ul><ul><li>中国人   the Chinese     a Chinese   two Chinese 瑞士人   the Swiss      a Swiss    two Swiss 澳大利亚人 the Australians an Australian two Australians 俄国人   the Russians    a Russian    two Russians 意大利人  the Italians    an Italian   two Italians 希腊人   the Greek     a Greek     two Greeks 法国人   the French     a Frenchman   two Frenchmen 日本人   the Japanese    a Japanese   two Japanese 美国人   the Americans   an American   two Americans 印度人   the Indians    an Indian    two Indians 加拿大人  the Canadians   a Canadian   two Canadians 德国人   the Germans    a Germans    two Germans 英国人   the English    an Englishman   two Englishmen 瑞典人   the Swedish    a Swede     two Swedes      </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>单复数同形的名词 </li></ul><ul><li>1 ) 表示某些动物名称及上下文提到的打猎之事。如: </li></ul><ul><li>deer, sheep, swine ( 猪 ) ,fish 等 to hunt elephant, antelope ( 羚羊 ), etc. to shoot wild duck, grouse ( 松鸡 ). 2) 表示数量与重量单位的名词。如: </li></ul><ul><li>two dozen eggs, three score and ten forty head of cattle , four thousand people </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>无复数形式的不可数名词 常见的有 : </li></ul><ul><li>advice ( 忠告 ) baggage ( 行李 ) bread ( 面包 ) chalk (粉笔)   clothing (衣物) equipment (设备) </li></ul><ul><li>furniture (家具) information (情报) machinery (机械) news (消息) performance (演出) </li></ul><ul><li>poetry (诗歌) grass (草 ) rice (大米) scenery ( 风景 ) </li></ul>
  38. 39. 不可数名词量的变化 <ul><li>物质名词    a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时。  比较: Cake is a kind of food.  蛋糕是一种食物。 ( 不可数 )     These cakes are sweet.  这些蛋糕很好吃。 ( 可数 )    b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,名词可数。     This factory produces steel.   ( 不可数 )     We need various steels.   ( 可数 )    c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。     Our country is famous for tea.    我国因茶叶而闻名。     Two teas, please.    请来两杯茶。 </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>2 ) 抽象名词有时也可数。    four freedoms 四大自由    the four modernizations 四个现代化 </li></ul><ul><li>物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量。   如:    a glass of water 一杯水     a piece of advice  一条建议 </li></ul>
  40. 41. 复合名词的复数形式 <ul><li>名词作定语 </li></ul><ul><li>名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。   1) 用复数作定语。    如: sports meeting 运动会      students reading-room 学生阅览室       talks table 谈判桌       the foreign languages department 外语系   2) man, woman, gentleman 等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。    如: men workers    women teachers         gentlemen officials </li></ul>
  41. 42. 3) 有些原有 s 结尾的名词,作定语时, s 保留。    如: goods train ( 货车 )      arms produce  武器生产      customs papers 海关文件      clothes brush 衣刷   4) 数词 + 名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。    如: two-dozen eggs  两打 / (二十四个鸡蛋 )        a ten-mile walk 十里路       two-hundred trees 两百棵树      a five-year plan  一个五年计划   
  42. 43. Partitives ( 单位词 ) <ul><li>单位词又叫“单位名词” (Unit Noun), 是表示事物个体性的词语。它既可和不可数名词搭配,也可和可数名词搭配。与前者搭配时,其表达的事物具有个体性。英语单位词大都借用普通名词,一般具有词汇意义。可分几类: </li></ul><ul><li>1 ) 表个数的单位词。这类单位词包括 piece, bit, item, article , 它们的搭配能力很强, 特别是 piece, bit, 一般不可数名词都可和它们搭配 。 如: </li></ul><ul><li>A piece of advice/ armour/ bacon/ bread/ cake/ chalk/ cloth/ coal/evidence/folly/furniture/ice/information/land/meat/ </li></ul><ul><li>music/news/paper/research/sugar/work </li></ul><ul><li>A bit of advice/ bread/ grass/ news/ trouble/ wood 等等。 </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>2 )表示形状的单位词: 这类单位词,如 cake, bar, drop, ear, flight, grain, head, loaf, lump, spiral, slice 等, 都与物类的形状有关,因此搭配能力颇受限制 。如: </li></ul><ul><li>A cake of soup ten head of cattle/cabbage </li></ul><ul><li>A bar of chocolate a bundle of firewood </li></ul><ul><li>A drop of water a loaf of bread </li></ul><ul><li>An ear of corn a lump pf sugar </li></ul><ul><li>A flight of stairs a spiral of incense </li></ul><ul><li>A grain of sand a slice of meat </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>3 )表示容积的单位词 </li></ul><ul><li>这类单位词,如 bottle, bowl, pail, bucket, glass, handful, spoonful, truckload, lorryload 等,都是一些表示容积的普通名词,搭配能力较强 。如: </li></ul><ul><li>A bottle of ink a cup of tea </li></ul><ul><li>A bowl of rice a handful of clay </li></ul><ul><li>A pail of water two spoonfuls of hot water </li></ul><ul><li>A bucket of milk a truckload of steel </li></ul><ul><li>A glass of beer four lorryloads of sand </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>4 )表示动作状态的单位词 </li></ul><ul><li>这类单位词,如 fit, peal, flash, display 等,通常只限于偶些固定搭配 。如: </li></ul><ul><li>A fit of anger/ coughing/ laughter/ fever </li></ul><ul><li>A peal of applause/ laughter/ thunder </li></ul><ul><li>A flash of hope/ light/ lightening </li></ul><ul><li>A display of courage/ force/ power/ skill/ fireworks </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>5) 表示成双、成组、成群的单位词: </li></ul><ul><li>这类单位词包括 pair, group, flock, herd, litter, swarm, bench, troupe, pack, shoal, school 等,通常也只限于某些固定搭配。如 : </li></ul><ul><li>A pair of shoes a school of whales </li></ul><ul><li>A flock of birds a group of people </li></ul><ul><li>A herd of elephants a bench of judges </li></ul><ul><li>A litter of kittens a troupe of actors </li></ul><ul><li>A swarm of bees a gang of hooligans </li></ul><ul><li>A shoal of fish a pack of lies </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>名词的格是个语法范畴,表示名词与其他词在句中的关系。现代英语名词有两个格: </li></ul><ul><li>通格( COMMON CASE )和属格( GENITIVE CASE )。当名词在句中充当主语、宾语或补语时,名词词形无变化,这就是说,采取通格的形式。 当名词在句中表示所有或其他某些关系时,名词采用属格的形式。名词的属格又分两种:—’ s 属格或所有格; of -属格。 </li></ul>名词的格 ( Genitive Noun)
  48. 49. <ul><li>1. —’s 属格可表示: </li></ul><ul><li>1) 人名,有生命或被视为有生命的东西的名词。 </li></ul><ul><li>如: Browning’ s poems; workers’ families; the Party’s policy; the men’s room </li></ul><ul><li>2) 天体和时间名称的名词。 如 : </li></ul><ul><li>the moon’s orbit; the sun’s rotation; today’s magazine; an hour’s drive </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>3) 工业、科技、交通、电讯、文化艺术活动等名称的名词。 如 : </li></ul><ul><li>the plant’s technical force; automobile’s contribution; the book’s significance; </li></ul><ul><li>4) ’s 属格所修饰名词的省略 </li></ul><ul><li>(1). ’s 属格所修饰的名词 , 如前已出现 , 即可以省略。例句 : </li></ul><ul><li>The dictionary is not mine, but Comrade Wang’s. These are John’s books and those are Mary’s. (2). ‘s 属格后的名词如指商店、家宅等地点时 , 该名词亦常省略。 </li></ul><ul><li>如 : at the doctor’s; near the grocer’s; to my uncle’s </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>2.of -属格可用于 : </li></ul><ul><li>1) 名词后面 , 跟后置修饰语或同位语时 , 例句 : </li></ul><ul><li>The city of Newcastle lies at the mouth of the Newcastle River. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Smith is a foreign teacher of a university in China. </li></ul><ul><li>2) 以定冠词加分词或形容词表示一类人时 ,如: </li></ul><ul><li>the struggle of the oppressed (被压迫人民的斗争) the livelihood of the poor  (穷人的生计) </li></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><li>3. -’ s 属格与 of -属格在用法上的区别 : </li></ul><ul><li>1) 当-’ s 属格表示事物类别或属性时,不用 of― 属格代替 : </li></ul><ul><li>如“儿童画报”应是 children’s pictorial, 而不是 pictorial of children.“ 男式服装”应为 men’s clothing 而不是 clothing of men </li></ul><ul><li>2) 在某些习语中只能用―’ s 属格 . 有些结构中只能用 of― 属格 , 如: </li></ul><ul><li>at one’s wits end ; a wolf in sheep’s clothing; the income of the rich; the suggestion of those present at the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>3)of― 属格可表示同位关系 ; 而―’ s 属格通常不这样用 . </li></ul><ul><li>the city of New York , ( 纽约市 ) the ten of us ( 我们十个人 ) </li></ul>
  52. 53. 双重所有格 <ul><li>双重所有格即 “ of + 名词’ s 所有格” , 表示整体中的一个或部分。用于修饰 of 前面的名词,但此时 of 前面的名词一定要有一个 a(an) , two , any , some , several , no , few , another 或 this , that , these , those 之类的修饰语 ( 这个修饰语一般不能是 one 和 the) 。 </li></ul><ul><li>双重所有格也可由“ of+ 名词性物主代词 ”构成 , </li></ul><ul><li>如: a friend of mine 我的一位朋友。 </li></ul><ul><li>例 Do you know any friends of my husband’s?    Two classmates of my sister’s will come to join us .    </li></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>注:在双重所有格中,用作介词补足成分的所有格的名词必须是确定特指的,而且一般指人。 </li></ul><ul><li>例 an old friend of my father’s ( =one of my father’s old friends )我父亲的一个老朋友 this lovely baby of my aunt’s 我姨妈的可爱的孩子 </li></ul>

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