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  1. 1. Determiners 限定词
  2. 2. Determiners <ul><li>Introduction to D eterminers (限定词) </li></ul><ul><li>Collocations between determiners and nouns (限定词与名词的搭配关系) </li></ul><ul><li>Collocations between determiners (限定词与限定词的搭配关系) </li></ul><ul><li>A comparative study of some determiner usage (若干限定词用法比较) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Words that precede any premodifying adjectives in a noun phrase and denote such referential meanings as specific reference, generic reference, definite quantity or indefinite quantity are referred as determiners. </li></ul><ul><li>限定词( Determiner 〕是在名词词组中对名词中心词起 特指 ( Specific Reference 〕、 类指 ( Generic Reference 〕以及表示 确定数量 ( Definite Quantity 〕和 非确定数量 ( Indefinite Quantity 〕等 限定作用 的词类。名词词组除有词汇意义外,还有其所指意义( Referential Meaning 〕,是特指(即指特写的对象〕,还是类指(即泛指一类人或物〕;是有确定的数量,还是没有确定的数量。能在名词词组中表示这种所指意义的词类就是限定词。 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Determiners 限定词 Articles 冠词 possessive determiners 物主限定词 genitive nouns 名词属格 demonstrative determiners 指示限定词 relative determiners 关系限定词 definite article 定冠词 indefinite article 不定冠词 zero article 零冠词 the a/an my, your, his, etc John’s, my friend’s this, that, these, those Whose, which Interrogative determiners 疑问限定词 Indefinite determiners 不定限定词 Cardinal Numerals 基数词 Ordinal Numerals 序数词 Multiplicative Numerals 倍数词 Fractional Numerals 分数词 Quantifiers 量词 What, which, whose Some, any, each, every, many, little, other, etc. A lot of, plenty of, a large amount of, etc.
  5. 5. Determiners 限定词 Articles 冠词 definite article 定冠词 indefinite article 不定冠词 zero article 零冠词 the a/an Indefinite determiners 不定限定词 Cardinal Numerals 基数词 Ordinal Numerals 序数词 Multiplicative Numerals 倍数词 Fractional Numerals 分数词 Quantifiers 量词 Some, any, each, every, many, little, other, etc. A lot of, plenty of, a large amount of, etc.
  6. 6. Collocations between determiners and nouns The choice of determiners is closely related to the three class of nouns: singular countable nouns , plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns . 限定词与名词词组中心词之间有着某种固定的搭配关系;如果名词之前带有两个或两个以上的限定词,则限定词与限定词之间也有某种固定的搭配关系。限定词的选择决定于随后的名词的类别,是 单数名词 、 复数名词 ,还是 不可数名词 。
  7. 7. <ul><li>Determiners with plural countable nouns only </li></ul><ul><li>只能与复数名词搭配的限定词 </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners with all three classes of nouns </li></ul><ul><li>能与三类名词搭配的限定词 </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners with singular countable nouns only </li></ul><ul><li>只能与单数名词搭配的限定词 </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners with uncountable nouns only </li></ul><ul><li>只能与不可数名词搭配的限定词 </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Determiners with singular and plural countable nouns only 能与单、复数名词搭配的限定词 </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners with singular and uncountable nouns only 能与单数名词和不可数名词搭配的限定词 </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners with plural and uncountable nouns only 能与复数名词和不可数名词搭配的限定词 </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1 〕能与三类名词搭配的限定词 </li></ul><ul><li>有些限定词如 the, some, any, no, other, whose 以及 my, your 等物主限定词和名词属格( John’s, my friend’s 〕等能与三类名词搭配。 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>the book , my book, my friend's book, John's book, any book, some book, no book, the other book, whose book </li></ul><ul><li>the books , my books, my friend's books, John's books, any books, some books, no books, the other books, whose books </li></ul><ul><li>the money , my money, my friend's money, John's money, any money, some money, no money, the other money, whose money. </li></ul>Determiners with all three classes of nouns Back
  10. 10. Determiners with singular countable nouns only <ul><li>2 〕只能与单数名词搭配的限定词 有些限定词如 a(n), one, another, each, every, either, neither, many a, such a 等只能与 单数名词 搭配。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: each worker, either book, an apple, another book, such a book, every student, neither sentence, one copy, many a book. </li></ul>Back
  11. 11. Determiners with plural countable nouns only <ul><li>3) 只能与复数名词搭配的限定词 有些限定词如 both, two, three, another two / three, many, (a) few, several, these, those, a (great) number of 等只能与 复数名词 搭配。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: both workers, several students, a number of essays, many students, (a) few words, these / those books, two / three visitors, another two / three students. </li></ul>Back
  12. 12. Determiners with uncountable nouns only <ul><li>4) 只能与不可数名词搭配的限定词 有些限定词如 a (little) bit of, a great amount of, a great deal of, (a) little, much 等只能与 不可数名词 搭配。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: </li></ul><ul><li>a bit of water, a great amount of labor, a great deal of work, (a) little space, much noise . </li></ul>Back
  13. 13. Determiners with singular and plural countable nouns only <ul><li>5 )能与单、复数名词搭配的限定词 有些限定词如 the first, the second, the last, the next 等既可与 单数名词 搭配,也可与 复数名词 搭配。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: the first rose, the last man, the next meeting, the first roses, the last men, the next meetings. </li></ul>Back
  14. 14. Determiners with singular and uncountable nouns only <ul><li>6 〕能与单数名词和不可数名词搭配的限定词 有些限定词如 this, that, (the) least 等能与单数名词和不可数名词搭配。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: (the) least sign (of prejudice), this / that job, (the) least knowledge, this / that work. </li></ul>Back
  15. 15. Determiners with plural and uncountable nouns only <ul><li>7 〕能与复数名词和不可数名词搭配的限定词 还有些限定词如 a lot of, lots of, enough, more, most, such, other 等可与 复数名词 和 不可数名词 搭配。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: a lot of books, a lot of money, lots of chickens, lots of food, plenty of chairs, plenty of water, enough copies, enough coal, more articles, more time, most people, most work, such men, such bread, other men, other bread. </li></ul><ul><li>不定量限定词 less 原先只与不可数名词搭配,但在现代英语中, less 既可与不可数名词也可与复数名词搭配。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: less money, less mistakes. </li></ul>Back
  16. 16. Collocation between determiners <ul><li>限定词与限定词的搭配关系 </li></ul><ul><li>以上讲的是限定词与三类名词的搭配关系。除上述搭配关系外,限定词与限定词之间还存在着一定的搭配关系。 在名词词组中心词之前如果有两个或两个以上限定词出现时,就会产生限定词的 先后顺序 问题。 按其不同的搭配位置,限定词可分为: </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>1 〕中位、前位、后位限定词 按照限定词与限定词之间不同搭配位置,限定词可分为 中位限定词( Central Determiner 〕、 前位限定词( Predeterminer 〕 和 后位限定词( Postdeterminer 〕。 </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>a) 前位限定词 </li></ul><ul><li>包括 all, both, half; double, twice, three times, etc; one-third, two-fifths, etc; what, such, (a / an) 等 </li></ul><ul><li>Predeterminers specify quantity in the noun which follows them, and they are of three major types:  </li></ul><ul><li>1. &quot;Multiplying&quot; expressions, including expressions ending in times:   </li></ul><ul><li>twice my salary, double my salary, ten times my salary </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fractions: half my salary, one-third my salary </li></ul><ul><li>3. The words all and both: all my salary, both my salaries </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>b) 中位限定词 : 包括 a(n), the, zero; this, that, these, those; my, your, etc; Merry’s, my friend’s; some, any, no, every, each, either, neither, enough; what(ever), which(ever), whose 等 </li></ul><ul><li>1. The definite article the and the indefinite article a/an are the most common central determiners:  </li></ul><ul><li>all the book, half a chapter </li></ul><ul><li>2. As many of our previous examples show, the word my can also occupy the central determiner slot. This is equally true of the other possessives:  </li></ul><ul><li>all your money, all his/her money, all our money, all their money </li></ul><ul><li>3. The demonstratives, too, are central determiners:    </li></ul><ul><li>all these problems, twice that size, four times this amount </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>c) 后位限定词 </li></ul><ul><li>包括 one, two, three, etc; first, second, third, etc; next, last, other, another, etc; many, much, (a) few, (a) little, fewer, (the) fewest, less, (the) least, more, most; several, plenty of, a lot of, lots of, a great / large / good number of, a great / good deal of, a large / small amount of; such 等 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cardinal and ordinal numerals occupy the postdeterminer slot:  </li></ul><ul><li>the two children, his fourth birthday, </li></ul><ul><li>2. This applies also to general ordinals:    </li></ul><ul><li>my next project, our last meeting, your previous remark, her subsequent letter </li></ul><ul><li>3. Other quantifying expressions are also postdeterminers :  </li></ul><ul><li>my many friends, our several achievements, the few friends that I have </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>2) 三类限定词的搭配关系 </li></ul><ul><li>Word order of three subclasses of determiners </li></ul><ul><li>“ predeterminers + central + postdeterminers ” </li></ul><ul><li>如果一个名词词组带有上述三类限定词,其搭配关系总是按照“ 前位 -- 中位 -- 后位 ”的顺序排列。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: all 前 the 中 four 后 teachers. all 前 your 中 three 后 books. all 前 these 中 last 后 few 后 days. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>如果只有上述两类限定词,其搭配关系仍按上述顺序。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: half 前 his 中 lecture. those 中 last 后 few 后 months. several 后 hundred 后 guests. all 前 other 后 students. such 前 a 中 misfortune. some 中 such 后 alloy. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>由上述诸例可以看出, 中位限定词之间和前位限定词之间是互相排斥的 ,即一个名词中心词之前不可并用两个中位限定词或两个前位限定词。 </li></ul><ul><li>所以,“ 我的那本书 ”不是 * my that book 而是 that book of mine ,因为 my 和 that 同是中位限定词,不可同时并列。 </li></ul><ul><li>但后位限定词的使用却不受此限。除上述 , those last few months, several hundred guests 之外 , these last two books, the first two chapters, three other girls, two more sheets, the next few weeks, many more copies, a few more samples, another twenty tons 等都是后位限定词重叠使用的实例。 </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>个别限定词有跨类现象, 如 such 既属于前位限定词,又可归入后位限定词 。由于 它只是在 such a... 和 such an... 这样的搭配中属于前位限定词 ,而 在与其他限定词 (some, any, no, all, few, another, other, many, one, two, etc) 搭配时, such 则是后位限定词,一律放在上述这些限定词的后面 ,如 some such, any such, no such, few such, one such 等,因此通常把它归入后位限定词。 </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>若干限定词用法比较 </li></ul>A comparative study of some determiner usage 1) many, much, a lot of, lots of, plenty of 2) (a) few, (a) little 3) some, any 5) all, both, every, each, either, neither, any 6) Numerals 4) No, none (of) and not any
  26. 26. <ul><li>表示“多”的意思,可用 many, much, a lot of, lots of, plenty of 等。但是 many, much 常用于否定句和疑问句,而 a lot of 等则常用于肯定句。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: I haven’t seen many English films. 多数英文电影我没看过。 many 修饰可数名词 </li></ul><ul><li>Have you done much work today? 今天你已经做了很多活吗? much 修饰不可数名词 </li></ul><ul><li>I have seen a lot of / lots of / plenty of / a great number of English films. 我已经看了多部英文电影。 number 修饰可数名词 </li></ul><ul><li>I have done a lot of / lots of / plenty of / a great amount of work today. 今天我已经做了很多活。 amount 修饰不可数名词 </li></ul>many, much, a lot of, lots of, plenty of Back
  27. 27. <ul><li>many / much 既可作限定词,也可作不定代词( indefinite pronoun), a lot 也可单独用作名词词组: </li></ul><ul><li>Have you done all these exercises? ----No, I haven't done very many . </li></ul><ul><li>Have you done much work today? ----Yes, I've done a lot . </li></ul>Back
  28. 28. <ul><li>当然,以上所讲 many / much 常用于否定句和疑问句并不是绝对的,尤其是 在下列场合 many / much 也常用于肯定句 : </li></ul><ul><li>a) 用于 whether / if 引导的宾语分句中 。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: I doubt whether / if there’ll be many people at the show on this rainy day. 我怀疑在这个雨天里会有很多人看表演。 </li></ul><ul><li>I wonder whether / if he has much information on this subject. 我想知道在这个题目上他是否知道很多消息。 </li></ul>Back
  29. 29. <ul><li>b) 用于由“ how / too / so / as many / much ( 中心词 )” 构成的名词词组中。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: He took so many boxes with him that he had to call a taxi. 他身边带着太多的箱子,不得不叫计程车。 </li></ul><ul><li>It’s really surprising that the child has so much strength at his age. 真是很惊奇,在这个年龄的孩子居然这么有力气。 </li></ul><ul><li>You can take as many copies as you need. 你可以根据你的需要想拿多少张就拿多少张。 </li></ul>Back
  30. 30. <ul><li>You can use as much oil as you need. 根据你的需要想用多少油就用多少。 </li></ul><ul><li>I have (far) too many books on the shelf. </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve had too much rain this spring. 这个春天我们已经有太多雨。 </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like to know how many copies are needed for the class. 我想要知道在这班需要多少张考贝。 </li></ul>Back
  31. 31. <ul><li>c) 用于在句首作主语以及在“存在句”中作实义主语的名词词组中。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: Many people would like to take holidays abroad. 许多人喜欢去国外渡假。 </li></ul><ul><li>Much coal has been saved through the use of the new device. 通过用新的装置,很多煤被节省下来。 </li></ul>Back
  32. 32. <ul><li>There are many girl students in my class. 在我的班级里有许多女学生。 </li></ul><ul><li>There is much coal left in the mine. 在煤矿有很多的煤剩下。 </li></ul><ul><li>同样地, a good / great many 也可用于肯定句。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: I have read a great many English novels. 我已读过大量的英语小说。 </li></ul>Back
  33. 33. Many, much Back
  34. 34. Much, many Back
  35. 35. The many, his many Back
  36. 36. A good/great many (deal of) Back
  37. 37. Far too many Back
  38. 38. <ul><li>表示“少”的意思,可用 (a) few, (a) little, 既可用作限定词,也可用作不定代词。 a few, a little 表示“少量”,带有肯定意义。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: Let‘s invite a few friends to come with us. 让我们来邀请几个朋友来和我们在一起。 </li></ul><ul><li>Here are a few more books on this subject. 在他的课题上有少量的书。 </li></ul><ul><li>There are only a very few left. 只有一点点剩下。 </li></ul>(a) few, (a) little Back
  39. 39. <ul><li>I’m keeping the few that remain for tomorrow. 我保住剩下的一点点为明天。 </li></ul><ul><li>I had a little difficulty in solving the problem. 在解决这个问题上我有一点困难。 </li></ul><ul><li>Give me a little of that wine. 给我一点那种酒。 </li></ul><ul><li>I'm trying to use the little French I have just learnt. 我正在试用我刚学的一点法语。 </li></ul>Back
  40. 40. <ul><li>few / little 若不与 a 连用则表示否定意义,相当于 not many / much, not enough 。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: I have very few (chocolates) left. 我剩下不多的巧克力。 Few (children) were tired. 很少的学生累了。 I have very little (money) left. 我有为数不多的钱剩下。 I understood little of his speech. 他的演讲我懂一点点。 </li></ul>Back
  41. 41. <ul><li>要注意, quite a few , a good few , not a few 不表示 &quot; 少 &quot; ,而表示 &quot; 相当多 &quot; 的含义,相当于 , a fair number (of) 。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: Quite a few of us are getting worried. 我们相当多的人正在担心。 You’ll have to wait a good few weeks. 你将不得不等上相当多个星期。 </li></ul><ul><li>little 的比较级和最高级是 less 和 least , 通常只能用与不可数名词搭配,但在当代英语中也有用 less 与复数搭配的。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: If only there were less holes in the roof. 如果房顶仅是少量洞。但这只见于非正式主体;在正式主体中仍用 fewer 为好。 </li></ul>Back
  42. 42. (a) few, (a) little Back
  43. 43. The few, the little Back
  44. 44. Informal and formal context Back
  45. 45. Less (than), fewer (than) Back
  46. 46. Less than, fewer than Back
  47. 47. some, any <ul><li>要表示“一些”的意思,可用 some, any 。 some 是肯定词( Assertive Word 〕,常用于肯定句; any 是非肯定词( Nonassertive Word 〕,常用于否定句或疑问句。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: There are some letters for me. There aren't any letters for me. Are there any letters for me? I seldom get any sleep these days. </li></ul>Back
  48. 48. <ul><li>any 也常用于条件分句以及带有否定含义的句子中: If you have any trouble, please let me know. 如果你有任何麻烦,请让我知道。 I forgot to ask for any change. 我忘了要一些零钱。 </li></ul><ul><li>当说话人期待肯定回答时, some 也可用于疑问句 , </li></ul><ul><li>比如当说话人期待来信时,他可以问道: Are there some letters for me? </li></ul><ul><li>当购物时向售货员提问或者主人向客人表示款待时,也可在疑问句中用 some: Could I have some of these apples? Would you like some chocolate cake? </li></ul>Back
  49. 49. <ul><li>当 some 与单数可数名词搭配时 , some 相当于 a certain (“某一”〕的含义;而 any 与单数可数名词搭配,则相当于 every (“任何一个”〕的含义。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: Some boy has broken a window. </li></ul><ul><li>有个男孩打破了窗户。 Any child could answer that question. </li></ul><ul><li>任何一个孩子都可以回答这个问题。 </li></ul>Back
  50. 50. Some Back
  51. 51. Any Back
  52. 52. Back
  53. 53. No, none of and not any Back
  54. 54. No, none (of) and not any Back
  55. 55. No, none (of) and not any Back
  56. 56. Back
  57. 57. <ul><li>这一类词,除 every 只能作限定词外,都是既可作限定词,也可作不定代词。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: all (of) the boys. both (of) the boys, every boy / every one of the boys, each boy / each (one) of the boys, either boy / either (one) of the (two) boys, neithe r boy / neithe r (one) of the (two) boys, any boy / any (one) of the (three or more) boys </li></ul>all, both, every, each, either, neither, any Back
  58. 58. <ul><li>由上述诸例可以看出,这一类的限定词和不定代词在用法上有以下值得注意之处: </li></ul><ul><li>a) 表示“全体”,可用 all 和 both , 但 all 表示三个或三个以上人或物的“全体”,而 both 则表示两个人或物的“全体”。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: All the four applicants are below the average. 所有这四位申请者都在平均数以下。 All these last few days the farmers have been busy fighting drought. 在最后这几天里,农民曾经忙于抗旱。 Both his parents are against his going there alone. 他的父母两个人都反对他单独去那儿。 The man was blind in both eyes. 这人的两眼都瞎了。 </li></ul>Back
  59. 59. <ul><li>如果要表示 &quot; 全体都不 &quot; 的意思,当 &quot; 全体 &quot; 为三个或更多的人或物时,通常用 none 。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: None of the students failed the examination. 没有一个学生考试失败。 I’ll have none of your stupid ideas. 我不能接受你的那些糊涂观念。 </li></ul><ul><li>在上述第一例中,既可用 none, 也可用 no one: No one failed the examination. 但 no one 只能指人,不能指物 。 </li></ul><ul><li>如果要表示两个人或物 &quot; 都不 &quot; ,通常要用 neither : Neither of the students passed the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither (one) of the (two) cars was made in Japan. 两辆车没有一辆产自日本。 </li></ul>Back
  60. 60. <ul><li>b) 表示全体中的 &quot; 每个 &quot; ,如果这个 &quot; 全体 &quot; 包含三个或更多的人或物,通常用 every 。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: Every student in the class took part in the performance. 这个班的每个学生都是这个表演的一部分。 His every action shows that he is a very determined young man. 他的每个行动都显示了他是一个坚决的年轻人。 </li></ul>Back
  61. 61. <ul><li>如果这个 &quot; 全体 &quot; 包含两个或两个以上的人或物,便可以用 each 。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: Each side of the street was crowded with people. 街道的两边都挤满了人。 在这里,不可以用 every 。 </li></ul><ul><li>如果说 &quot; 广场的每一边都挤满了人 &quot; ,那就既可用 each, 也可用 every: Each / Every side of the square was crowded with people. 广场的边上挤满了人。 </li></ul>Back
  62. 62. <ul><li>every 与 each 的区别还在于 every 指许多人或物中的“每个”,侧重在全体,近乎 all 的含义。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: Every student failed the examination. = All the students failed the examination. 所有的学生都考试失败。 We want every child to succeed. = We want all the children to succeed. 我们相让每个孩子都成功。 </li></ul><ul><li>而 each 则指许多人或物中“各人”,侧重在个别 。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: Each child will find his own personal road to success. 每个孩子都发现自已的方法成功。 The Queen shook hands with each player in turn after the game. 女王在比赛后与参赛手们轮流握手。 </li></ul>Back
  63. 63. <ul><li>c) 表示全体中的 &quot; 任何一个 &quot; ,也要看这个 &quot; 全体 &quot; 是包含三个或更多,还是只包含两个。当 &quot; 全体 &quot; 包含三个或三个以上,要表示其中任何一个须用 any 。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: Any (= Every ) child would know that. 每个孩子都知道这个。 Ask any man you meet. 你可以问任何一个人。 His gift was unknown to any (of them) except himself. 除了他自已没有一个人知道他的礼物是什么。 These are all free, take any (of them) you like. 所有都是免费的,拿其中你最喜欢的。 </li></ul>Back
  64. 64. <ul><li>当 &quot; 全体 &quot; 只包含两个时,要表示其中任何一个须用 either 。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: There are two flights for Beijing in the morning. You can take either (one). 只有两班早晨的飞机去北京,你可选其中一个。 We have two copies left. Keep either (copy) for the file. 我们有两份考贝剩下,为文件保持其中的一份。 </li></ul>Back
  65. 65. <ul><li>但在 on either side, on either end 等固定词组中有时可以兼指两个。 </li></ul><ul><li>例如: There are warehouses on either side of the river (= on both sides of the river). 在河的两边都有大货仓。 He got off the train with a bundle on either arm . 他带着两大包下火车。 There are stairways at either end of the corridor. 走廊的两头都有楼梯。 </li></ul>Back
  66. 66. All (of) Back
  67. 67. All and the whole Back
  68. 68. Every and Each Back
  69. 69. Numerals (数词) <ul><li>表示数目多少或顺序多少的词叫 数词 (Numerals) ,数词分为 基数词 ( Cardinal Numerals ) 和 序数词 ( Ordinal Numerals ) 。表示数目多少的数词叫基数词;表示顺序的数词叫序数词。 </li></ul><ul><li>倍数词 : Multiplicative Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>分数词 : Fractional Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>加减乘除 : Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division </li></ul>Back
  70. 70. Back
  71. 71. 1.Cardinal Numerals ( 基数词 ) <ul><li>1 )基数词写法和读法 : 12 , 23 , 345 , 3678 , 4057 , 6001 , 3456789 , 235.789 </li></ul><ul><li>2 )基数词一般是单数形式,但下列情况,常用 复数 : </li></ul><ul><li>a. 与 of 短语连用,表示 概数 ,不能与具体数目连 用 ,如 scores of people 指许多人; </li></ul><ul><li>b. 在一些表示“ 一排 ”或“ 一组 ”的词组里;   如: They arrived in twos and threes .  他们三三两两的到达了。 </li></ul><ul><li>c. 表示“ 几十岁 ” in his thirties ; </li></ul><ul><li>d. 表示“ 年代 ” , 用 in +the + 数词复数 , 如 in the 1980s ; </li></ul><ul><li>e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里, 如: 3 x 5 = 15 Three fives is (are) fifteen. </li></ul>Back
  72. 72. 基数词 Back
  73. 73. 2.Ordinal Numerals ( 序数词 ) <ul><li>序数词的缩写形式: </li></ul><ul><li>first---1st   second---2nd   third---3rd twenty-first---21 st , twenty-second---22 nd , twenty-third---23 rd   </li></ul>Back
  74. 74. 序数词 Back
  75. 75. 3. Multiplicative Numerals <ul><li>倍数表示法 </li></ul><ul><li>a. 主语 + 谓语 + 倍数(或分数) + as + adj. + as I have three times as many as you.  我有你三倍那么多。 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 主语 + 谓语 + 倍数(分数) + the size (amount , length…) of… The earth is 49 times the size of the moon.  地球是月球的 49 倍。 </li></ul>Back
  76. 76. <ul><li>c. 主语 + 谓语 + 倍数(分数) + 形容词(副词)比较级 + than… The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year. 今年比去年粮食产量增加 8% 。 </li></ul><ul><li>d. 还可以用 by+ 倍数 ,表示增加多少倍 The production of grain has been increased by four times this year. 今年粮食产量增加了 4 倍。 </li></ul>Back
  77. 77. 倍数词 Back
  78. 78. 4. Fractional Numerals <ul><li>构成: 基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母 。 </li></ul><ul><li>分子大于 1 时,分子的序数词用单数,分母序数词用复数: 1/3 one-third </li></ul><ul><li>3/37 three and three-sevenths. </li></ul>Back
  79. 79. 分数词 Back
  80. 80. 数词之加减乘除 Back