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Seminar on leadership styles and its function in nursing


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This ppt is short but show a broard view on leadership. leadership style and leadership theory .
As I, m a nurse, so its mainly on nursing context.

Seminar on leadership styles and its function in nursing

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Leadership is the process of influencing the thought and action of the other people to attain the desired objectives. A leadership style is a way of providing direction, implementing plan and motivating people. Good leadership is to win the support of the people. Every leader may not be a good manager but every manager must be a good leader.
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP • “The quality of behaviour of individual where by they guide people on their activities in organizing efforts.” -Chestar Barnaid. • “Leadership is a process of influencing others to attain goals” - Little field. • “Leadership is the knack of getting other people to follow you and to do willingly the things you want them to do” – LR. Bittle
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP i. Determination of goal. ii. Organisation of activities. iii. Achieving co-ordination. iv. Representation of workers. v. Providing guidance. vi. Inspiration of employees. vii. Building employees morale. viii.Facilitating changes. ix. Leadership is related to a situation. x. Employee must be satisfied with the types of leadership provided.
  5. 5. FUNCTION OF THE LEADER 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Goal setter. Planner. Executive. Expert . External group representative. Surrogate for individual representative. Controller of internal relationship within the organization.
  6. 6. Cont.. 8) Administrator of rewards and punishment. 9) Arbitrator and mediator. 10)Exemplar. 11)Symbol of the group. 12)Ideologist . 13)Father figure. 14)Scapegoat.
  7. 7. QUALITIES OF A LEADER. 1. Managerial abilities:  Plan ,organizes, make decision effective encourages cooperative and coordination.  Assists nurse subordination in solving the problems and provides consistent feedback.  Provide rationale for difficult decision.  Assess abilities of the worker guides them to develop new skill.  Know his job and does it well and has confidence in self and others.  Welcome different opinion and is more interested in giving than receiving.  Provides the worker with adequate facilities.
  8. 8. 2. Interpersonal relationship: Show supportive and caring behaviour. Is a good listener and sensitive to the other needs. Guides and motivates to act and work together with all types of workers. Establishes relationship and is able to work with other harmoniously.
  9. 9. 3.Temperament( Nature of person):  Reliable ,open, honest and sincere. Show a sense of humor, tactful, friendly and loyal. Calm and charismatic, modest and patient. Positive, energetic, hard worker, happy, and enthusiastic. Show a balance between work and home-life on personal life.
  10. 10. 4. Credibility and forward thinking: Act as a role model and influence others. Act as a activist. Challenger and creative thinker. Change with agent innovator Risk taken and courageous. Act as a facilitator and solution seeker
  11. 11. 5. Professionalism : Committed to the profession. Maintain confidentiality. Instill hope and pridreen the profession. Stand for right while considering other’s rght (assertive)
  12. 12. 6. Advocacy: Act as an advocate for nursing profession . Act as patient advocate. Act as an advocate for nursing education and of student for the right and standard.
  14. 14. a) Autocratic or authorian leadership:  The leader alone establishes polices and make plans.  He instruct employees about the job and in return demand strict obedience and relies on power.  The leader arranges physical set-up so that people cannot form the social group.  The psychological needs of employees is not considered.  The mutual trust is virtually eliminated .  The maximum productivity is achieved by making worker completely subject to management's dictation.
  15. 15. (contd) Criterion used by authoritarian leader-“Do what as I said or else” -“Do as I say because I am good to you”
  16. 16. • PERSONALITY OF AUTOCRATIC LEADER: 1. Firm personality, insistent, self assured, highly directive dominating and with or without intention. 2. Has higher concern for work than for the people who perform the ask. 3. Uses the effort of workers t the best possible advantages, show no regard to the interest of employees. 4. Set rigid standard and method of performances and the subordinates to obey the rules, 5. Make all decision and passes orders to workers.
  17. 17. • (contd) 6. There is minimal group participation or non at all from the workers. 7.Think that what he/she plans and does is best. May listen to them but not influenced by their suggestion. 8.Has no trust or confidence in subordinates, who in turn fear and feel they have nothing much in common. 9. Exercise power , manipulates subordinate to act according to his goal plans and stays at the centre of attraction.
  18. 18. TYPES OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP: 1.Strict autocrat: It is one who relies on negative influences and gives order that must be obey without question. The subordinates behaviour is motivated negatively by imposing penalty, criticism. -“Do what as I said or else” 2.Benevolent autocrat: It is the one who uses a positive motivation style. he disperse reward to his group. This is effective in getting higher productivity. - “ Do as I say because I am good to you”
  19. 19. • Merit of autocratic leadership: 1. It can increases quality of work, save time and get fast result , especially in emergency. 2. It work well with employees who feel insecure with freedom and minor decision making. • Demerit of autocratic leadership: 1. The leader get little information and ideas from employees. 2. One-way communication lead to communication break down, misunderstanding and costly error. 3. Lead to loss of human dignity, low morale, low productivity and massive resistance
  21. 21. B. DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP • In this type of leadership the whole team is involved and accept responsibilities for setting and achieving goal. • The leader shows concern for his people than for higher production. • The leader is not the key figure as in autocratic leadership. • The leader work more as agent , therefore the team is not dependence on him and can work effectively in his absence.
  22. 22. Merit of democratic leadership Lets all contribute…………………………
  23. 23. • Demerit of democratic leadership: 1. Participation of each member may take enormous amount of time. 2. If not exercise properly may degenerate into complete loss of leadership ‘s control. 3. This style can be used by some leader as way of avoiding responsibilities.
  25. 25. C. LAISSEZ-FAIRE/ FREE REIGN / DELE GATIVE LEADERSHIP • The word “ Laissez –Faire” means the non – interferences in the affair if others. • In this type of leadership, the leader has absolutely no control , but only gives information, material and facilities to accomplishes the desired goal. • This type can be a complete failure if leader is not aware of integrity and abilities of employees. • The leader gives up all power to the group.
  26. 26. • Characteristic of Free-Reign leadership 1. Independent activity. 2. Interest of the leader. 3. Independent thinking rewarded. 4. Free to set their own goal. 5. Effective for highly motivated professionals. 6. Power given to the group.
  27. 27. • Merit of Free-Reign leadership: 1. Allow employees to take decision. 2. The group collectively assumes leadership. • Demerit of Free-reign Leadership: 1. The leader exert little or no influence on the group member. 2. There is lack of central direction, supervision coordination and control.
  28. 28. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THREE TYPES CHARACTERISTIC AUTOCRATIC DEMOCRATIC LAISSEZ-FAIRE OF LEADERSHIP Employees take Decision making Employees not Employees & involved only leader leader collectively take decision takes decision decision but leader is still responsible. Situation where to used When leader live short of time and is having all information. When leader have part of information and employees have other part of information When employees are able to analyse the situation and able to determine the needs. Motivation Less motivated employees. Motivated as involved in decision making Motivated as free to teke decision. Task delegation Not Not Certain task are delegated. inference Full inference by leader as he is boosing people around Inference from both No inference by part i.e’ employees leader. and leader. Productive Highly productive Less productive Less productive than other two.
  29. 29. VII. TYPES OF LEADING a) Leading by vision b) Leading by inspiration. c) Leading by influence. d) Leading by empowerment
  30. 30. VIII. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE IN NURSING 1. Charismatic leadership:  Having origin from Greek civilization, ‘Charisma’ spring from ingrained personnel trait such as overreacting, unshakeable confidence and penchant fir setting a personal example.  It is characterized by emotional relationship between leader and he group members in which the leader inspires others by obtaining an emotional commitment from follower and arousing strong feeling of loyalty and enthusiasm.  The follower may be able to overcome extreme hardship to achieve the goal because of their faith in the leader.
  31. 31. 2. Transactional leadership: • It is based on reward and punishment. • When the work is allocated to workers by transactional leaders, they are fully responsible. • On success they get reward and on failure, they are punished.
  32. 32. 3. Transformational leadership style • The transformational leader put passion and energy into everything and care about employees and encourage them to succeed. • The leader take every opportunity and will use whatever works to convince others the stair of success. • The leader seek to transform the organisation, they are charistic but not harcisstic as pure charismatic, who believe in themselves.
  33. 33. 4.ATTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP : • In this. the perception of follower are not the behaviour or characteristic of leaders. • The attributed leader has a well balanced intellect(IQ), mind (EQ) and multidisciplinary (holistic perspective), • The leader listen more, speak less, observe more and conclude less and use “we” more than “I”.
  34. 34. 5.PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP • The leader involves the employees in taking decision due to which the employees are more committed to action. • It is believed that several people together make decision better than one person.
  35. 35. 6.SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP: • In this the decision taken by the leader are not same in every situation. • The leader decision differ according to the situation. • Factor influencing decision making are:  Motivation and capability of the followers.  Relationship between follower and leader.  Leader’s perception of himself.  Stress and mood of leader and employees.
  36. 36. IX. CHOOSING A LEADERSHIP According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt. Factor affecting in choosing leadership styles are: 1. Force in the manager. 2. Force in the sub-ordinates. 3. Forces in the situation.
  37. 37. X. LEADERSHIP THEORY 1. TRAIT APPROACH/ TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP:  This theory is describes by Kelly(1974) attempt to classify what personality characteristic such as physical, personality and mental are associated with leadership success.  Trait theory belief that leader were born with quality that determines leadership ability.
  38. 38. • A lengthy list of trait are as below1.Physical characteristic. 2. Back ground characteristic. 3.Intelligences. 4.Personality. 5.Task oriented characteristic. 6.Social characteristic. • Example of Trait Leader in India- Mahatma Gandhi, PT.Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallah Bhai Patel.
  39. 39. 2.BEHAVOIURAL APPROACH • This theory declare that “good leader are not born, but can be trained to be effective”. • A leader can be trained in the given three skill below1. Technical skill- person knowledge and proficiency in doing his work. 2.Human skill- ability to work effectively with people and built team work. 3. Conceptual skill- deal with ideas and enable manger to devise plan.
  40. 40. (contd) • Behavioral theory lead to development of classification of leader into: 1. Autocratic leadership/ Authorian / Work Approach or Directive leadership. 2. Democratic / Partucipative /Consultative or Person oriented leadership. 3. Free-Reign / Laissez Faire leadership.
  41. 41. 3.SITUATIONAL THEORY  According to this theory, a leader is a product of a given situation and the behavior may infact, may vary from one situation.  And important aspect of this theory is the interaction between the group and its leader, people tend to follow the person who is capable of fulfilling their desires  Four situational variables that effect the performances of leadership,
  42. 42. • • • • • They areDifferences between culture Differences between individual Differences between jobs Differences between organization.
  43. 43. 4. TWO DIMENSIONAL THOERY: • The two dimensional of leadership behavior are consideration and structure. • The leader who are on high consideration create mental trust, respect and the superior respects the subordinates ideas and feeling. • A high structure scope indicate the leader structure their role as well as those of the subordinates forward attainment of the organizational goals.
  44. 44. 5. MANEGERIAL GRID THEORY • The managerial grid theory is based upon two factor: • Relationship orientation and task orientation, which has identified five leadership style 1.Concern for people(Relationship orientation) is identified as the extent to which a manager has personal relationship. 2. Concern for production (Task orientation) is define as the extent to which the manager directs his subordinates effort towards goal achievement Impoverished.
  45. 45. • The five leadership style based on the managerial grid theory are  the leader exert a maximum effort to accomplished the task as a manager . The leader concentrates on production and show no regard for the development and morale of the subordinates. Adequate concern for production and relationship. The leader is concern with people and less for task efficiency. Leader show maximum concern for production as well as people.
  46. 46. 6.LIKERT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM • Likert and his associates of university of Michigan USA, have studied the pattern and styles of manager for decades and develop certain concept and approaches important to understanding leadership behavior. • He has given a continum of 4 system of management in term of leadership styles as below; System 1:Exploitative autocratic. System 2:Basic violent autocrat. System 3: Participative System 4: Democratic.
  47. 47. CONCLUSION • An Organization strength lies in its leadership. Leadership is a shared process for a leader and his follower to work together to attain goal. • Leadership style is the way of providing direction, implementory plans and motives people. • Leader has to adopt a style which fit into their subordinates personalities as well as the task in the hand to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency.
  48. 48. THANK YOU