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A state of balance between the individual and the surrounding world, a state of harmony between oneself and others, a coexistence between the realities of the self and that of other people, and that of the environment

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Ncm105 hqrdcopy

  1. 1. DEFINITION OF MENTAL HEALTHA state of balance between the individual and the surrounding world, a state of harmony betweenoneself and others, a coexistence between the realities of the self and that of other people, andthat of the environment.W.H.O DEFINITION OF MENTAL HEALTHA state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with thenormal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution tohis or her community.COMPONENTS OF MENTAL HEALTHSelf-governanceGrowth-orientationTolerance of uncertaintySelf-esteemMastery of EnvironmentReality-orientationStress ManagementCHARACTERISTICS OF A MENTALLY HEALTHY PERSON1.Free from internal conflicts2.Well-adjusted3.Accepts criticism4.Strong sense of self-esteem5.Knows himself/herself6.Faces problems and copes with stress and anxiety7.Take his own decisions8.Sets reasonable goals for himself9.Self respect
  2. 2. MENTAL HEALTH NEEDS1. The need for affection2. The need for belonging3. The need for independence4. The need for achievement5. The need for recognition or approval6. The need for a sense of personal worth7. The need for self-actualizationFACTORS AFFECTING MENTAL HEALTH DEVELOPMENTExposure to toxins (e.g. tobacco, alcohol) pregnancy Head trauma lack of oxygen to the brain atbirth genetic tendency to psychiatric disorder that is HeredityPHYSICAL HEALTHNeurological disease Endocrine disease , Various types of acute & chronic infections, headinjuries malnutritionSOCIAL FACTORSWorries, anxieties, emotional stress, tension, frustration unhappy marriages, broken homesFamily conflict Poverty inconsistent care- giving Poor family discipline Poor family death offamily memberPSYCHOLOGICALSexual, physical &emotional abuse and neglect difficult temperament maladaptive personalitytraitsSCHOOLAcademic failure and drop out inappropriate school environmentCOMMUNITYCommunity disorganization discrimination and marginalization exposure to violence
  3. 3. Self enhancement, growth/therapeutic groupsSelf-enhancement is a type of motivation that works to make people feel good about themselvesand to maintain self-esteem. This motive becomes especially prominent in situations of threat,failure or blows to ones self-esteem. Self-enhancement involves a preference for positive overnegative self-views.]It is one of the four self-evaluation motives:, along with self-assessment(the drive for an accurate self-concept), self-verification (the drive for a self-conceptcongruent with ones identity) and self-improvement (the act of bettering ones self-concept).Levels of Self-Enhancement1. Observed EffectSelf-enhancement at the level of an observed effect describes the product of the motive.For example, self-enhancement can produce inflated self-ratings (positive illusions). Suchratings would be self-enhancement manifested as an observed effect. It is an observableinstance of the motive.2. Ongoing ProcessSelf-enhancement at the level of an ongoing process describes the actual operation of themotive. For example, self-enhancement can result in attributing favourable outcomes tothe self and unfavourable outcomes to others (self-serving attribution bias). The actual actof attributing such ratings would be self-enhancement manifested as an ongoing process.It is the motive in operation.3. Personality TraitSelf-enhancement at the level of a personality trait describes habitual or inadvertent self-enhancement. For example, self-enhancement can cause situations to be created to easethe pain of failure (self-handicapping). The fabrication of such situations or excusesfrequently and without awareness would be self-enhancement manifested as a personalitytrait. It is the repetitive inclination to demonstrate the motive.
  4. 4. 4. Underlying MotiveSelf-enhancement at the level of an underlying motive describes the conscious desire to self-enhance. For example, self-enhancement can cause the comparison of the self to a worse other,making the self seem greater in comparison (strategic social comparisons). The act of comparingintentionally to achieve superiority would be self-enhancement manifested as an underlyingmotive. It is the genuine desire to see the self as superior.Both the extent and the type of self-enhancement vary across a number of dimensions1.Self-Advancement vs. Self-ProtectionSelf-enhancement can occur by either self-advancing or self-protecting, that is either byenhancing the positivity of ones self-concept, or by reducing the negativity of ones self-concept.Self-protection appears to be the stronger of the two motives, given that avoiding negativity is ofgreater importance than encouraging positivity. However, as with all motivations, there aredifferences between individuals. For example, people with higher self-esteem appear to favourself-advancement, whereas people with lower self-esteem tend to self-protect.]This highlightsthe role of risk: to not defend oneself against negativity in favour of self-promotion offers thepotential for losses, whereas whilst one may not gain outright from self-protection, one does notincur the negativity either. People high in self-esteem tend to be greater risk takers and thereforeopt for the more risky strategy of self-advancement, whereas those low in self-esteem and risk-taking hedge their bets with self-protection.2.Public vs. PrivateSelf–enhancement can occur in private or in public Public self-enhancement is obvious positiveself-presentation, whereas private self enhancement is unnoticeable except to the individual. Thepresence of other people i.e. in public self-enhancement, can either augment or inhibit self-enhancement. Whilst self-enhancement may not always take place in public it is nevertheless stillinfluenced by the social world, for example via social comparisons.
  5. 5. 3.Central vs. PeripheralPotential areas of self-enhancement differ in terms how important, or central, they are to aperson. Self-enhancement tends to occur more in the domains that are the most important to aperson, and less in more peripheral, less important domains.4.Candid vs. TacticalSelf-enhancement can occur either candidly or tactically. Candid self-enhancement serves thepurpose of immediate gratification whereas tactical self-enhancement can result in potentiallylarger benefits from delayed gratification.Tactical self-enhancement is often preferred over candid self-enhancement as overt self-enhancement is socially displeasing for those around it. Narcissism is an exemplification ofextreme candid self-enhancement.Types of Self enhancementSelf-enhancement does not just occur at random. Its incidence is often highly systematic and canoccur in any number of ways in order to achieve its goal of inflating perceptions of the self.Importantly, we are typically unaware that we are self-enhancing. Awareness of self-enhancingprocesses would highlight the facade we are trying to create, revealing that the self we perceiveis in fact an enhanced version of our actual self.Self-serving attribution biasSelf-enhancement can also affect the causal explanations people generate for social outcomes.People have a tendency to exhibit a self-serving attribution bias, that is to attribute positiveoutcomes to ones internal disposition but negative outcomes to factors beyond ones control e.g.others, chance or circumstance. In short, people claim credit for their successes but denyresponsibilities for their failures.
  6. 6. SelectivitySelective memoryPeople sometimes self-enhance by selectively remembering their strengths rather thanweaknesses. This pattern of selective forgetting has been described as mnemic neglect. Mnemicneglect may reflect biases in the processing of information at either encoding, retrieval orretention.Selective acceptance & refutationSelective acceptance involves taking as fact self-flattering or ego-enhancing information withlittle regard for its validity. Selective refutation involves searching for plausible theories thatenable criticism to be discredited. A good example of selective acceptance and refutation inaction would be: Selective acceptance is the act of accepting as valid an examination on whichone has performed well without consideration of alternatives, whereas selective refutation wouldbe mindfully searching for reasons to reject as invalid an examination on which one hasperformed poorly.Assertiveness Traininga form of behavior characterized by a confident declaration or affirmation of astatement without need of proof; this affirms the persons rights or point of viewwithout either aggressively threatening the rights of another (assuming a position ofdominance) or submissively permitting another to ignore or deny ones rights or pointof view.TrainingJoseph Wolpe originally explored the use of assertiveness as a means of "reciprocal inhibition"of anxiety, in his 1958 book on treating neurosis; and it has since been commonly employed asan intervention in behavior therapy. Assertiveness Training ("AT") was introduced by AndrewSalter (1961) and popularized by Joseph Wolpe. Wolpes belief was that a person could not beboth assertive and anxious at the same time, and thus being assertive would inhibit anxiety. Thegoals of assertiveness training include:increased awareness of personal rightsdifferentiation between non-assertiveness and assertivenessdifferentiation between passive–aggressiveness and aggressivenesslearning both verbal and non-verbal assertiveness skills.
  7. 7. As a communication style and strategy, assertiveness is thus distinguished from both aggressionand passivity. How people deal with personal boundaries, their own and those of other people,helps to distinguish between these three concepts. Passive communicators do not defend theirown personal boundaries and thus allow aggressive people to abuse or manipulate them throughfear. Passive communicators are also typically not likely to risk trying to influence anyone else.Aggressive people do not respect the personal boundaries of others and thus are liable to harmothers while trying to influence them. A person communicates assertively by overcoming fear ofspeaking his or her mind or trying to influence others, but doing so in a way that respects thepersonal boundaries of others. Assertive people are also willing to defend themselves againstaggressive people.Communication>Assertive communication involves respect for the boundaries of oneself and others. It alsopresumes an interest in the fulfillment of needs and wants through cooperation.> "Assertive communication of personal opinions, needs, and boundaries has been ...conceptualized as the behavioral middle ground, lying between ineffective passive andaggressive responses". Such communication "emphasizes expressing feelings forthrightly, but ina way that will not spiral into aggression".>If others actions threaten ones boundaries, one confidences, stonewalls, and violates othersboundaries.>Assertive communication attempts to transcend these extremes by appealing to the sharedinterest of all parties; it "focuses on the issue, not the person". Aggressive and/or passivecommunication, on the other hand, may mark a relationships end, and reduce self-respect.Assertive peopleAssertive people tend to have the following characteristics:[citation needed][by whom?]They feel free to express their feelings, thoughts, and desires.They are "also able to initiate and maintain comfortable relationships with [other] people"They know their rights.They have control over their anger. This does not mean that they repress this feeling; itmeans that they control anger and talk about it in a reasoning manner."Assertive people ... are willing to compromise with others, rather than always wantingtheir own way ... and tend to have good self-esteem"."Assertive people enter friendships from an I count my needs. I count your needsposition".
  8. 8. TechniquesTechniques of assertiveness can vary widely. Manuel Smith, in his 1975 book When I Say No, IFeel Guilty, offered some of the following behaviors:Broken recordThe "broken record" technique consists of simply repeating your requests or your refusals everytime you are met with resistance. The term comes from vinyl records, the surface of which whenscratched would lead the needle of a record player to loop over the same few seconds of therecording indefinitely. "As with a broken record, the key to this approach is repetition. Whereyour partner will not take no for an answer."A disadvantage with this technique is that when resistance continues, your requests may losepower every time you have to repeat them. If the requests are repeated too often, it can backfireon the authority of your words. In these cases, it is necessary to have some sanctions on hand.FoggingFogging consists of finding some limited truth to agree with in what an antagonist is saying.More specifically, one can agree in part or agree in principle.Negative inquiryNegative inquiry consists of requesting further, more specific criticism.Negative assertionNegative assertion is agreement with criticism without letting up demand.

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