READ PAGE 180Jack, Myra, Mark, Ted, and Cara•Do you resonate with any of these 5people?•Write down which one resonates bestand least with your beliefs
INVENTORY OF PHILOSOPHIES – PAGE 181-182•Complete the inventory for yourself. Each statement needs a score between 1-5•In box on page 183, complete the #s as they match to your responses•Tally up each score in each column – the highest possible score in a column is 25,lowest is 5•Go back to your choice in the faculty room. Which one did you resonate with mostand least? Did your score match your choice in the faculty room conversation?•Which top 3-5 questions did you respond Strongly Agree? Are they mutuallysupportive of one philosophy?•Look at statements you least supported. What do they tell you?•Does your philosophical trend represent your general outlook on life?•*** Answer these questions as these will come back in the discussion of the week***
ESSENTIALISMColumn A (Jack), Read pg. 184-186 for a glimpse at essentialismA.Key Points:•Back-to-basics approach•Core graduation requirements•Few electives•Strong standards•Testing of both students and teachers•Classroom revolves around the teacherB. View Rancho Elementary School – How can you see that this school adoptsan Essentialism approach to educating their students?
PERENNIALISMColumn B (Myra) – Read Page 186-188A. Key Points•Means “everlasting”•Little flexibility in the curriculum•Schools are organized around books, ideas, and concepts•Textbooks are NOT used•Students learn from the Great Books• The Bible, War & Peace, Moby Dick, Oliver Twist, Animal Farm, Gulliver’s Travels, etc.B. Website St. John’s College / Wikipedia Site: How can you tell St. John’s uses a Perennialism philosophy?
PROGRESSIVISMColumn C (Mark), Read pgs. 190-192A. Key Points•Organized around students’ curiosity•Learning through real-world experiences•John Dewey: ‘people learn best through social interaction in the real-world’•Students learn the scientific methodB. Website•Dewey’s Lab School – Chicago•Winnetka Schools•Calhoun Schools•How can you tell these schools adopt the progressivism philosophy?
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONColumn D, Ted. Read pg. 192-195A. Key Concepts•Focus is on reforming society•Teacher’s role is to facilitate student analysis of social problems• Racism, pollution, poverty, homelessness, etc.•Democratic culture in the classroom•Students select the objectivesB. Websites•Paulo Freire Freedom School•Can you see how the school adopts the social reconstruction philosophy? How?
EXISTENTIALISMColumn E, Cara – Read pgs. 195-197A. Key Concepts:•Purpose of education is for students to find meaning in their lives•Students decide what they need to learn•Students evaluate their own performances•Extremely student-centered!B. Website:•The Sudbury Valley School•Watch the video on the website of the school. Can you tell how this schooladopts an existentialism philosophy?
EAGLE ROCK SCHOOL, CO Individual Integrity Which •Intellectual Discipline •Physical Fitnessphilosophy does •Spiritual Development this school •Aesthetic Expression Citizenship embrace? •Service to Others •Cross-cultural Understanding •Democratic Governance •Environmental Stewardship
CREATE YOUR OWN SCHOOLIf I would ask you to create your own school, I would like to know:•What will your school look like?•How will it operate?•Purpose? Physical environment?•Academic curriculum?•PE?•Extracurricular?•Can you draw a picture of the school?•What philosophy or mix of philosophies would you use?
PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON EDUCATION: CONSTRUCTIVISMKey IDEA:•Knowledge must be “constructed”Famous psychologists:•Piaget•VygotskyWhat it looks like in a classroom:• Teacher builds knowledge on students’ prior experience and knowledge• Uses cues, questions, activities to expand their insight…called SCAFFOLDING• Merges with authentic learning, critical thinking, individualized instruction, PBL
PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON EDUCATION: BEHAVIORISMKey IDEA:•Human beings are shaped by their environment•We respond to physical stimuliBehaviorists:•B.F. SkinnerWhat it looks like?•Teachers use reinforcement (extrinsic rewards) to increase desired behaviors…called behavior modification
CREATING AN EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY “I believe” “I value”4 paragraphs + intro and closure See assignment descriptionDraft due Sunday night 11:59 pm
SOCRATES Teacher without a schoolWalked around Athens engaging people in dialoguesGoal was to help others find the truths that lay within their own minds Questioned, disproved, and tested the thoughts of his pupils Questioning technique is called the Socratic Method: who, what, when, where“I cannot teach anybody anything. I can only make them think.” Put to death for corrupting the youth
PLATO Pupil of SocratesFounded The Academy in Athens (1st university)Human soul has 3 parts (intellect, spirit, and appetite) that determine behavior Known for his writing… eloquent dialogues about philosophy.
ARISTOTLE Studied under Plato Attended The Academy for 20 years Tutored Alexander the Great Stressed the importance of the physical world “Educating the mind withouteducating the heart is no education at all.”
DOCTRINE OF THE GOLDEN MEANAristotle promoted the doctrine of the GOLDEN MEAN: Virtue lies between 2 extremes Example: courage is somewherebetween cowardice and foolhardiness Everything in moderation!
CHAPTER 6 KEY QUESTIONS• Why is a philosophy important to you?• How do teacher-centered differ from student-centered philosophies of education?• What are the five major ed. philosophies?• How are philosophies reflected in school practice?• What were the contributions of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle to philosophy?Can you provide answers to these questions? Your next writing sample may be one of these questions! So be prepared.