• Every year there are around 60 volcanic eruptions around the world. You don’t hear of these grounding planes…• This volcano is under an ice sheet – the magma is shattered into finer ash – it travels higher, further and is more abrasive…really bad news for jet engines!• The last big eruption here lasted 1821- 1823…two years!!
Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The North-American and Eurasian plates move apart- called constructive plates. This causes magma to rise to the surface and form volcanoes. The latest eruption occurred under a glacier. The water cooled the lava quickly resulting in glass particles entering the Make a copy of this flow plume. diagram in your book…http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fimmvorduhals_second_fissure_2010_04_02.JPG
Egypt• More than 600 British holidaymakers are spending their fifth day camping out at Sharm el-Sheikhs airport.• They are mainly passengers with low-cost airlines such as Easyjet, Monarch and Jet 2.• Staff are reported to be providing lilos for people to sleep on.• In all, there are estimated to be 18,000 British tourists currently in the Red Sea resort.“ It was fun at first, having a few extra days of holiday, but its become very frustrating because I just want to get back to normal life. The kids want to go back to school” Siobhan Harris, Oxfordshire
The particles erode Glass in the plume the fans of the melts and coats the engines. internal parts of the engine.The aircraft is likely to be hit by lava. The particles can sandblast the windscreen making Ash blocks the it difficult to land.ventilation system,causing the engines Make a copy of the Gases from the to overheat and shut down. CORRECT statements volcano could cause the pilots to pass only… out. Ash can addsignificant weight to Ash can cause damage to Pilots are unable to navigate the aircraft and instruments that measure due to the poor visibility. change its balance. pressure and airspeed.
United Kingdom Austria Belgium Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia LuxembourgAs correct 17th April 2010.
Moldova Netherlands Norway Poland Romania Serbia Bosnia Montenegro Sweden Switzerland Ukrainehttp://d-maps.com/carte.php?lib=europe_map&num_car=2233&lang=en As correct 17th April 2010.
Teachers Stuck!Ms Johnen and Mrs Swallow– stuck in Singapore. MissRuiz stuck in Tenerife.Exam classes miss out!Pupils Stuck…Parents stuck…Imports of fresh food notcoming in…Businesses missing workers…LEDC’s not able to exportgoods.
Impacts on the airline industry…• The most direct casualty of the ash is the airline industry.• The International Air Transport Association (IATA) estimates that airlines are collectively losing £130m per day in lost revenues.• If the disruption persists for several weeks, total losses could run into billions, having a catastrophic effect on an industry already set to lose £1.4bn this year.• Travel companies are also losing out. TUI, the owner of First Choice and Thomson and Europes biggest travel operator, says it is losing between £5m and £6m a day.Impacts on other forms of transport…• Other transport companies are benefiting as passengers look for alternatives to flying.• Ferry services have benefited from the flight restrictions• Eurostar in particular has seen huge demand from passengers since the disruption began on Thursday. The company said it carried 50,000 extra passengers on Thursday and Friday - an increase of nearly a third - with services effectively full.
Impacts on students…• Exam timetables could be readjusted to help pupils stranded overseas by flight cancellations.Impacts on passengers…• A passenger group has expressed "outrage" that some travellers may face extra charges for flights they rebook due to the ash cloud.Impacts on sport…• Uefa says Liverpool must make the 900-mile trip (1,200 miles by road) to Madrid for Thursdays Europa League semi-final against Atletico, even if they cannot get on a plane.• Fulham have made contingency plans to make a 570-mile road journey to Hamburg for their own Europa League last-four encounter should they be unable to fly.• The England and Wales Cricket Board will wait until Wednesday before considering contingency plans for travel to the ICC World Twenty20 in the West Indies.Impacts on the Kenyan flower industry…
IMPACTS OF THE ERUPTION… Take a whole page in your book. Make a copy of the above. For each section write as much detail as you can about the impacts.
Epic journeys…• http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8631517.stm• http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8630405.stmGary Lineker makes Match of the Day with 24-hour trip• Presenter Gary Lineker made the Match of the Day line-up on Saturday night - but only after enduring a near 24-hour journey from Tenerife to London.• Lineker, who was on holiday with his family when the Icelandic volcanic ash closed UK airspace, arrived back with only about two hours to spare.• He had flown to Madrid, driven to Paris and caught a Eurostar train to London.• Opening the BBC One highlights show, the ex-footballer said some fixtures were worth going the "extra mile" for.• "It was like one of those impossible challenges they have on Top Gear," he said.• "I didnt have much chance to shut my eyes properly before the show - but I am going to sleep for England on Sunday."• Lineker said his wife Danielle, her daughter Ella, eight, and his sons George, 18, Harry, 17, Tobias, 14, and Alex, 12, had "kept each other going" during the 2,050- mile (3,311 km) journey by singing songs.
An importer of fruit. An importer of fruit. Produce a similar diagram for one of these individuals. No flights GCSE student on holiday GCSE student on holiday No fruit can be imported. A teacher on holiday A teacher on holiday Fruit is left to rot. A self-employed builder A self-employed builder Importer loses money. Construct a flow diagramFruit shortage and price rises? for each of the above to write about the impacts for that individual.
How volcanoes have shaped history• In 1991, Mount Pinatubo on the island of Luzon, in the Philippines, erupted just 90km (55 miles) north-west of the capital, Manila.• Over the course of several eruptions, the volcano ejected a massive 10 cubic km of material, making it the second biggest eruption of the 20th Century.• While volcanic dust is in the upper atmosphere, it can have a profound short-term effect on the global climate, because it blocks out a portion of the sunlight able to reach the ground.• The Mount Pinatubo eruption caused the average global temperature to drop by 0.4-0.5C.
• Previous eruptions have been much more deadly. The eruption of the volcano on Krakatoa in Indonesia in 1883 is one of the best known eruptions in relatively recent times, because it occurred after the invention of the telegraph.• It killed thousands, pulverised two-thirds of the island and drastically altered the ocean floor. But Krakatoa was a mere baby compared with the eruption of Tambora, also in Indonesia, some 68 years earlier.• This was the most powerful eruption in recorded history. Rivers of hot ash rolled down the 4,000m (13,000ft) -high volcano, killing around 10,000 people on the island.• It is thought to have ejected 50 cubic km or more of material and pumped vast amounts of sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere.• The cloud from Tambora caused an unusual chill, lowering global temperatures by an estimated 0.4-0.7C.• In parts of Europe and in North America, 1816 became known as "the year without a summer". Frosts killed off crops in New England and Canada; Europe was also hit badly.
• 70,000 years ago, a massive volcanic eruption may even have threatened the existence of humankind.• The "super-eruption" of Mount Toba on the Indonesian island of Sumatra is thought by some to have caused a six-year long volcanic winter followed by a 1,000-year-long freeze.• Toba could have caused a mass die-off of plant life and a famine for animal species.• Some researchers have calculated that the human population dropped to between 10,000 and 5,000 individuals, pushing Homo sapiens to the brink of extinction.• But others think the near extinction of human life may have pushed people to new levels of ingenuity in order to survive; evidence of advanced tool technology and some very early examples of art have been dated to around the time of the Toba super-eruption. Further back in history of course, massive volcanic episodes have been linked to mass extinctions of life on Earth. While mass volcanism in India was once considered as a cause of the demise of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, a comet or asteroid is now considered the most likely candidate for wiping out the beasts.