What is Code Switching?
The practice of alternating between two or more
languages or varieties of language in conversation.
The juxtaposition within the same speech exchange
of passages of speech belonging to two different
grammatical systems or sub-systems. (Li Wei, 2002,
2004; Gumperz, 1982)
DifferentTypes of Code
What is Code-Mixing?
• Mixing refers to the co-occurrence of elements from
two or more languages in a single utterance. Mixing
includes single-word utterances from two languages
during the same stretch of conversation between a
child and caregiver (Genesee, 1989).
Different Types of Code
Intra-sentential Code-switching - within a
language vs. inter-sentential code switching
- outside specific language spoken
Code-mixing vs. code-switching
Borrowing vs. code-switching
syntactic vs semantic switching
Code-Switching (CS) is often divided
into single-word CS, Multi- word CS and
FUNCTIONS OF CODE SWITCHING
Language choice and code-switching are regarded as
symbolic of the social relationships between individuals.
Situational code-switching – the change of language which
corresponds to changes in the situation, particularly
participants, setting and activity type.
Metaphorical code-switching – speakers switch from one
language to another in order to achieve special
communicative effects, while the participant and setting
remain the same.
“identity is a discursive construct that
emerges in linguistic interaction”
1b. Structural patterns/Typology of code-switching
• Insertion – items from one language are inserted into an overall
structure of the other language, normally lexically motivated.
• Congruent lexicalization – grammatical structure is built up by two
languages and is filled lexically with elements from either language.
• Alternation – switch from one language to the other, involving both
grammar and lexicon, but is normally syntactically (and functional)
First Report - included in report
Poor language proficiency leads to code
Ask the class what they think
relate to statistics
Second Report - used in report
1.The grammatical approach
2.The sociolinguistic approach
3.The conversational/pragmatic approach
“Code-switching is a verbal skill requiring a large
degree of linguistic competence in more than one
language, rather than a defect arising from insufficient
knowledge of one or the other ... [R]ather than
representing deviant behavior, [it] is actually a
suggestive indicator of degree of bilingual
(cf. Grosjean, 2010, p57)