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Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Cyber-Physical Systems
contradicting requirements as drivers for innov...
Page 2 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Orchestration of central and di...
Page 3 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Conclusion
Contradicting requir...
Page 4 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Orchestration of computers and ...
Page 5 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Distinguish between architectur...
Page 6 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
CPS focuses on lower architectu...
Page 7 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
We focus on higher architectura...
Page 8 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) a...
Page 9 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Building
Automation
Systems
Min...
Page 10 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Conclusion
Contradicting requi...
Page 11 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Contradicting Requirements are...
Page 12 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Contradicting Requirements are...
Page 13 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Contradicting Requirements are...
Page 14 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Cloud vs. Fog
Place functional...
Page 15 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Managing the complexity of mod...
Page 16 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Reduction of the engineering e...
Page 17 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Openess will win over propriar...
Page 18 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
New business models will lever...
Page 19 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
A modernization of the laws an...
Page 20 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Conclusion
Contradicting requi...
Page 21 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
CPS will trigger paradigm shif...
Page 22 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Contact Information
Prof. Dr. ...
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Cyber-Physical Systems - contradicting requirements as drivers for innovation

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my talk from the CPS-Week 2015 in Seattle, For full text see: Heiss, M., Oertl, A., Sturm, M., Palensky, P., Vielguth S., Nadler, F.: Platforms for industrial cyber-physical systems integration: contradicting requirements as drivers for innovation. Proc. of the 2015 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES), CPS Week, IEEE, Seattle 2015, pp. 1-8. DOI: 10.1109/MSCPES.2015.7115405

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Cyber-Physical Systems - contradicting requirements as drivers for innovation

  1. 1. Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Cyber-Physical Systems contradicting requirements as drivers for innovation Siemens Corporate Technology | June 2015
  2. 2. Page 2 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Orchestration of central and distributed coordination Key-challenge of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) Learn from nature: take any leaf from almost any tree and look at the structure
  3. 3. Page 3 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Conclusion Contradicting requirements as drivers for innovation Introduction and definitions Agenda Cyber-Physical Systems
  4. 4. Page 4 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Orchestration of computers and physical systems Generic Definition of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) Definition by Edward A. Lee, UC Berkeley A cyber-physical system (CPS) is an orchestration of computers and physical systems Embedded computers monitor and control physical processes, usually with feedback loops, where physical processes affect computations and vice versa
  5. 5. Page 5 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Distinguish between architectural layers and multi-tiers of each layer What is an architectural layer? Industrial IT Control SCADA1) Planning Mgmt. Field 1) SCADA… Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
  6. 6. Page 6 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. CPS focuses on lower architectural layers, typically Definition of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) according to cyberphysicalsystems.org Cyber-Physical Systems Control Systems are Networked and/or distributed Adaptive and predictive Intelligent Real-time that are Human in-the-loop possibly with Source: adopted from http://cyberphysicalsystems.org/ Wireless sensing and actuation possibly with require • Improved design tools that enable • Design Methodology • Cyber Security
  7. 7. Page 7 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. We focus on higher architectural layers Our Definition of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) Cyber-Physical Systems Control or Coordination Systems are Networked and/or distributed Self-* Resilient Real-time that are Human in-the-loop with 1) Different industries like building, grid, mobility *) self-organization, self-configuration, self-learning, self-healing, self-optimization, self-protection, self-explaining Domains1) or sub-domains accross require • Improved design tools that enable • Design Methodology • Cyber Security
  8. 8. Page 8 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are growing together Introduction: need for change Therefore: • Need for a distributed architecture • Paradigm shift for IT platforms towards less hierarchical structures (compare with Internet architecture) • New requirements (sometimes contradicting) for platforms CPSs are growing together HVAC Lighting Safety Energy sun- shades Building automation … Building(s) Energy Market National Power Grid Local Smart Grid …
  9. 9. Page 9 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Building Automation Systems Minimal Invasiveness might be a key enabler of cross-domain cyber-physical systems What is Minimal Invasiveness? Power Grid Each party keeps its own dataAll data are send to the central unit New: Minimal invasive peer-to-peer solutionClassical technical solution: centrally „All knowing“ central coordination unit Building Automation System 1 Power Grid Building Automation System 2 Building Automation System 3 negotiation negotiation negotiation negotiation Just incentive definition Neither the building operator nor the grid operator wants to provide the operational data to third parties
  10. 10. Page 10 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Conclusion Contradicting requirements as drivers for innovation Introduction and definitions Agenda Cyber-Physical Systems
  11. 11. Page 11 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Contradicting Requirements are Drivers for Innovation Old Requirement Innovation • Give up? • Change requirements? • Innovation Additionally new (contradicting) requirement
  12. 12. Page 12 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Contradicting Requirements are Drivers for Innovation Agenda Innovation Innovation Place functionality on high layers (cloud) High cross-system connectivity demanded Decoupling of layers High model fidelity Scalability Increasing complexity of CPSs Leverage synergies of sub-systems Open Holistic optimization of CPS Laws and regulations Place functionality on low layers (fog) Security is non-negotiable Direct data access for on-top applications Limit model complexity Reliability and predictability Reduce engineering effort Self-contained modules Proprietary Optimization of own business Technical possibilities Source: Heiss et al: “Platforms for industrial cyber-physical systems integration…”, MSCPES 2015, CPS Week, IEEE, Seattle 2015, pp. 1-8.
  13. 13. Page 13 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Contradicting Requirements are Drivers for Innovation Agenda Innovation Innovation Place functionality on high layers (cloud) High cross-system connectivity demanded Decoupling of layers High model fidelity Scalability Increasing complexity of CPSs Leverage synergies of sub-systems Open Holistic optimization of CPS Laws and regulations Place functionality on low layers (fog) Security is non-negotiable Direct data access for on-top applications Limit model complexity Reliability and predictability Reduce engineering effort Self-contained modules Proprietary Optimization of own business Technical possibilities Selected for presentation; see paper for the rest Source: Heiss et al: “Platforms for industrial cyber-physical systems integration…”, MSCPES 2015, CPS Week, IEEE, Seattle 2015, pp. 1-8.
  14. 14. Page 14 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Cloud vs. Fog Place functionality on high layer (e.g. cloud) Innovation • New architectures (orchestration of distributed central functionality) • Distributed optimization • Distributed middleware • Elastic middleware Place functionality on low layer (e.g. fog) Requirement: Cross-system optimization Requirement: “Minimal Invasiveness”, Independence of central infrastructure
  15. 15. Page 15 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Managing the complexity of models High model fidelity Innovation • New model architectures • Model execution provides upper bounds of errors Limit the model complexity Requirement: General purpose digital twins, deterministic models Requirement: Application of models in realtime
  16. 16. Page 16 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Reduction of the engineering effort by self-* mechanisms Increasing complexity of the CPS Innovation • Self-* mechanisms: -organization, -configuration, -learning, -healing, -optimization, -protection, -explaining, etc.  plug-and-play culture • New complexity metrics Reduce engineering effort Cross-system functionality requires high interconnection rate Requirement: Reduce total cost of ownership
  17. 17. Page 17 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Openess will win over propriarity Proprietary systems Innovation • Predictability via digital twins • (Standardization) Open, standardized interfaces Customers need reliability. In case of troubles customers prefer one responsible contact person, who has all sub-systems under his/her control Customers like modular, replaceable systems Separation of hardware and software
  18. 18. Page 18 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. New business models will leverage holistic optimization Optimization of own business Innovation • Business model innovation • Vision: connect businesses like people are connected via social media • “Minimal Invasiveness” Holistic optimization of CPS Today: Each (sub-)system has its own provider/customer match. Who is the customer of an overarching CPS? The business case for a CPS is leveraging cross-system savings
  19. 19. Page 19 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. A modernization of the laws and regulations is desired Laws and regulations Innovation • Continuous certification • Management of country-specific legal requirements (e.g. data privacy) Technical possibilities Standards like SIL or FDA for safety-critical systems require for each change an external certification by an authority Requirement: Add/remove components, systems, third party applications during live-operation
  20. 20. Page 20 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Conclusion Contradicting requirements as drivers for innovation Introduction and definitions Agenda Cyber-Physical Systems
  21. 21. Page 21 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. CPS will trigger paradigm shifts Conclusion Openness, preparedness for unknown future applications, flexibility, reduction of engineering effort, and cross-systems benefits are not just • Technical, but also • Organizational, • Legal, and • Business model challenges More than technology • The contradicting requirements of next generation CPSs can serve as drivers for innovation Innovation required
  22. 22. Page 22 April 2015 Corporate Technology Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. Contact Information Prof. Dr. Michael Heiss Head of Research Group Cyber-Physical Systems Siemens CT RTC ITP CPS Siemens AG Österreich Siemensstraße 90 1210 Vienna, Austria Phone & Mobile: +43 664 88 55 1526 E-mail: michael.heiss@siemens.com www.siemens.com

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