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<ul><li>Topics include: </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner v. Digital Camera-Pros & Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Basic digitization terms...
<ul><li>The advantages and disadvantages of digital cameras and desktop scanners will be compared on the following slides....
<ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Portable for field use </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for large format items (ex. maps, pos...
<ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of images </li></ul><ul><li>DPI is able to be c...
<ul><li>Scanners commonly use light sensors arranged </li></ul><ul><li>in a grid-like array to convert light into 1s and 0...
<ul><li>Scanning is a common way to digitize existing materials </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Documents ...
<ul><li>Bit- The smallest unit of data that can be  stored in a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Scanners use multiple bits to r...
<ul><li>Bit Depth -Number of bits used to define each pixel; also called dynamic range </li></ul><ul><li>Each single bit i...
<ul><li>Compression -Reducing file size for easier storage, faster processing or faster transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Los...
<ul><li>Scaling -changing proportions of an image by increasing or decreasing size; important when printing images </li></...
<ul><li>JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) </li></ul><ul><li>Compression standard primarily used for still images on ...
<ul><li>JPEG 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>new image compression standard that allows for greater compression while maintaining h...
<ul><li>TIFF (Tag Image File Format) </li></ul><ul><li>very good for archiving images; a widely supported format; supports...
<ul><li>PNG (Portable Network Graphics) </li></ul><ul><li>not as popular as TIFF or JPEG, supports high quality lossless c...
<ul><li>Flatbed Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Most common type of scanner; Easiest to use; vary widely in terms of cost; entry...
<ul><li>Flatbed scanner </li></ul>
<ul><li>What types of materials are going to be digitized? </li></ul><ul><li>May dictate what type of scanner you buy—flat...
<ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner Resolution typically measured by 2 numbers </li></ul><ul><li>ex. 1200 x 2400 ...
<ul><li>Resolutions greater than optical rating are interpolated (some scanners list ratings as high as 9600 dpi)  </li></...
<ul><li>Size of scanning surface </li></ul><ul><li>Largest flatbed scanners typically 12 x 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Anything l...
<ul><li>Many flatbed scanners are designed for ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Higher end models generally have more feature...
<ul><li>Step 1: Install software that was bundled with scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Lay item face down on scanning su...
 
<ul><li>From File menu, select Scanner Setting; can set: </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Page Size </li>...
 
<ul><li>Mode will depend on source material </li></ul><ul><li>If scanning TIFF for master files set dpi to max level </li>...
<ul><li>Next select File, then scan page </li></ul>
<ul><li>A pre-scan image is shown </li></ul>
<ul><li>Make adjustments here if desired </li></ul><ul><li>When satisfied press Green button for final scan </li></ul>
<ul><li>From this screen you can make some minor adjustments to picture before saving it </li></ul>
<ul><li>Click Save Icon (Shown on previous slide) </li></ul><ul><li>Give Picture a File name </li></ul><ul><li>Choose File...
<ul><li>Some scanner software allows for more image manipulation than others </li></ul><ul><li>Software packages like Adob...
<ul><li>TIFF excellent for archiving or making high quality prints; can derive JPEG or other file types from TIFF images <...
<ul><li>JPEG are compressed image filed </li></ul><ul><li>Developed for use on Web </li></ul><ul><li>Much smaller than TIF...
<ul><li>JPEG is best format for images in a CONTENTdm image collection </li></ul><ul><li>Small size makes JPEG files ideal...
<ul><li>Reviews of Scanners can be found at several websites: </li></ul><ul><li>CNET-www.cnet.com </li></ul><ul><li>Epinio...
<ul><li>Adam Northam </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Collections Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Email:  [email_address] </li></ul><...
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Basic Digitization - Scanning Toolkit

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This toolkit explains the basics of "how to" scan and digitize an object.

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Basic Digitization - Scanning Toolkit

  1. 1. <ul><li>Topics include: </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner v. Digital Camera-Pros & Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Basic digitization terms </li></ul><ul><li>Some common file formats </li></ul><ul><li>Types of scanners available </li></ul><ul><li>Things to consider when choosing a scanner </li></ul><ul><li>A brief scanning how to </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>The advantages and disadvantages of digital cameras and desktop scanners will be compared on the following slides. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Portable for field use </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for large format items (ex. maps, posters, & 3D items) </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>May require additional equipment (ex. tripod, lights, light stands) </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in quality of material (ex. quality of lighting, focus) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of images </li></ul><ul><li>DPI is able to be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent quality </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for photos, printed material, & paper documents </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Not portable without a laptop </li></ul><ul><li>Not useful for 3D objects </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Scanners commonly use light sensors arranged </li></ul><ul><li>in a grid-like array to convert light into 1s and 0s that computers can read and translate into </li></ul><ul><li>digital copies of the item being scanned </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Scanning is a common way to digitize existing materials </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Some small objects </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Bit- The smallest unit of data that can be stored in a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Scanners use multiple bits to represent information about pixels of an image </li></ul><ul><li>Pixel- Short for “Picture Element”; Refers to a single dot in a digital image </li></ul><ul><li>Individual color pixels of digital images have 3 numerical components which represent a value for Red, Green Blue (RGB). </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Bit Depth -Number of bits used to define each pixel; also called dynamic range </li></ul><ul><li>Each single bit is made up of 2 tones </li></ul><ul><li>1 bit (2 1) = 2 tones </li></ul><ul><li>2 bits (2 2 ) = 4 tones </li></ul><ul><li>3 bits (2 3) = 8 tones </li></ul><ul><li>4 bits (2 4) = 16 tones </li></ul><ul><li>8 bits (2 8 ) = 256 tones </li></ul><ul><li>16 bits (2 16) = 65,536 tones </li></ul><ul><li>24 bits (2 24) = 16.7 million tones </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Compression -Reducing file size for easier storage, faster processing or faster transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Lossless compression -shrink file size without discarding any information </li></ul><ul><li>Lossy compression -small bits of information are discarded; may or may not impact visual perception </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Scaling -changing proportions of an image by increasing or decreasing size; important when printing images </li></ul><ul><li>File formats- made up of bits that comprise an image, and header info that describes how to interpret the file </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) </li></ul><ul><li>Compression standard primarily used for still images on the WWW. JPEG is traditionally lossy compression; not particularly good for archiving images </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>JPEG 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>new image compression standard that allows for greater compression while maintaining high image quality; also has a lossless option </li></ul><ul><li>Not widely supported by scanners or software </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>TIFF (Tag Image File Format) </li></ul><ul><li>very good for archiving images; a widely supported format; supports lossless compression; larger file size than JPEG </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>PNG (Portable Network Graphics) </li></ul><ul><li>not as popular as TIFF or JPEG, supports high quality lossless compression, particularly for 24 bit photographs; PNG lossless files generally smaller than TIFF </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Flatbed Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Most common type of scanner; Easiest to use; vary widely in terms of cost; entry level units can be less than $100; many have attachments for scanning slides </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors and light source mounted on moving arm sweep past media </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Flatbed scanner </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>What types of materials are going to be digitized? </li></ul><ul><li>May dictate what type of scanner you buy—flatbed, sheetfeed, film scanner etc. A flatbed will most likely be used for image scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Flatbed scanner prices range from under $100 to thousands </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner Resolution typically measured by 2 numbers </li></ul><ul><li>ex. 1200 x 2400 </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller number is most important; refers to optical rating of scanner; a 1200 dpi scanner takes 1200 color samples per inch </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Resolutions greater than optical rating are interpolated (some scanners list ratings as high as 9600 dpi) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpolated scanning estimates pixels of average color between real pixels </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures may come out blurry </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Size of scanning surface </li></ul><ul><li>Largest flatbed scanners typically 12 x 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Anything larger will have to be done with large format setup or shot with a digital camera </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Many flatbed scanners are designed for ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Higher end models generally have more features and more advanced image software which can make use more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Most flatbed scanners and software vary, but basic use is similar </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Step 1: Install software that was bundled with scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Lay item face down on scanning surface </li></ul><ul><li>Position as straight as possible, for best results </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Open scanning software on your computer </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>From File menu, select Scanner Setting; can set: </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Page Size </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>Mode will depend on source material </li></ul><ul><li>If scanning TIFF for master files set dpi to max level </li></ul><ul><li>If scanning JPEG 300 dpi is minimum acceptable level, 600 will likely soon be the standard </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Next select File, then scan page </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>A pre-scan image is shown </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Make adjustments here if desired </li></ul><ul><li>When satisfied press Green button for final scan </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>From this screen you can make some minor adjustments to picture before saving it </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Click Save Icon (Shown on previous slide) </li></ul><ul><li>Give Picture a File name </li></ul><ul><li>Choose File Type (TIFF, JPEG, Etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Choose Where on your computer you want the image saved </li></ul><ul><li>Click Save </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Some scanner software allows for more image manipulation than others </li></ul><ul><li>Software packages like Adobe Photoshop or G nu I mage M anipulation P rogram (freely available) and many others can be used to manipulate/enhance images after scanning </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>TIFF excellent for archiving or making high quality prints; can derive JPEG or other file types from TIFF images </li></ul><ul><li>Very large file sizes—much storage space needed </li></ul><ul><li>If you plan to edit photos beyond basic cropping etc. TIFF format is preferable </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>JPEG are compressed image filed </li></ul><ul><li>Developed for use on Web </li></ul><ul><li>Much smaller than TIFF </li></ul><ul><li>Great if your are most interested in displaying pictures online, or making smaller sized prints </li></ul><ul><li>Not good as master files if you plan to manipulate images </li></ul><ul><li>Quality degrades when file is saved and re-saved </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>JPEG is best format for images in a CONTENTdm image collection </li></ul><ul><li>Small size makes JPEG files ideal for FTP transmission to server </li></ul><ul><li>You may however want to keep a TIFF back up of certain images on disks or a hard drive at your own institution, if space permits </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not planning to edit picture, JPEG backups are better than nothing </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Reviews of Scanners can be found at several websites: </li></ul><ul><li>CNET-www.cnet.com </li></ul><ul><li>Epinions-www.epinions.com, search scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Type “scanner reviews” into GOOGLE, or any search engine </li></ul><ul><li>www.scantips.com – Gives good basic and advanced information about scanning </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>Adam Northam </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Collections Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: 903-468-8738 </li></ul>

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