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Ein kritischer Blick auf Open Data!
-!
Technoliberalismus, Transparenz
und Privatsphäre
Maximilian Heimstädt
Quelle:http://scot.okfn.org/2013/05/05/open-data-sdw-german-students-discuss-open-knowledge-in-edinburgh/
! ! <1> Das Datenknäuel!
! ! <2> Genealogie des “Open”!
! ! <3> Open Data: Eine Kritik
! ! <1> Das Datenknäuel!
! ! <2> Genealogie des “Open”!
! ! <3> Offene Daten: Eine Kritik
Quelle: Internet
“Big Data ist alles !
was Excel sprengt”
Quelle: Atz, Ulrich
“Data that requires ‘massive’
computing power to process” !!
”
Quelle: Crawford, K., & Boyd, D. (2011). Six Provocations f...
Open Data:!
!
Datensätze!
unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen!
in offenen Formaten!
nicht personenbezogen!
nicht sicherheits...
Open Data:!
!
Datensätze!
unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen!
in offenen Formaten!
nicht personenbezogen!
nicht sicherheits...
Open Data:!
!
Datensätze!
unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen!
in offenen Formaten!
nicht personenbezogen!
nicht sicherheits...
Open Data:!
!
Datensätze!
unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen!
in offenen Formaten!
nicht personenbezogen!
nicht sicherheits...
Open Data:!
!
Datensätze!
unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen!
in offenen Formaten!
nicht personenbezogen!
nicht sicherheits...
Quelle: http://data.london.gov.uk/
London Open Workspaces
Quelle:https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/business-economy/for-business/business-support/london-w...
Quelle: http://www.prescribinganalytics.com/
Quelle: Eigene Darstellung
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Big Data!
!
! Open Data !
!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Small Data
! ! <1> Das Datenknäuel!
! ! <2> Genealogie des “Open”!
! ! <3> Offene Daten: Eine Kritik
“The open circulates, scales up, garners
new allies, is reconfigured, distinguished,
and remixed […]. The open sways
betwee...
Karl Popper
Quelle http://www.blomig.com/tag/karl-popper/
• Buch: “The Open Society and its
Enemies”!
!
• “Every political philosophy based on
unchallengeable truths (communism,
fa...
Quelle: http://galleryhip.com/
friedrich-hayek.html
Friedrich Hayek
Quelle: http://galleryhip.com/friedrich-hayek.html
• Niemand kennt den “besten” Weg, den die
Gesellschaft wählen sollte!
!
• Zentralisierte Planung (Sozialismus,
Kommunismus...
Richard Stallman
Quelle:http://www.mladina.si/112104/richard-stallman
• Der Xerox Zwischenfall: “All software
should be free”!
!
• Entwickelte die virale GNU GPL license
(“Copyleft”), gründete...
Eric Raymond
Quelle:http://agilitrix.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Eric-Raymond.jpg
• Stallman zu politisch und seine “Free
Software” schreckt die Industrie ab!
!
• “Open Source” Lizenzen als
marktfreundlic...
Tim O’Reilly
Quelle: http://interviewly.com/i/tim-oreilly-apr-2014-reddit
• Übertragung der technologischen
Offenheit in die institutionalisierte Politik!
!
• “The Open Source
Government” (Rushkof...
! ! <1> Das Datenknäuel!
! ! <2> Genealogie des “Open”!
! ! <3> Offene Daten: Eine Kritik
#1 Das Matthäus-Prinzip!
!
!
!
#2 Privatsphäre Paradoxon!
!
!
• Triangulation aggregierter Datensätze kann zu
Deanonymisierung führen!
• Kleine “Buckets”...
#3 Kooptierung!
!
!
Quellen: Bates, J (2012) “Thats what modern deregulation looks like”
“It is difficult to make a (non-re...
#3 Kooptierung!
!
• Deckmantel der Transparenz (siehe: MP
Skandal 2009) und politische Naivität
(Bates, 2012)!
• Kooptieru...
#4 Openwashing!
!
!
!
#4 Openwashing
Quelle: Eigene Darstellung
Quelle: Atz, U (2014) The tau of data.
Quelle:https://www.thecalmzone.net/2013/10/panopticoneffect/
Führt die Beobachtbarkeit zu weniger – auch
wünschenswertem –...
Zusammenfassung:!
!
#1 Das Matthäus-Prinzip!
#2 Das Privatsphäre-Paradoxon!
#3 Kooptierung!
#4 Openwashing!
#5 Panoptismus!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Maximilian Heimstädt!
@heimstaedt!
m.heimstaedt@fu-berlin.de
3/14/15!
Happy π-Day!!
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Ein kritischer Blick auf Open Data

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Vortrag im Rahmen des Seminars "Big Data und Privatsphäre" der UK Regionalgruppe der Stiftung der Deutschen Wirtschaft.

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Ein kritischer Blick auf Open Data

  1. 1. Ein kritischer Blick auf Open Data! -! Technoliberalismus, Transparenz und Privatsphäre Maximilian Heimstädt
  2. 2. Quelle:http://scot.okfn.org/2013/05/05/open-data-sdw-german-students-discuss-open-knowledge-in-edinburgh/
  3. 3. ! ! <1> Das Datenknäuel! ! ! <2> Genealogie des “Open”! ! ! <3> Open Data: Eine Kritik
  4. 4. ! ! <1> Das Datenknäuel! ! ! <2> Genealogie des “Open”! ! ! <3> Offene Daten: Eine Kritik
  5. 5. Quelle: Internet
  6. 6. “Big Data ist alles ! was Excel sprengt” Quelle: Atz, Ulrich
  7. 7. “Data that requires ‘massive’ computing power to process” !! ” Quelle: Crawford, K., & Boyd, D. (2011). Six Provocations for Big Data
  8. 8. Open Data:! ! Datensätze! unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen! in offenen Formaten! nicht personenbezogen! nicht sicherheitsrelevant! online
  9. 9. Open Data:! ! Datensätze! unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen! in offenen Formaten! nicht personenbezogen! nicht sicherheitsrelevant! online
  10. 10. Open Data:! ! Datensätze! unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen! in offenen Formaten! nicht personenbezogen! nicht sicherheitsrelevant! online
  11. 11. Open Data:! ! Datensätze! unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen! in offenen Formaten! nicht personenbezogen! nicht sicherheitsrelevant! online
  12. 12. Open Data:! ! Datensätze! unter nicht-proprietären Lizenzen! in offenen Formaten! nicht personenbezogen! nicht sicherheitsrelevant! online
  13. 13. Quelle: http://data.london.gov.uk/
  14. 14. London Open Workspaces Quelle:https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/business-economy/for-business/business-support/london-workspaces
  15. 15. Quelle: http://www.prescribinganalytics.com/
  16. 16. Quelle: Eigene Darstellung
  17. 17. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Big Data! ! ! Open Data ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Small Data
  18. 18. ! ! <1> Das Datenknäuel! ! ! <2> Genealogie des “Open”! ! ! <3> Offene Daten: Eine Kritik
  19. 19. “The open circulates, scales up, garners new allies, is reconfigured, distinguished, and remixed […]. The open sways between means and ends, between noun, verb and adjective.” ! Nathaniel Tkacz ! Quelle: Tkacz, N. (2015) “Wikipedia and the politics of openness”
  20. 20. Karl Popper Quelle http://www.blomig.com/tag/karl-popper/
  21. 21. • Buch: “The Open Society and its Enemies”! ! • “Every political philosophy based on unchallengeable truths (communism, fascism) is a closed society”! ! • Nur die Demokratie ist falsifizierbar und somit “open” Quelle: Popper, K. (1962) The open society and its enemies
  22. 22. Quelle: http://galleryhip.com/ friedrich-hayek.html Friedrich Hayek Quelle: http://galleryhip.com/friedrich-hayek.html
  23. 23. • Niemand kennt den “besten” Weg, den die Gesellschaft wählen sollte! ! • Zentralisierte Planung (Sozialismus, Kommunismus, Faschismus) ist abzulehnen! ! • Dezentralisierung (der Ideen) durch marktwirtschaftliche Organisation Quelle: Hayek, F.A. (1944) The road to serfdom
  24. 24. Richard Stallman Quelle:http://www.mladina.si/112104/richard-stallman
  25. 25. • Der Xerox Zwischenfall: “All software should be free”! ! • Entwickelte die virale GNU GPL license (“Copyleft”), gründete die FSF und startete das GNU OS! ! • Open vs. Proprietary (Commodification)!
  26. 26. Eric Raymond Quelle:http://agilitrix.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Eric-Raymond.jpg
  27. 27. • Stallman zu politisch und seine “Free Software” schreckt die Industrie ab! ! • “Open Source” Lizenzen als marktfreundliche Alternative entsteht! ! • Open vs. Inefficient (Mode of Production)
  28. 28. Tim O’Reilly Quelle: http://interviewly.com/i/tim-oreilly-apr-2014-reddit
  29. 29. • Übertragung der technologischen Offenheit in die institutionalisierte Politik! ! • “The Open Source Government” (Rushkoff, 2003)! ! • “Government-as-a-Platform” (O’Reilly, 2010)
  30. 30. ! ! <1> Das Datenknäuel! ! ! <2> Genealogie des “Open”! ! ! <3> Offene Daten: Eine Kritik
  31. 31. #1 Das Matthäus-Prinzip! ! ! !
  32. 32. #2 Privatsphäre Paradoxon! ! ! • Triangulation aggregierter Datensätze kann zu Deanonymisierung führen! • Kleine “Buckets” sind besonders anfällig und müssen aus Datensatz entfernt werden, z.B. Patienten mit seltenen Krankheiten ! • Privatsphäre, die vor Diskriminierung schützen soll, kann zu Diskriminierung führen
  33. 33. #3 Kooptierung! ! ! Quellen: Bates, J (2012) “Thats what modern deregulation looks like” “It is difficult to make a (non-reactionary) argument against the free flow of data and information, however, it is crucial to understand the implications of co-opted partial approaches to openness, particularly if they risk weakening public institutions already under significant political and market pressure” ! (Bates, 2012)
  34. 34. #3 Kooptierung! ! • Deckmantel der Transparenz (siehe: MP Skandal 2009) und politische Naivität (Bates, 2012)! • Kooptierung durch IT-Industrie (Smart Cities) und neoliberale Politik (Open Public Services) können zur schlichten Reproduktion der Eliteninteressen führen
  35. 35. #4 Openwashing! ! ! !
  36. 36. #4 Openwashing Quelle: Eigene Darstellung Quelle: Atz, U (2014) The tau of data.
  37. 37. Quelle:https://www.thecalmzone.net/2013/10/panopticoneffect/ Führt die Beobachtbarkeit zu weniger – auch wünschenswertem – Beobachtbarem? …oder zu Ausweichhandlungen? Quelle:http://scalar.usc.edu/works/internetandidentity/michael #5 Panoptismus?
  38. 38. Zusammenfassung:! ! #1 Das Matthäus-Prinzip! #2 Das Privatsphäre-Paradoxon! #3 Kooptierung! #4 Openwashing! #5 Panoptismus!
  39. 39. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Maximilian Heimstädt! @heimstaedt! m.heimstaedt@fu-berlin.de 3/14/15! Happy π-Day!!

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