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BREEDING APPROCHES TO
INCREASE THE NUTRIENT
USE EFFICIENCY
SUBMITTED TO : DR. SHAFIQ
SUBMITTED BY : HARREM KHALID
IAGS, P.U, Lahore
INTRODUCTION
Plant uptake:
• Water uptake
• Nutrient uptake
Nutrients type:
• MICRO
• MACRO
ROLE OF IMPORTANT
NUTRIENTS IN PLANTS
MACRONUTRIENT ROLE
NITROGEN Nitrogen metabolism is the major factor in stem
and leaves growth.
MAGNESIUM Structural component of chlorophyll, Necessary for
functioning of enzyme to produce carbohydrates,
sugar and fats and for seed germination.
PHOSPHOROUS Component of ATP, nucleic acid, and coenzymes,
necessary for seed germination, photosynthesis,
protein formation etc.
POTASSIUM Regulates the opening and closing of stomata.
Reduce water loss from the leaves
SULPHUR Component of protein, vitamins and enzymes
CALCIUM Activates enzymes, it’s a structural component of
cell-wall, influences water movement in cells
MICRONUTRIENTS ROLE
Iron Necessary for photosynthesis, activates many
enzyme
Molybdenum Component of the enzyme that reduces nitrates to
ammonia, important in building amino-acids
Boron Important in sugar transport, cell division and
synthesizing certain enzymes
Copper Component of several enzymes
Manganese Involve in enzyme activity of photosynthesis,
respiration, and nitrogen metabolism
Zinc Require in large number of enzymes
Chloride Involves in osmosis of water
Nickel Required in a nitrogen metabolism
MECHANISM OF NUTRIENT
UPTAKE
i. Simple diffusion
ii. Facilitated diffusion
iii. Active transport
COMPONENTS FOR NUTRIENT UPTAKE
• ATPase
• Channel protein (Aquaporins)
• Cotransporters
COTRANSPORTERS
Mechanisms
• MECHANISM 1: High affinity uptake system
• MECHANSIM 2: Low affinity uptake system
REVERSE EFFECT OF NUTRIENTS
• SO2
4− affects NO3
–.
• K+ affects NH4
+
Problem in Pakistan
SUGGESTIONS
GENE CONTROLLINGS:
Gene Nutrient
• NRT1.1 and NIA1 genes
• Threonine (in case of LATs)
• NRT1 and NRT2 in plasma membrane level
NO3
– (Nitrogen) by CHL1 mRNA
• FRO2, FRO3 and FRO5 at root level
• FRO3 in vascular system
• FRO6 (only activated in light)
• IRT1 (major transporter in root, regulated by its
deficiency)
• Fe2+ and Fe3+
• FER mRNA
• PsFRO1mRNA responsible for less iron uptake
• IRT1 (major transporter) Zn, and Mn (zinc and manganese)
• nitrate reductase, sulfite oxidase, xanthine
dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and amidoxime
reductase
• Molybdate (carrier protein)
Molybdenum
Require iron and copper for functioning
• (Mot1 and Mot2) Sulphate
Gene Nutrient
CorA-MRS2-ALR Mg
PSTOL1 Phosphorous
HKT1 Potassium
miR319 Gene Chloride
NikR and CbiMN transporter Nickel
NIP5,1 and 6.1 Boron
SUGGESTION
• Through promoter–β glucuronidase, we can transcript aquaporins
according to our desires
REFERENCES:
• http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/photosyn.htm
• http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/
• http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/132/2/958
• https://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/837763.html
• http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S01674889120004
7X
• http://jn.nutrition.org/content/133/5/1502S.long
• http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S01674889120013
22
• http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
• http://www.scidev.net/global/biotechnology/news/phosphorus-
uptake-gene
• www.plantcell.org/content
• http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles
• http://jb.asm.org/content/188/1/317

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Harrem sir shafiq finalBREEDING APPROCHES TO INCREASE THE NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY

  • 1. BREEDING APPROCHES TO INCREASE THE NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY SUBMITTED TO : DR. SHAFIQ SUBMITTED BY : HARREM KHALID IAGS, P.U, Lahore
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Plant uptake: • Water uptake • Nutrient uptake Nutrients type: • MICRO • MACRO
  • 4. MACRONUTRIENT ROLE NITROGEN Nitrogen metabolism is the major factor in stem and leaves growth. MAGNESIUM Structural component of chlorophyll, Necessary for functioning of enzyme to produce carbohydrates, sugar and fats and for seed germination. PHOSPHOROUS Component of ATP, nucleic acid, and coenzymes, necessary for seed germination, photosynthesis, protein formation etc. POTASSIUM Regulates the opening and closing of stomata. Reduce water loss from the leaves SULPHUR Component of protein, vitamins and enzymes CALCIUM Activates enzymes, it’s a structural component of cell-wall, influences water movement in cells
  • 5. MICRONUTRIENTS ROLE Iron Necessary for photosynthesis, activates many enzyme Molybdenum Component of the enzyme that reduces nitrates to ammonia, important in building amino-acids Boron Important in sugar transport, cell division and synthesizing certain enzymes Copper Component of several enzymes Manganese Involve in enzyme activity of photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen metabolism Zinc Require in large number of enzymes Chloride Involves in osmosis of water Nickel Required in a nitrogen metabolism
  • 7. i. Simple diffusion ii. Facilitated diffusion iii. Active transport
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. COMPONENTS FOR NUTRIENT UPTAKE • ATPase • Channel protein (Aquaporins) • Cotransporters
  • 14.
  • 15. Mechanisms • MECHANISM 1: High affinity uptake system • MECHANSIM 2: Low affinity uptake system
  • 16. REVERSE EFFECT OF NUTRIENTS • SO2 4− affects NO3 –. • K+ affects NH4 +
  • 18.
  • 20. GENE CONTROLLINGS: Gene Nutrient • NRT1.1 and NIA1 genes • Threonine (in case of LATs) • NRT1 and NRT2 in plasma membrane level NO3 – (Nitrogen) by CHL1 mRNA • FRO2, FRO3 and FRO5 at root level • FRO3 in vascular system • FRO6 (only activated in light) • IRT1 (major transporter in root, regulated by its deficiency) • Fe2+ and Fe3+ • FER mRNA • PsFRO1mRNA responsible for less iron uptake • IRT1 (major transporter) Zn, and Mn (zinc and manganese) • nitrate reductase, sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and amidoxime reductase • Molybdate (carrier protein) Molybdenum Require iron and copper for functioning • (Mot1 and Mot2) Sulphate
  • 21. Gene Nutrient CorA-MRS2-ALR Mg PSTOL1 Phosphorous HKT1 Potassium miR319 Gene Chloride NikR and CbiMN transporter Nickel NIP5,1 and 6.1 Boron
  • 22. SUGGESTION • Through promoter–β glucuronidase, we can transcript aquaporins according to our desires
  • 23. REFERENCES: • http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/photosyn.htm • http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/ • http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/132/2/958 • https://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/837763.html • http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S01674889120004 7X • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/133/5/1502S.long • http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S01674889120013 22
  • 24. • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed • http://www.scidev.net/global/biotechnology/news/phosphorus- uptake-gene • www.plantcell.org/content • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles • http://jb.asm.org/content/188/1/317

Editor's Notes

  1. Purines and polyamines= N
  2. Simple Diffusion: Facilitated Active
  3. Apoplast: cell to cell until apodermis Symplast: cell to cell through cytoplasm Casparian strips: prevents back flow of water
  4. anionic species nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate Depolarization of membrane (making positive) Repolarization (less positive)
  5. 106 to 107 ions per sec per channel 102 to 104 molecules per second
  6. nitrate, by a symporter proton–calcium antiporter
  7. Soil particle : -ve charge
  8. Ethylene activates FIT1 and FER mRNA in iron deficiency)