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The Neo Classical Age


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The Neo Classical Age

  1. 1. The Neo-classical Age: Heenaba Zala Dept. of English M. K. Bhavnagar University
  2. 2. Characteristics of the age: • The Historical background: • The Rise of the Political Parties: • The Foreign War: The war of the Spanish Succession • The Succession: The act of settlement in 1701 • The Spirit of the Age: • Stability • Wealth and prosperity • The evils of industrialization had not yet been realized.
  3. 3. Prose: • Swift, Addison, Steele, Defoe- prose writers of a very high quality. • Political writing • The Clubs and Coffee-houses • Periodical writing
  4. 4. Jonathan Swift: • The Battle of the Books: 1704 • The first noteworthy book • The theme of the book is the dispute between ancient and modern author • Half allegorical and mock-heroic setting • The battle is in the library. • A Tale of a Tub: • Written in 1696 and published in 1704 • Religious allegory
  5. 5. • The story of three brothers, Peter, who stands for the Roman Catholic Church, Jack represents the Dissenters, and Martin, the personification of the Anglican and Lutheran Churches. • A Modest Proposal: • Published in 1729 • Gulliver’s Travels: • Published in 1726 • Divided into four parts • An allegory • Swift as a satirist
  6. 6. Addition and Steel: • On April 12, 1709, Steel published the first number of The Tatler, a periodical. It finished on January 1711. • Addison contributed in the work. • Steel began The Spectator, which was issued daily. • Total number of essays 555 • Addison wrote 274 and Steel wrote 236. • The Guardian, 175 in total and Addison contributed 51. • A very famous character of Sir Roger de Coverley in Coverley paper.
  7. 7. Daniel Defoe: • Robinson Crusoe: 1719 • Moll Flanders: 1722 • The full title of Moll Flanders gives an apt summary of the plot: "The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders, Etc. Who was born in Newgate, and during a life of continu'd Variety for Threescore Years, besides her Childhood, was Twelve Year a Whore, five times a Wife (whereof once to her own brother), Twelve Year a Thief, Eight Year a Transported Felon in Virginia, at last grew Rich, liv'd Honest and died a Penitent. Written from her own Memorandums." • Both are picaresque novels dealing with different issues of society
  8. 8. Poetry: • Jonathan Swift: • Cadenus and Vanessa (1712-13) • Vanessa is Esther Vanhomrigh : Cadenus is Swift. • Fond of using octosyllabic couplet • a. A line of verse containing eight syllables. • b. A poem having eight syllables in each line. • A word of eight syllables
  9. 9. • Joseph Addison: • The Campaign (1704) • Written in heroic couplet: • Heroic couplet is a traditional form of English poetry, commonly used for epic and narrative poetry. • Alexander Pope: • An Essay on Criticism (1711) • Didactic poem • Windsor Forest (1713) • The Rape of the Lock (1712) brought him fame as a poet.
  10. 10. • Pope also published philosophical poems and the most famous of all is An Essay on Man. This poem discusses about man’s place of universe. • An Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot (1735) • Most direct autobiographical work • Addressed to his friend John Arbuthnot
  11. 11. The Age of Transition:
  12. 12. • Samuel Johnson: • London (1738) poem • The poem describes the various problems of London, including an emphasis on crime, corruption, and the squalor of the poor. • The poem begins: Though grief and fondness in my breast rebel, When injured Thales bids the town farewell, Yet still my calmer thoughts his choice commend, I praise the hermit, but regret the friend, Resolved at length, from vice and London far, To breathe in distant fields a purer air, And, fixed on Cambria's solitary shore, Give to St Davidone true Briton more.
  13. 13. • Dictionary (1747-55) brought him fame • The Vanity of Human Wishes: (1749), poem Let Observation with extensive View, Survey Mankind from China to Peru; Remark each anxious Toil, each eager Strife, And watch the busy scenes of crouded Life; Then say how Hope and Fear, Desire and Hate, O'erspread with Snares the clouded Maze of Fate, Where Wav'ring Man, betray'd by vent'rous Pride, To tread the dreary Paths without a Guide; As treach'rous Phantoms in the Mist delude, Shuns fancied Ills, or chases airy Good.
  14. 14. • Johnson’s prose: • The Lives of the Poets in 1777-81, introduction of the lives of 52 poets • The Rambler is a periodical, 1750-52 • Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia, 1759, in order to pay for his mother’s funeral. • A journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, 1775, a travel book.
  15. 15. • Oliver Goldsmith: • The Traveller, 1764, a poem • The Deserted Village, 1770, a poem • The Hermit, a ballade • Elegy on the Death of a Mad Dog, witty • Drama: two prose comedies: • The Good Natur’d Man, 1768 • She Stoops to Conquer, 1773 • Prose: • The Citizen of the World, 1759 • The Vicar of Wakefield, 1766, novel
  16. 16. • Thomas Gray: • Ode on a Distance Prospect of Eton College, 1747 • Elegy written in a Country Churchyard, 1751 • Pindaric Odes, 1757 • William Blake: • Poetical Sketches, 1783 • Songs of Innocence, 1789 • The Book of Thel, 1790 • The French Revolution, 1791, and America, 1793, show the contemporary political conflict-about political freedom and also freedom from the restrictions of convention and established morality.
  17. 17. • Songs of Experience, 1794 • The First Book of Urizen, 1794 • The Book of Ahania, 1795 • The Book of Los, 1795 • The Song of Los, 1795
  18. 18. Four Wheels of novels: • Samuel Richardson • Pamela or Virtue Rewarded, 1740 • Clarissa Harlowe, 1747-48 • Sir Charles Grandison, 1753-54 • Henry Fielding • Joseph Andrews, 1742 • Tom Jones, 1749, the greatest novel • Amelia, 1751, last novel
  19. 19. • Tobias Smollet • The Adventures of Roderick Random, 1748 • The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, 1751 • The Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom, 1753 • The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves, 1762 • The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, 1771 • Laurence Sterne • The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gent, 1760-67 • A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy, 1768
  20. 20. • Richard Sheridan • The Rivals, 1774 • The School for Scandal, 1777