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Vincent van Gogh: The Life


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This is a school presentation for a class on Art and Music Sources. The presentation is based on the book, "Van Gogh: The Life" by Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith.

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Vincent van Gogh: The Life

  2. 2. “I want to paint what I feel and feel what I paint.” ~ Vincent Willem Van Gogh
  3. 3. Red Vineyards near Arles, Vincent van Gogh, 1888. Oil on canvas, 73 x 91 cm.
  4. 4. VAN GOGH’S LIFE… THE EARLY YEARS BECOMING AN ARTIST THE FRENCH YEARS THE ASYLUM YEARS FINAL GOODBYE (1853 - 1878) (1878 - 1886) (1886 - 1888) (1888 – 1890) (1890)
  5. 5. THE EARLY YEARS 1853 - 1878
  6. 6. MARCH 30 1852 Vincent van Gogh stillborn. Buried in Zundert Cemetery, Holland.
  7. 7. MARCH 30 1853 Vincent Willem van Gogh born. in Groot Zundert ("Big Zundert” ), a small village near the Belgian border, Holland.
  8. 8. The Markt in Zundert: The parsonage where Vincent was born is at centre
  9. 9. Vincent van Gogh 1852 - 1852 Vincent Willem van Gogh 1853 - 1890 Anna Cornelia van Gogh 1855 - 1930 Theodorus (Dorus) van Gogh 1822 - 1885 Theo van Gogh 1857 - 1891 Elisabeth (Lies) Huberta van Gogh 1859 - 1936 Willemina (Wil) van Gogh Anna Cornelia Carbentus 1862 - 1941 1819 - 1907 Cornelis (Cor) Vincent van Gogh 1867 - 1900
  10. 10. The Mother: Anna Cornelia Carbentus 1819 - 1907 •! Middle daughter grew up with a dark and fearful view of life at the Hague •! Obsessed with the benefits of preoccupation and urged on her children at every opportunity •! Knit at "terrifying speed”; busy hands took her into art •! Echoed the mandate of family unity – family totalitarianism •! Defined happiness – Duty. Decency, Solidity.
  11. 11. The Mother: Anna Cornelia Carbentus 1819 - 1907 •! Inspired by Alphonse Karr's A tour round my garden, Anna used the garden she built to school her children in the meaning of nature •! Vincent wrote: Trees - especially tree roots- affirmed the promise of life after death •! Introduced drawing, music and singing to children •! Together with Dorus, Anna often share stories of family history and the children inherited their nostalgia for the past
  12. 12. The Father: Theodorus (Dorus) van Gogh 1822 - 1885 •! A minister of the Dutch Reformed Church in Zunbert •! Earned a modest salary, but the church provided the family with the perquisites of status – a house, a maid, 2 cooks, a gardener, a carriage and a horse. •! Responsible for educating children in religion
  13. 13. The Dutch Reformed Church in Zundert
  14. 14. A Strange Boy: Vincent Willem van Gogh 1853 - 1890 •! A head full of thick, curly red locks •! The face was odd: oblong, with a high brow and prominent chin, puffy cheeks, shallow-set eyes, and a wide nose, lower lip protruded in a perpetual pout •! Favoured his mother red hair and broad features •! Shared her taste for creature comforts and finer things – in flower arrangements, fabrics, and home décor Vincent (Age 13)
  15. 15. Barn and Farmhouse February 1864, pencil on paper, 7 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. Created for his father’s birthday.
  16. 16. Vincent van Gogh on the steps of the Tilburg School
  17. 17. •! In March 1868, Vincent walked out of the Tilburg School •! Vincent resisted all suggestions about his future and lived in idleness •! Anna and Dorus’s to educate their eldest son in Zundert had ended in frustration and failure •! In July 1869, Vincent relented and went to The Hague to work as an “office clerk” at Goupil & Cie, a leading art dealer co-owned by Uncle Cent van Gogh Vincent (Age 18)
  18. 18. Interior of Goupil & Cie’s Gallery, The Hague, Netherlands
  19. 19. •! Surrounded by art in Goupil– paintings, woodcuts, engravings, etchings, photographs, artists’ albums, illustrated books and magazines, etc. •! Books and latest art journals on artists, art history and art collections in Holland and elsewhere View on Delft, Vermeer, Johannes, c.1661, Oil on canvas •! Frequent visits to the Dutch royal collection at the Mauritshuis – exposed to Golden Age paintings like Vermeer’s View of Delft and Rembrant’s Anatomy Lesson •! Travel to see paintings by masters, such as Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling and Peter Paul Rubens The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, Rembrandt, 1632, Oil on canvas,
  20. 20. •! Saw the first sign of a new art movement: the importance of plein air (outdoor) painting and the new mandate to capture “the virgin impression of nature”. Frozen Waterway, Schelfhout, Andreas, 1845, Oil on panel •! Often visit the just-opened Museum van Morderne Kunst (museum of Modern Art) •! Exposed to Dutch contemporary artists like Andreas Schelfhout and Cornelis Springer •! Such paintings looked unfinished to Vincent’s unaccustomed eye Along the Canal, Cornelis Springer, 1844, Oil on canvas
  21. 21. Caroline Haanebeek Vincent Celebration of the 80th birthday of Johannes Andricus Stricker, a great uncle of Vincent van Gogh August 1872, Huis te Hoorn, Rijswijk, The Hague
  22. 22. “If I cannot get a good woman, I shall take a bad one... I would sooner be with a bad whore than be alone.” ~ Vincent told his brother, Theo Note: Vincent’s correspondence totaled to more than 2,000 letters. Only 902 letters were discovered. About four-fifths of them were addressed to his brother, Theo.
  23. 23. •! Vincent got into trouble and he suspected that his boss, H. G. Tersteeg, was responsible for “putting [him] in a bad light”. The exact details of the trouble remains unknown. •! His poor work performance has been raised to the highest level. His father, Dorus was extremely unhappy and say unpleasant things to him in letters •! Theo was given a job at Goupil as well •! Decision was made to dismiss Vincent. Plans were made to arrange him to work in London. H. G. Tersteeg
  24. 24. While in London between 1873 to 1875: “The house here is not so interesting as the one [there]… Good pictures [are] quite difficult to find. Tell me especially what pictures you have seen lately, or any new etchings or lithographs have been published. Tell me all you can about these things, for I do not see much of them here.” ~ From Vincent to Theo
  25. 25. Ursula Loyer Eugenie Loyer 87 Hackford Road, Brixton, London [1873-1875], Pencil and chalk on paper
  26. 26. Photograph of National Gallery London by Morio
  27. 27. “I am not what many people think I am just now.” ~ Vincent response to complaints about his unsuitability in Goupil In mid-May 1875, Vincent was transferred to Paris
  28. 28. What use is there in banishing him From one shore and then another… He is the desolate son Of a beloved land. Let us give a homeland A homeland To the poor exile ~ From Vincent to his parents, poem L’exile, translated into Dutch
  29. 29. Uprising of the impressionists •! Other names includes impressionalists and lunatics •! Claimed that they represented the “next wave” in art •! Storm broke in March 1875 when the upstarts (including Monet and Renior) try to sell some of their paintings at the city’s central auction house, the Hôtel Drouot “50 francs for a Monet landscape. – That’s for the frame!” Rue Montorgueil, Paris Claude Monet, 1878, Oil on Canvas
  30. 30. Impression Sunrise Claude Monet, 1872, Oil on Canvas Monet painting in his garden in Argenteuil, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1873, Oil on Canvas Music in the Tuileries Edouard Manet, 1862, Oil on Canvas Ballettprobe Edgar Degas, 1873, Oil on Canvas
  31. 31. “I have seen absolutely nothing about them. From what you told me about ‘impressionism’, it’s not quite clear to me what it really is.” ~ Vincent’s response to Theo on the “new artists”
  32. 32. How impetuously a wounded heart rushes… Towards the first refuge where, young and at peace, He used to listen to himself singing amidst the silence With what bitter zeal, my soul, do you revel In the house where you were born… An yet, O chimera, you were deceiving us! For in your beautiful illusion a superb future Was opening out its rich sheaves like a glorious summer, Its fluttering ears like real suns. Christus Consolator Ary Scheffer, 1836-37, Oil on canvas, You lied. But what irresistible charms they have, These ghosts one sees in the ruby-red distance Shimmering iridescently through the great prism of one’s tears!
  33. 33. Vicarge and church at Etten Vincent van Gogh, April 1876, Pencil & ink on paper Churches at Petersham & Turnham Green Vincent van Gogh, November 1876, Ink on paper
  34. 34. DECEMBER 21 1875 Come home, come home! You are weary at heart, For the way has been dark, and so lonely and wild; O Prodigal child! Come home; oh come home! Come home, come home! From the sorrow and blame, From the sin and the shame, and the tempter that smiled; O Prodigal child! Come home; oh come home! After months of wandering, he returned to his parents in Etten.
  35. 35. Scheffersplein: the market square in Dordrecht The bookstore Bluss and Van Braam where 22-year old Vincent worked is at center
  36. 36. From January 1976 to November 1978:
  37. 37. BECOMING AN ARTIST 1878 - 1886 Painting designed by Adrien Midzic from The Noun Project
  38. 38. “When I think the eyes of so many are fixed on me, who will know where the fault is if I do not succeed, who will make me reproaches… the fear of failure, of disgrace – then I also have the longing: I wish I were far away from everything!” ~ A Confession by Vincent
  39. 39. •! Au Charbonnage [to the coal fields] “It always strikes me, that when we see the image of indescribable and unutterable desolation – of loneliness, of poverty and misery, the end of all things, or their extreme – the rises in our mind the though of god.” “The workmen come there to eat their bread and drink their glass of beer during the lunch hour” •! He, too, was heading to au charbonnage The “Au Charbonnage” Café November 1878, Pencil and ink on paper, 40 x 40cm
  40. 40. “… I did not lack courage. I would learn and observe and come back having something to say that was really worth hearing – a better and riper man”. ~ From Vincent to Theo In November 1878, with no means of support, no plans and no prospects, Vincent head to Borinage a.k.a Le pays noir (the black country)
  41. 41. Marcasse Coal Mine - Pit #7
  42. 42. Charles Bargue’s 2-part Drawing Courses Miners in the Snow at Dawn August 1880, Pencil on Paper, 20 x 13 cm In October 1880, he left for Brussels with a portfolio of drawings to seek for a better studio, the company of artists and “good things to look at” in order to forget those miseries and “make good things myself”.
  43. 43. The Sower Jean-François Millet, 1850, Oil on canvas The Sower (After Millet) Vincent Van Gogh, 1881, Ink on paper
  44. 44. “Anyone who has mastered a figure drawing can earn quite a bit.” ~ From Vincent to Theo Thinking that if he mastered figure drawing, he could make the kinds of images that often appeared in illustrated magazines – especially images of picturesque country life. Vincent spent a lot of money hiring models and renting studio for his drawings.
  45. 45. •! Met Rappard, who played a big role in his life •! Rappard described Vincent as “violent and fanatical” and Vincent described Rappard as “elegant and superficial” •! Vincent returned to Etten and Rappard joined him shortly after •! Explored drawing together – Rappard lead and Vincent followed Anthon Gerad Alexander Ridder van Rappard (Rappard)
  46. 46. The Passievaart near Seppe (Landscape near Seppe) Anthon Gerad Alexander Ridder van Rappard, June 1881, Pencil on paper Marsh with Water Lilies Vincent Van Gogh, June 1881, Pencil on paper
  47. 47. •! Fell in love with widow, Kee Vos but was responded with “no, nay, never” •! Vincent was persistent and unwilling to gave up. Eventually Vincent clashed with Kee Vos’s father though letters and punches •! Tensions built up between Dorus and Vincent – declaring, “There is no God!” and refused to attend church services •! On Christmas day, 1881, Vincent unleashed all his frustration in a fury •! “Enough! Get out of my house!” Dorus thundered and ordered his son to leave the house and never to return. Kee Vos-Stricker and Son Jan c. 1881
  48. 48. •! Vincent headed straight to the Hague to be an apprentice to his cousin, Anton Mauve. •! Mauve was a master colourist, a realist Dutch painter and a leading figure in the Hague School (Dutch art movement) •! Taught Vincent watercolouring and loan him money to set up a studio Anthonij (Anton) Rudolf Mauve
  49. 49. Fishing boat on the beach Anton Mauve, 1882, Oil on canvas, 172 x 115 cm
  50. 50. •  But the apprenticeship did not last long (in fact barely a month). •  Mauve insist that Vincent should start by drawing from plaster casts – the traditional method – rather than wasting money on playacting with street people •  Vincent find him “narrow-minded, unfriendly, moody and rather unkind” •  Mauve banished Vincent from his studio •  His quick-temper was well-known as he continued to fought with mentors, patrons and fellow artists.
  51. 51. Torn-Up Street with Diggers April 1882, Pencil and ink on Paper
  52. 52. •! Continued to hire models to re-create poses from the Bargue exercises, from his print collection and from his previous drawings. •! Subsequently, Vincent asked Theo for more money to set up a bigger studio for his models to pose better. [Why is figure drawing so damn important to Vincent???] Woman Sitting on a Basket with Head in Hands March 1883, Chalk on Paper
  53. 53. Carpenter's Yard and Laundry May 1882, Pencil and ink on Paper “You must picture me sitting in my attic window as early as four o’clock in the morning, studying the meadows and the carpenter’s yard with my perspective frame” ~ From Vincent to Theo
  54. 54. •! In early May 1882, declared his love for a woman, a prostitute, who was pregnant, named Sein Hoornik •! Revealed that he had been secretly supporting her and her family for months •! Said that he was going to marry her •! Saw the birth of her son •! However, after his brother, Theo’s continuous urging, Vincent put an end to the relationship to pursue his career in 1883
  55. 55. Between 1882 to 1885, Vincent continues to experiment and improve on his drawing.
  56. 56. MARCH 26 1885 Theodorus (Dorus) van Gogh passed away after a massive stroke, aged 63.
  57. 57. A Peasant Family at the Table Jozef Israëls, 1882, Oil on canvas
  58. 58. The Potato Eaters April 1885, Lithograph
  59. 59. The Old Church Tower at Nuenen June - July 1885, Oil on Canvas Still Life with Bible October 1885, Oil on Canvas
  60. 60. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Soon after completion in 1885
  61. 61. The Jewish Bride Rembrandt, 1667, Oil on canvas Night Watch Rembrandt, 1642, Oil on canvas
  62. 62. Feeling “overstrained and far from well” •! smoked a pipe to calm his digestion •! gums grew sore and his teeth loosen •! developed a hacking cough and losing weight Treated for syphilis with mercury •! bain de siège [seated bath] •! Side effects include hair loss, sexual asthenia, insanity, death, stomach cramps, anemia, depression, organ failure, sight and hearing impairment, salivation •! Self-portrait with Dark-felt Hat 1886, Oil on canvas Did not admit the disease to his brother, Theo
  63. 63. JANUARY 18 1886 Age 32, Vincent began classes at the Antwerp Royal Academy, studying painting (with school director) and drawing (from plaster casts of antique sculptures)
  64. 64. Plaster room at the Antwerp Academy
  65. 65. Plaster Torso of a Woman 1886, Pencil on Paper Venus of aMilo (Plaster) a Burning Cigarette Head de Skeleton with January - February 1886, Oil on Canvas
  66. 66. JANUARY 28 1886 •  Vincent arrived at Paris unannounced, unexpected, and unwelcome •  Theo asked Vincent to meet at the Salon Carré (Square Salon) of Lourve Museum •  Only purpose is to please Theo and work together for The Potato Eaters
  67. 67. THE FRENCH YEARS 1886 - 1888
  68. 68. View of the Grand Salon Carré in the Louvre Giuseppe Castiglione, 1861, oil on canvas
  69. 69. Fernand Cormon 1845 - 1924 Atelier of Fernand Cormon Cormon at easel, c. 1885
  70. 70. Cain flying before Jehovah's Curse Fernand Cormon, 1880, Oil on Canvas
  71. 71. Eugène Boch 1855 to 1941 John Peter Russell 1858 to 1930 John de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Peter Russell 1858 to 1930 1864 1901 Émile Bernard 1868 to 1941
  72. 72. Monet’s Impression Sunrise 1872, Oil on Canvas Renoir’s Monet painting in his garden in Argenteuil, 1873, Oil on Canvas Manet’s Music in the Tuileries 1862, Oil on Canvas Degas’s Ballettprobe 1873, Oil on Canvas
  73. 73. Camille Pissarro 1830 to 1903 Paul Gauguin 1848 to 1903
  74. 74. Portraits of Vincent van Gogh in different styles Between 1886 to 1887
  75. 75. The rise of japoniseme (Japanesery) or the influence of Japanese Art Title page of Paris Illustré "Le Japon' vol. 4, May 1886, no. 45-46. The illustration, after a print by Kesai Eisen
  76. 76. Tracing of “Le Japon” from the Cover of “Paris Illustré” 1886, Pencil and ink on Tracing Paper Courtesan (after Eisen) 1887, Oil on Cotton
  77. 77. The Plum Garden in Kameido One Hundred Famous Views of Edo series Utagawa Hiroshige, 1857 Japonaiserie, Flowering Plum Tree (after Hiroshige) 1886
  78. 78. Great Bridge, Sudden Shower at Atake One Hundred Famous Views of Edo series Utagawa Hiroshige, 1857 Japonaiserie, The Bridge in the Rain (after Hiroshige) 1886
  79. 79. In February 1888, he left Paris for Arles suddenly. No one knows the reason only later. “After Father was no more and I came to Theo in Paris, then he became so attached to me that I understood how much he had loved Father… It is a good thing that I did not stay in Paris, for we, he and I, would have become so close.” ~ By Vincent, two years later and only months before his death
  80. 80. The Café Terrace on the Place du Forum, Arles, at Night September 1888, Oil on Canvas Café Van Gogh Today
  81. 81. The Yellow House (“The Street”) Bedroom October 1888, Oil Oil on Canvas September 1888, on Canvas
  82. 82. Paul Gauguin 1848 - 1903 Autoportrait avec portrait de Bernard, 'Les Misérables Paul Gauguin, 1888, Oil on Canvas
  84. 84. Sunflowers Sketch August 1888, Pencil on Paper Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers August 1888, Oil on canvas
  85. 85. Vase with Five Sunflowers August 1888, Oil on canvas Vase with Twelve Sunflowers August 1888, Oil on canvas Vase with Three Sunflowers August 1888, Oil on canvas
  86. 86. Paul Gauguin (Man in a Red Beret) 1888, Oil on Canvas Self-portrait (Dedicated to Paul Gauguin) September 1888, Oil on canvas
  87. 87. Night Café in Arles (Madame Ginoux) Paul Gauguin, 1888, Oil on Canvas Night Café 1888, Oil on Canvas “The painting is one of the ugliest I’ve done. It’s equivalent, though different, of the potato eaters. I’ve tried to express the terrible passions with the red and the green” ~ Vincent to Theo, 8 Sep 1888
  88. 88. Gauguin’s Armchair December 1888, Oil on Canvas Vincent’s Chair with His Pipe December 1888, Oil on Canvas
  89. 89. “I am obliged to return to Paris, Vincent and I absolutely cannot live sideby-side any longer without friction because of the incompatibility of our temperaments and because he and I both need tranquility for our work. He’s a man of remarkable intelligence whom I hold great esteem and leave with regret, but, I repeat, it is necessary that I leave.” Van Gogh Painting Sunflowers Paul Gauguin, November 1888, Oil on Canvas ~ Gauguin to Theo, December 1888
  90. 90. •! A stranger – an “ill-starred wretch” who had failed his family, killed his father, bled his brother of money and health, destroyed his dream of a studio in the South, and driven his Bel Ami •! Swam with images of punishments exacted for sin Self-Portrait November-December 1888, Oil on Canvas
  91. 91. •! Picked up a razor blade, grabbed the criminal's ear, pulled the lobe as hard as he could, brought his arm across his face and slashed at the offending flesh •! Washed the small fan of his flesh, carefully wrapped it like a piece of meat, in a piece of newspaper •! Dressed his wound and bandage, passed it to Gauguin (via a sentry at a brothel) with words! “Remember me.” Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear and Pipe January 1889, Oil on Canvas
  92. 92. The Courtyard of the Hospital a Arles April 1889, Oil on Canvas Ward in the Hospital at Arles April 1889, Oil on Canvas
  93. 93. MAY 27 1889 Vincent was admitted to the Asylum of Saint-Paul-de-Mausole, Saint-Rémy, aged 36.
  94. 94. THE ASYLUM YEARS 1889 - 1890
  95. 95. View of Asylum of Saint-Paul-de-Mausole, Saint-Rémy Baths, Asylum of Saint-Paul-de-Mausole, Saint-Rémy
  96. 96. Paintings of Saint-Paul Asylum, Saint-Rémy Between October 1889 to April 1890
  97. 97. •! Painted a unlike any the world had ever seen with ordinary eyes: A kaleidoscope of pulsating beacons, whirlpools of stars, radiant clouds, and a moon that shone as brightly as any sun – a fireworks of cosmic light and energy visible only in Vincent’s head. Starry Night June 1889, Oil on Canvas
  98. 98. Copies after Jean-François Millet and Eugène Delacroix Between October 1889 to April 1890
  99. 99. “We painters are always asked to compose ourselves and to be nothing but composers. Very well – but in music it isn’t so – and if such a person plays some Beethoven he’ll add his personal interpretation to it – in music, and then above all for singing – a composer’s interpretation is something, and it isn’t a hard and fast rule that only the composer plays his own compositions…
  100. 100. …Good – since I’m above all ill at present, I’m trying to do something to console myself, for my own pleasure. I place the black-and-white by Delacroix or Millet or after them in front of me as a subject. And then I improvise colour on it but, being me, not completely of course, but seeking memories of their paintings – but the memory, the vague consonance of colours that are in the same sentiment, if not right – that’s my own interpretation.” ~ From Vincent to Theo, 20 September 1889
  101. 101. JANUARY 31 1890 •  The son of Theo and his wife, Joanna, was born. •  He was named Vincent Van Gogh.
  102. 102. Almond Blossom February 1890, Oil on Canvas Joanna with Son Vincent 1890
  103. 103. MAY 16 1890 •  Vincent was “cured” and discharged from the Saint-Paul Asylum, Saint Rémy. •  He left for Auvers-sur-Oise, near Paris, to join Theo and his family the next morning.
  104. 104. Auberge Ravoux Today The Ravoux family in front of the Ravoux Inn
  105. 105. Dr. Paul Gachet 1826 - 1909 Portrait of Dr. Gachet June 1890, Oil on Canvas
  106. 106. Tree Roots July 1890, Oil on Canvas Daubigny's Garden July 1890
  107. 107. Wheat Field with Crows July 1890, Oil on Canvas
  108. 108. FINAL GOODBYE 1890
  109. 109. JULY 27 1890 •  Vincent shot himself at the chest at the wheat field where he painted before. •  He limped back to his room and was subsequently attended by Dr. Gachet and another doctor.
  110. 110. Vincent's bedroom at the Ravoux Inn
  111. 111. “I will not expressly seek death, but I would not try to evade it if it happened”. ~ Vincent No one knows exactly what happened that day.
  112. 112. JULY 28 1890 •  Theo arrived at mid-day. •  Vincent thanked his brother for coming and giving them this opportunity to “be together constantly”. He asked about Jon and the baby.
  113. 113. JULY 29 1890 •  Half-past midnight, Vincent cradled in his brother’s arm and struggling for breath. •  Vincent uttered his last words: “I want to die this way”. •  Vincent Willem van Gogh, aged 37, died after about half an hour later.
  114. 114. •! In Vincent’s life, Theo had provided unfailing emotional and financial support for his brother to devote in art •! Six months after Vincent’s passing, Theo died of dementia paralytica on 25 January 1891 at the age of 33. •! They were eventually buried together in Auvers. Graves of Vincent and Theo van Gogh In Auvers
  115. 115. In loving memory of my brother, Randy Sum 1980 - 2012 THANK YOU