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ADMC – LS S 2533 Research Methods
There are two main types of survey data:
Underline the quantitative and circle the qualitative
information from the following description:
ADMC students are cooperative and group oriented.
They enjoy working in teams to get work
accomplished. Seventy five percent reported that they
would rather study as part of group than alone. In
addition, eighty percent reported that they share their
work with friends.
 Surveys are common way to collect information
from people
 When designing a survey the researcher must
decide:
▪ whether they are going to employ an oral, written or
electronic method
▪ whether they are going to choose questions which are
open (qualitative) or closed-ended (quantitative)
 Most surveys are quantitative and have closed ended
items
▪ The respondent chooses from a closed set of answers
▪ The response choices are calculated across respondents into
percentages or averages
 When the respondent can give any answer to the
item it is open ended.
▪ The researcher looks at the answer and considers its
meaning
▪ The researcher may apply a category or theme to the
response
 The respondent must choose from closed set
of responses
 Yes/No
 True/False
 Multiple choice
 Ranking Scale
▪ Likert scale question
Yes / No question
________________________________________
Do you think lack of sleep can affect your academic
performance?
Yes / No
_______________________________________
True / False question
_______________________________________
Lack of sleep has affected my academic performance
True / False
_______________________________________
Multiple choice question
________________________________________
Which of the following has most affected your academic
performance in the last year?
A. Over eating
B. Lack of sleep
C. Technology problems
D. Transportation issues
E. Other
______________________________________________
 Typical five-level Likert item:
 People who regularly drive at speeds far in excess of the speed
limit should loose their driving licenses.
1. Strongly disagree
2. Disagree
3. Neither agree nor disagree
4. Agree
5. Strongly agree
Or
▪ Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree
 Level of satisfaction – 5 point
 I am satisfied with the service I received
1. Not at all satisfied
2. Slightly satisfied
3. Moderately satisfied
4. Very satisfied
5. Extremely satisfied
Or
▪ Not at all satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely Satisfied
 Questionnaires:
 are more cost and time effective than interviews when sample
sizes are large.
 are easier to analyze.The information is usually presented in
averages and percentages.
 are more familiar to most people. Nearly everyone has had
some experience completing questionnaires and they generally
do not make people apprehensive.
 reduce bias.The researcher's own opinions will not influence
the respondent to answer questions in a certain manner.There
are no verbal or visual clues to influence the respondent.
ref: wiki.answers.com
 Compared to closed ended items open ended answers can
provide greater detail . Also information can arise which is
important but which the researcher never thought to put in
the questionnaire. For example:
One thing I like about ADMC is students can go into the faculty area
and talk to their teachers. In the previous college I attended students
had to make appointments. For me this was really inconvenient. I like it
a lot better when we can see the teacher when I have time.
Topic:
Theme:
 Semi-structured interview
 The interviewer follows a list of questions which are prearranged.The
interviewer may also ask other questions allowing new ideas to be
brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee
says.
 Unstructured interview
 The interviewer does not follow a pre-arranged set of questions.There
may be a few key questions set in advance but the discussion is
allowed to proceed like a friendly, non-threatening conversation.
 Focus group
 A group of people are brought together to discuss their perceptions,
beliefs, opinions and attitudes on a topic of interest.
When analysing qualitative research, the researcher tries to reach new
understandings and insights.This is can be done by categorizing
comments into themes and topics.
 The population of the study is all the people your study
is about. For example,ADMC students.
 Demographic information is background on the
population. It includes factors such as age, gender,
nationality, occupation, and religion.
 The N is the number of people who participated in the
study or the size of the sample (N=50). It is also used to
show how many people chose a answer on a
questionnaire.
 The M is the mean result for a Likert scale questionnaire
item (M = sum / N)
 The sample are the people which you directly collected
information from.
 An accidental sample is where information comes from people
who happen to be available. For example you go to the
cafeteria and hand out questionnaires.
 A random sample is where a technique is used so that every
member of the population has an equal chance of participating
in the study. For example, every fifth student on the student list
is sent a questionnaire.
 Stratified sampling is where subgroups are sampled
independently. For example, when the researcher is interested
in the opinions of female students compared to male students
he might sample the female students at ADMC separately due
to their small numbers compared to the male students.
 Confidentiality
 This is a promise or a guarantee from the researcher to keep all
information secret unless permission is given by the
respondent.The researcher may discuss the information
provided. However, the researcher must ensure that no other
person will be able to link the information to the respondent.
 Anonymity
 This is when the identity of the respondent is unknown even to
the person(s) analyzing the data.
In social research it is good practice to obtain consent and to
guarantee confidentiality or anonymity prior to collecting data
from a respondent.
 Validity is the truth value of research.
 Failing students indicated on a questionnaire that the reason for failing is because
teacher do not provide clear instructions. The researcher concludes poor instruction is
the main reason for students failing. Later the researcher finds students who fail tend to
have low IELTS scores.The real reason for failing may be because of problems with
English rather than teaching approaches.
 Reliability is the likeliness that the same or similar results would occur if the
instrument was used more than once. Random samples provide better reliability
than accidental samples.
 The student goes to the cafeteria in the morning and surveys the students there. Most
students indicate that they do not smoke.The next day he goes to the cafeteria in the
evening. Most students indicate on the questionnaire that they do smoke.The reliability
of the results are in question.
 Response bias is the tendency for a respondent to give the same answer to
almost every item on the survey. Alternatively it may be when the respondent
tries to give an answer he thinks the research wants rather one that is true.
 The questionnaire item reads : T / F – I am a bad driver. Nobody answers true.
 Most surveys are quantitative and have closed ended items:
 The respondent chooses from a __________ set of answers
 The response choices are calculated across respondents into percentages or
__________
 Questionnaires…
 Are more cost and time effective than interviews when sample sizes are
__________.
 Are easier to _____________.The information is usually presented in averages
and percentages.
 Are more ______________ to most people. Nearly everyone has had some
experience completing questionnaires and they generally do not make people
apprehensive.
 Reduce ___________.The researcher's own opinions will not influence the
respondent to answer questions in a certain manner.There are no verbal or
visual clues to influence the respondent.
 Research strength concepts
 Validity is the ___________ value of research.
 Reliability is the likeliness that the _________ or __________ results would occur if the instrument
was used more than once. Random samples provide better reliability than accidental samples.
 Response bias is the tendency for a respondent to give the same answer to almost every item on the
survey. Alternatively it may be when the respondent tries to give an answer he thinks the researcher
_________ rather one that is true.
 Statistical concepts
 The___________________ of the study is all the people your study is about. For example, ADMC
students.
 The _____________ is the number of people who participated in the study or who the size of the
sample. It is also used to refer to the number of people chose an answer on a questionnaire.
 The ____________ is the mean result for a Likert scale questionnaire item (M = sum / N)
 The ____________ are the people which you directly collected information from.
 When the respondent can give any answer to the item it is open ended:
 The researcher looks at the answer and considers its meaning
 The researcher may apply a category or _________ to the response
 This interview type would be used when the researcher wants to receive
answers following a set of questions. However, the researcher may also wants
to able to ask for clarification of answers and follow-up questions.
_____________________
 This approach may be used when the researcher want to a range of points of
view on a topic but does not have time to conduct a lot of interviews.
_____________________
 ___________________ is the promise from the researcher to keep information
private unless permission is given by the respondent.
 Types of sampling
 A ______________ sample is where a technique is used so that every member of the
population has an equal chance of participating in the study. For example, every fifth student
on the student list is sent a questionnaire.
 _______________ sampling is where subgroups are sampled independently. For example,
when the researcher is interested in the opinions of female students compared to male
students he might sample the female students at ADMC separately due to their small
numbers compared to the male students.
 An _______________ sample is where information comes from people who happen to be
available. For example you go to the cafeteria and hand out questionnaires.
 In relation to the ADMC student population the following research question
would best be answered by _______________ research.
 What are factors that affect student health in different countries around the world?

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Research concepts (2) primary research(b)

  • 1. ADMC – LS S 2533 Research Methods
  • 2.
  • 3. There are two main types of survey data:
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. Underline the quantitative and circle the qualitative information from the following description: ADMC students are cooperative and group oriented. They enjoy working in teams to get work accomplished. Seventy five percent reported that they would rather study as part of group than alone. In addition, eighty percent reported that they share their work with friends.
  • 8.  Surveys are common way to collect information from people  When designing a survey the researcher must decide: ▪ whether they are going to employ an oral, written or electronic method ▪ whether they are going to choose questions which are open (qualitative) or closed-ended (quantitative)
  • 9.  Most surveys are quantitative and have closed ended items ▪ The respondent chooses from a closed set of answers ▪ The response choices are calculated across respondents into percentages or averages  When the respondent can give any answer to the item it is open ended. ▪ The researcher looks at the answer and considers its meaning ▪ The researcher may apply a category or theme to the response
  • 10.  The respondent must choose from closed set of responses  Yes/No  True/False  Multiple choice  Ranking Scale ▪ Likert scale question
  • 11. Yes / No question ________________________________________ Do you think lack of sleep can affect your academic performance? Yes / No _______________________________________
  • 12. True / False question _______________________________________ Lack of sleep has affected my academic performance True / False _______________________________________
  • 13. Multiple choice question ________________________________________ Which of the following has most affected your academic performance in the last year? A. Over eating B. Lack of sleep C. Technology problems D. Transportation issues E. Other ______________________________________________
  • 14.  Typical five-level Likert item:  People who regularly drive at speeds far in excess of the speed limit should loose their driving licenses. 1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neither agree nor disagree 4. Agree 5. Strongly agree Or ▪ Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree
  • 15.  Level of satisfaction – 5 point  I am satisfied with the service I received 1. Not at all satisfied 2. Slightly satisfied 3. Moderately satisfied 4. Very satisfied 5. Extremely satisfied Or ▪ Not at all satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely Satisfied
  • 16.  Questionnaires:  are more cost and time effective than interviews when sample sizes are large.  are easier to analyze.The information is usually presented in averages and percentages.  are more familiar to most people. Nearly everyone has had some experience completing questionnaires and they generally do not make people apprehensive.  reduce bias.The researcher's own opinions will not influence the respondent to answer questions in a certain manner.There are no verbal or visual clues to influence the respondent. ref: wiki.answers.com
  • 17.  Compared to closed ended items open ended answers can provide greater detail . Also information can arise which is important but which the researcher never thought to put in the questionnaire. For example: One thing I like about ADMC is students can go into the faculty area and talk to their teachers. In the previous college I attended students had to make appointments. For me this was really inconvenient. I like it a lot better when we can see the teacher when I have time. Topic: Theme:
  • 18.  Semi-structured interview  The interviewer follows a list of questions which are prearranged.The interviewer may also ask other questions allowing new ideas to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says.  Unstructured interview  The interviewer does not follow a pre-arranged set of questions.There may be a few key questions set in advance but the discussion is allowed to proceed like a friendly, non-threatening conversation.  Focus group  A group of people are brought together to discuss their perceptions, beliefs, opinions and attitudes on a topic of interest. When analysing qualitative research, the researcher tries to reach new understandings and insights.This is can be done by categorizing comments into themes and topics.
  • 19.  The population of the study is all the people your study is about. For example,ADMC students.  Demographic information is background on the population. It includes factors such as age, gender, nationality, occupation, and religion.  The N is the number of people who participated in the study or the size of the sample (N=50). It is also used to show how many people chose a answer on a questionnaire.  The M is the mean result for a Likert scale questionnaire item (M = sum / N)
  • 20.  The sample are the people which you directly collected information from.  An accidental sample is where information comes from people who happen to be available. For example you go to the cafeteria and hand out questionnaires.  A random sample is where a technique is used so that every member of the population has an equal chance of participating in the study. For example, every fifth student on the student list is sent a questionnaire.  Stratified sampling is where subgroups are sampled independently. For example, when the researcher is interested in the opinions of female students compared to male students he might sample the female students at ADMC separately due to their small numbers compared to the male students.
  • 21.  Confidentiality  This is a promise or a guarantee from the researcher to keep all information secret unless permission is given by the respondent.The researcher may discuss the information provided. However, the researcher must ensure that no other person will be able to link the information to the respondent.  Anonymity  This is when the identity of the respondent is unknown even to the person(s) analyzing the data. In social research it is good practice to obtain consent and to guarantee confidentiality or anonymity prior to collecting data from a respondent.
  • 22.  Validity is the truth value of research.  Failing students indicated on a questionnaire that the reason for failing is because teacher do not provide clear instructions. The researcher concludes poor instruction is the main reason for students failing. Later the researcher finds students who fail tend to have low IELTS scores.The real reason for failing may be because of problems with English rather than teaching approaches.  Reliability is the likeliness that the same or similar results would occur if the instrument was used more than once. Random samples provide better reliability than accidental samples.  The student goes to the cafeteria in the morning and surveys the students there. Most students indicate that they do not smoke.The next day he goes to the cafeteria in the evening. Most students indicate on the questionnaire that they do smoke.The reliability of the results are in question.  Response bias is the tendency for a respondent to give the same answer to almost every item on the survey. Alternatively it may be when the respondent tries to give an answer he thinks the research wants rather one that is true.  The questionnaire item reads : T / F – I am a bad driver. Nobody answers true.
  • 23.  Most surveys are quantitative and have closed ended items:  The respondent chooses from a __________ set of answers  The response choices are calculated across respondents into percentages or __________  Questionnaires…  Are more cost and time effective than interviews when sample sizes are __________.  Are easier to _____________.The information is usually presented in averages and percentages.  Are more ______________ to most people. Nearly everyone has had some experience completing questionnaires and they generally do not make people apprehensive.  Reduce ___________.The researcher's own opinions will not influence the respondent to answer questions in a certain manner.There are no verbal or visual clues to influence the respondent.
  • 24.  Research strength concepts  Validity is the ___________ value of research.  Reliability is the likeliness that the _________ or __________ results would occur if the instrument was used more than once. Random samples provide better reliability than accidental samples.  Response bias is the tendency for a respondent to give the same answer to almost every item on the survey. Alternatively it may be when the respondent tries to give an answer he thinks the researcher _________ rather one that is true.  Statistical concepts  The___________________ of the study is all the people your study is about. For example, ADMC students.  The _____________ is the number of people who participated in the study or who the size of the sample. It is also used to refer to the number of people chose an answer on a questionnaire.  The ____________ is the mean result for a Likert scale questionnaire item (M = sum / N)  The ____________ are the people which you directly collected information from.
  • 25.  When the respondent can give any answer to the item it is open ended:  The researcher looks at the answer and considers its meaning  The researcher may apply a category or _________ to the response  This interview type would be used when the researcher wants to receive answers following a set of questions. However, the researcher may also wants to able to ask for clarification of answers and follow-up questions. _____________________  This approach may be used when the researcher want to a range of points of view on a topic but does not have time to conduct a lot of interviews. _____________________  ___________________ is the promise from the researcher to keep information private unless permission is given by the respondent.
  • 26.  Types of sampling  A ______________ sample is where a technique is used so that every member of the population has an equal chance of participating in the study. For example, every fifth student on the student list is sent a questionnaire.  _______________ sampling is where subgroups are sampled independently. For example, when the researcher is interested in the opinions of female students compared to male students he might sample the female students at ADMC separately due to their small numbers compared to the male students.  An _______________ sample is where information comes from people who happen to be available. For example you go to the cafeteria and hand out questionnaires.  In relation to the ADMC student population the following research question would best be answered by _______________ research.  What are factors that affect student health in different countries around the world?