STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Objective Easy to guess Easy to design Only for grammar, Easy to include a vocabulary, pronunciation representative example Not good for testing the skills. Students need to decide on what answers accepted as correct.
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Objective Extremely difficult to Easy to correct design an item with only Provides clear contexts one possible answer It can be used to correct (generally solved by different strategies. providing a list of terms) Need to think about possible answers (if a list is not provided)
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Easy for the teacher to Unexpected correct answers create are possible Easy for the students to Mainly for vocabulary understand It can be irritating for Easy to correct and studentsdesign .
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES It is easy to construct Depend on knowledge of Requires simple recognition language of information (eliminatting Difficult to grade the guessing factor) depending on evaluation It is good to evaluate criteria listening for specific It can be irritating for information students
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Difficult to construct Easy to correct and grade It does not allowed test takers Scores are less affected by guessing to demonstrate knowledge Good for checking beyond the options provided Emphasize in recognition and understanding Usually it requires less time for guessing rather than in test takers to answer production
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Easy to write Guessing element Can cover a wide range of The score can not be difficulty levels reliable Usually it requires less time It does not allow test takers for test takers to answer to demonstrate broad Usually it is easy to grade range of knowledge and score
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Good for testing some Very artificial structures It can be more than one Easy to write and possible transformation in administer some cases Specifically tackle one grammatical objective Allow recognition of a connection between “grammar” and “meaning”
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES It is good for checking if It is not easy to score students It takes more time to comprehend texts. correct and answer. It is useful to test the students ability to analyze a concept.
FORMAT RECOMMENDATIONSMatching • Give more options than questions. • Each answer should have distracters. • Try meaningful items. • Make sure there’s only one possible selection. • Do not ask to draw lines to match.Gap filling • No blank at the beginning. • Give enough context. • Avoid clues. • Only one answer • Give line with the same lengthCloze Don’t use nth word, for example : 5th , 3rd
Completion • Avoid the statement becomes ambiguous. • Use blanks of the same length throughout the test so that the length is not a clue. • If possible, put the blank at the end of a statement rather than at the beginning. Asking for a response before the student understands the intent of the statement can be confusing and may require more reading time.Multiple choice • Be clear and concise in your word and phrase choices. • Make sure that there is only one clearly correct answer from the options given to the student. • Randomly distribute the correct answer options i.e. A, B, C, D etc so that there is not a clear pattern that becomes obvious to the student.True-False • Make sure that the answer is clear and that it could not be either or. • Try not to use negative questions such as “this novel was not written by....” • Use a random order of true and false responses with your test questions to avoid creating a pattern. • Use more false questions than true questions as they have been proven to cater towards higher cognitive level students.Questions • It has to be easy to understand. • Check how you will judge answers.
Multiple choice itemsShe had to help the ______ old man up the stairs.A. weak B. slowly C. try D. wisdom All words should belong Adverb Verb Noun to the same grammatical category.A. weak B. strong C. energetic D. athletic
She needs to get up earlier so she’s buying an______ clock. Grammatical clues make the answer obvius.A. time B. alarm C. watch D. bellShe needs to get up earlier so she’s buying Deleting the indefinite______ clock. article would make this item better in terms ofA. a time B. an alarm C. a watch D. a bell objectivity.
They needed lots of training to operate such The level of difficulty of______ equipment. the distractors highlights the correct alternative.A. easy B. sophisticated C. blue D. wise“Sophisticated” clearly contrasts with the rest of the options, so studentsmight select it right away.
She sent the _______ yesterday. Options that collocate with the verb in the sentence.A. letter B. gift C. food D. books (Differentiators)“Post”, “friend” and “courage” are good replacements for “gift”, “food” and“books” that are items that can also be sent or mailed. She wrote a _______ yesterday. A. letter B. gift C. friend D. books
Completion The absence of context will He was a very nerv_____ person. lead to the acceptance of unexpected correct answers. An advanced learner could get to the conclusion of completing with the letter “y” to form the adjective “nervy”, which means “bold” or “offensive”.He was always alert. He was a ________ person. In this case, given the context, the correct option is “nervous”.
Words that may takeThat was a care______ answer. two opposite suffixes lead to ambiguity. Enough context willYesterday he got on the wrong bus. So today, he permit the student knowwas care_______ to find the right one. which alternative is the most appropiate one.
True-False The use of trivial information must be avoided . Given the fact thatColumbus discovered America. they are more likely to be true than ambiguous information. If used, they must be presentedColumbus sailed to the new world in 1942. in a more objective way.
Since penguins can’t fly, they cannot swim very well either. Avoiding the use of negative statements will prevent confusion and contradiction.Since penguins are unable to fly, they swim badly.
The first threeRattlesnakes live in North America, have fangs, clauses are true,feed on small rodents and crush their prey. however the last one is not. The entire sentence Rattlesnakes crush their preys. must be either true or false, otherwise it will create confusion.
Matching The instructions do not clarify how many times items in column 2 may be used or a basis for matching.Match column 1 and comlumn 2:___1. Sit-and-reach c. Muscle fibers___2. 50-yard dash h. Golf Contain the same___3. Pull-up f.Tennis number of items, so___4. Shuttle run a.Vo₂max the last item could___5. Balke treadmill e.Agility be answered by___6. Dyer backboard volley g.Arm strength elimination.___7. Disch putting d.Speed___8. Biopsy b.Flexibility Items are too heterogeneus, making the answers too obvious.
Transformation The activity lacks contextChange the sentences to the future simple:Doug studied English yesterday.Doug went to the movies with his family. The sentencesHe eats a hamburger. should be providedThey enjoy the day in the mall. in the same tense, to prevent confusion.This exercise requieres more contextualized instructions, such as:This is what Doug usually does on the weekend, write about whathe is going to do next the weekened.
Item analysis: measure the performance of each item in a test and help us to revise and improve both, items and test as a whole.Use: -To build reliablity and validity into a test. - More diagnosis information on students.
Item difficulty: deals with the number of students who answer correctly. The best items are that are neither too difficult or too hard.IF = # of students answering the item correctly Total of students responding that item.
Item discrimination : differenciates those test takers with high - abilities from those with low - abilities.
Distractor efficiency: deals with the way a distractor lures test takers, especially those with low abilities.
Brown, Douglas (2004) Language assessment: Principles and Classroom prractices. Longman, London.Cunningham, George (1998) Assessment in the Classroom: Constructing and interpreting Tests. Routledge, London.Morrow, James and others (2010)Measurement and Evaluation in Human Performance. Human kinetics, Illinois.Madsen, Harold (1983) Techniques in testing. Oxford University Press, New York.