Strucutres 1 Eso

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Strucutres 1 Eso

  1. 1. Unit 5. Structures What are we going to learn in this unit?  5.1What is a structure?  5.2 Efforts.  5.3 Structural elements  5.4 Resistant structures  5.5 Stable structures  5.6 Structural Cross Sections  5.7 Artificial structures  Final activities
  2. 2. RubricsIndicador Prueba Puntos E x a m e n8. Define estructura y nombra estructuras naturales y artificiales Estructuras 29. Define una carga y pone ejemplos E x a m e n Estructuras 110. Conoce y relaciona los esfuerzos mecánicos con los efectos E x a m e nque producen Estructuras 411. Identifica los esfuerzos que sufren objetos cotidianos y E x a m e nalgunos elementos estructurales Estructuras 212. Identifica los elementos estructurales de estructuras E x a m e nconocidas Estructuras 113. Explica qué es una estructura resistente y Aplica la E x a m e ntriangulación para mejorar su resistencia Estructuras 214. Explica qué es una estructura estable y Aplica la diferentes E x a m e nrecursos para mejorar su estabilidad Estructuras 215. Reconoce la importancia de la forma de los perfiles utilizados E x a m e nen estructuras entramadas Estructuras 216. Clasifica diferentes estructuras en masivas, abovedadas, trabajo estructurasentramadas, colgantes y trianguladas 2
  3. 3. Unit 5. StructuresWhat are we going to learn today?What is a structure?, Types and how it has changed through History
  4. 4. Unit 5. StructuresWhich structures do you know?
  5. 5. 5.1 What is a structure? What is a structure?A structure is a group of elements that together are able to resist forces and to transmit them to the ground
  6. 6. 5.1 What is a structure? Types of structureWe can find natural and artificial structures. Most of the artificial structures are based on natural structures Artificial Natural
  7. 7. Exercise 5.1a1.- Define a Structure2.- Draw five natural structures and five artificial structures. Artificial Natural
  8. 8. 5.1 What is a structure?The structures have to be resistantand stableStable: Resistant
  9. 9. 5.1 What is a structure?Structures along history From very old times new materials have changed constructions.
  10. 10. Exercise 5.1 b. Make a table with these structures explaining their materiales, period, and the improvements and defects they had:Structure Period Material ImprovementCabinFile TempleAqueductCathedralBridgeSkycraper Sol Exercise 5.1 b
  11. 11. 5.2 EffortsWhat are we going to learn today?What is an structural load?What is an effort?Types of efforts
  12. 12. 5.2 EffortsThe structures have to resist different charges
  13. 13. 5.2 EffortsA load is a force applied to an object, like a truck over a bridge
  14. 14. 5.2 Efforts Aneffort is a force that appears when a structure receives an external load Load load Internal effort Internal effort
  15. 15. 5.2 EffortsThese are the main efforts that a structure can receive:Traction is an effort that makes an object longer
  16. 16. 5.2 Efforts Compression: is an effort that makes an object shorter Flexion: is an effort that bends an object
  17. 17. 5.2 Efforts (guillotine): separates an Shear object into two pieces Torsion: twists objects
  18. 18. Exercise 5.2a Could you define Charge? Why there weren’t any skyscraper 500 years ago?
  19. 19. 5.2 Efforts  Which efforts are applied in the following examples? B A C E D
  20. 20. Ejrecicio 5.2b Efforts solución•  Which efforts are applied in the following examples? B A C Image Structure Effort A Cable B Motorbike C Guide rope
  21. 21. 5.2 Efforts•  Which efforts are applied in the following examples?Image Structure EffortD ColumnE Bridge E D
  22. 22. 5.2 Efforts•  hich efforts are applied in the Wfollowing examples?F GImage Structure EffortF NutG Rivet
  23. 23. Ejercicio 5.2c Efforts soluciónWhat effort does a column resist? What material should we use to make the columns of a building? Why? Exercise Nº 4 page107
  24. 24. Ej 5.2d EffortsKeys are made with a resistant material like steel? What effort does a key resist? Exercise Nº 5 page107
  25. 25. 5.2e Efforts Solution Which efforts are applied in the following examples? GImage Structure EffortA Bar/springB Bar/springC SpringD SpringE Bar/spring Exercise pageF Bar/spring 107Nº 6G Bar
  26. 26. 5.3 Structural elementsWhat are we going to learn next?What elements canwe find in astructure?
  27. 27. 5.3 Structural elementsThese are the most common elements that can be found in a structure•  Foundations•  Columns•  Girders•  Arches•  Cables
  28. 28. 5.3 Structural elements Foundations are the base of any building and they are situated under the ground and made of concrete concrete
  29. 29. 5.3 Structural elements Girders are horizontal Forces bars that receive flexion efforts Girder Columnsare vertical bars that receive Column compression efforts Foundation
  30. 30. 5.3 Structural elements Arch: A semicircular shape that joins the gap between two pillars. Compresion Traction bars: Cables or bars which support traction efforts.
  31. 31. SolutionExercise 5.3a. Estructural elements1.- Draw the main elements of a structure showing the efforts with arrows2.-Look around your classroom and find how many columns and girders are there.
  32. 32. ExerciseSol ex 5.3a. Estructural elements1.- Draw the main elements of a structure showing the efforts with arrows2.-Look around your classroom and find how many columns and girders are there.
  33. 33. 5.4 Resistant structuresAs we know a structure has to be resistant.A resistant structure keeps its shape when forces are applied.
  34. 34. 5.4 Resistant structuresWhat are we going to learn next?What is a resistant structure?Why are most structures form by triangles?
  35. 35. 5.4 Resistant structuresWe have two easy ways to create resistant structuresTriangles Archs
  36. 36. 5.4 Resistant structuresOther resistant structure, the archArch: Provides resistance to structures by distributing the effort of the structure.
  37. 37. 5.4 Resistant structures The triangle is the only geometric shape that cannot be deformed by applying forces to any angle.
  38. 38. 5.4 a Resistant structuresHomework make triangle with 3 tubes 5 cm long each connected with a cord.Look to the roof of your gym and describe the structures
  39. 39. 5.4 Resistant structures The use of triangular structures is very interesting because they are very resistant, light and easy to construct.crane pylon
  40. 40. 5.4 Resistant structuresTriangulation makes it possible to transform shapes into a combination of triangles and therefore makes themnon-deformable.
  41. 41. Exercise 5.4a Resistant structures1.- Indicate the name of three structuresbased on triangles.2.-Add bars to these structures to formtriangles and make them non-deformable
  42. 42. 5.5 Stable structuresWhat are we goin to learn?How can we make it more stable?
  43. 43. 5.5 Stable structuresThe structures have to be stable.A structure is stable when it keeps its position when forces are applied.
  44. 44. 5.5 Stable structuresStability is obtained by distributing the mass evenly. Mass centre Mass evenly centre distributed unevenly distributed
  45. 45. 5.5 Stable structuresThe mass centre is where all the weight is concentrated He has the mass centre evenly distributed
  46. 46. 5.5 Stable structures When the mass is not evenly distributed, you can stop the object from falling in different ways such as increasing its hold to the ground. hold
  47. 47. 5.5 Stable Structures How is the centre of gravity maintained in the following situations? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  48. 48. 5.5 Stable Structures How is the centre of gravity maintained in the following situations? Increasing the mass distribution with two feet
  49. 49. 5.5 Stable Structures How is the centre of gravity maintained in the following situations?Using cableswe can holdthe antenna
  50. 50. 5.5 Stable Structures How is the centre of gravity maintained in the following situations? Placing triangles that attach the lamppost to the ground
  51. 51. 5.5 Stable Structures How is the centre of gravity maintained in the following situations? Lowering the gravity point.
  52. 52. 5.5 Stable Structures How is the centre of gravity maintained in the following situations? Increasing the weight at the base.
  53. 53. 5.5 Stable Structures How is the centre of gravity maintained in the following situations? Stretching his legs, so the mass is evenly distributed
  54. 54. 5.5 Stable Structures How is the centre of gravity maintained in the following situations? A triangulated structure allows the panel to resit the force of the wind
  55. 55. 5.6 Structural Cross SectionsWhat are we going to learn?Why are some columns like a I and no solid?
  56. 56. 5.6 Structural Cross SectionsNowadays we use non solid girders or columns, they are called cross sectionsIn order to obtain more resistant and stable cross sections they have shapes adapted to their use
  57. 57. 5.6 Structural Cross Sections They are used in constructions because they are lighter and cheaper than the solid ones because they need less materialSolid Colum Cross Sections
  58. 58. 5.6 Structural Cross SectionsThere are different shapes, and each one has a special aplication. Open cross sections: V. T, U, L, X and H. Closed cross sections: O, ☐,Δ.
  59. 59. Exercise 5.6 Structural Cross SectionsMake using paper these cross sections 5 cm and find out which one is more resistant
  60. 60. 5.7 Types of artificial structuresWhat are we going to see now?Strucures classification
  61. 61. 5.7 Types of artificial structures Massive: a great concentration of material predominates
  62. 62. 5.7 Types of artificial structures Vaulted: Arches, vaults and domes are important holding and supporting elements leaving a great free space below. domes Arches vaults
  63. 63. 5.7 Types of artificial structuresSub-frame: made up by timber(wood), steel or concrete intersecting elements ForcesThe structural elements of a sub-frame are the girders, pillars or columns, and Girder foundations. Column Foundation
  64. 64. 5.7 Types of artificial structuresSub-frame: made up by timber(wood), steel or concrete intersecting elements ForcesThe structural elements of a sub-frame are the girders, pillars or columns, and Girder foundations. Column Foundation
  65. 65. 5.7 Types of artificial structures Triangulated:Made up by linking many triangles forming flat or spatial networks.crane Oil rig pylon
  66. 66. 5.7 Types of artificial structures Suspended: They are held by cables
  67. 67. 5.7 Types of artificial structures Exercise:Give at least 3 examples of each type of artificial structureMassive Arches Sub-frame Triangulated Suspended

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