Unit 2 Drawing appplied to technologies

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Unit 2 Drawing appplied to technologies

  1. 1. Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
  2. 2. <ul><li>What are we going to see in this unit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 Drawing tools and how to use them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.2 Drafts and sketches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.3 Drafting scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 Diedric system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 Marking and standardizing </li></ul></ul>Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
  3. 3. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Paper is made of cellulose that is obtained from trees </li></ul><ul><li>The paper size that we use is A4 . It is the result of dividing 1 m 2 (A0) four times by half the longest side. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>Pencil </li></ul><ul><li>A pencil has a lead covered with wood. The lead is made with graphite and clay </li></ul>clay Graphite Lead Wood cover
  5. 5. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>Pencil hardness </li></ul><ul><li>The more clay it contains the harder the lead will be. We use letter H for hard pencils and letter B for soft ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard: H Soft: B </li></ul>less clay More clay Technique draw Artistic draw 5H 4H 5B 6B 3B B H 3H 4B 2B HB 2H 6H Very soft Soft Medium Hard Very hard
  6. 6. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>Mechanical pencils </li></ul><ul><li>They hold a graphite lead. They can be used for technical drawing (if used )with a soft lead. </li></ul><ul><li>ERASERS </li></ul><ul><li>Erasers are made of rubber, they absorb </li></ul><ul><li>graphite and erase it. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2.1 DRAWING TOOLS <ul><li>THE RULER </li></ul><ul><li>It is a precision tool that makes it possible to measure and to transfer a distance. </li></ul><ul><li> TRIANGULAR SET SQUARE </li></ul><ul><li>A set square is a tool for drawing perpendicular (vertical) and parallel lines and for obtaining angles. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 types of trianglular set squares </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>A 45 degree A 60 degree
  8. 8. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>How to draw vertical and parallel lines with the set square </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical: Parallel: </li></ul>Activity : Draw the set squares in your notebook as you can see them in both positions
  9. 9. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>Activity :Draw a chessboard using the set square . The separation between squares is 2 cm! </li></ul>square 16 cm 16 cm
  10. 10. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>Drawing angles: we can get 15º, 30º, 45º, 60º, 75º, 90º, 120º, 135º…angles combining the 30º, 45º , 60º and the 90º angles from the set squares </li></ul>You don't have to copy them because you can find them in your text book on page 25
  11. 11. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>The Compass </li></ul><ul><li>It is used for drawing circles and angles </li></ul>Advice: sharpen the lead tip by rubbing it on a fingernail file
  14. 14. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH <ul><li>DRAFT: It is a free hand drawing (just with a pencil). We show an idea or object without totally defining it. </li></ul>Page 41
  15. 15. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH <ul><li>ATTENTION! </li></ul><ul><li>A DRAFT IS NOT A BAD DRAWING AND A SKETCH IS NOT A GOOD DRAWING !!!!!! </li></ul>
  16. 16. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH <ul><li>The sketch : It is a free hand drawing too , but it includes the measures, therefore it shows the precise size and a shape similar to the final drawing. </li></ul>measure Page 41
  17. 17. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH <ul><li>Activity : draw a sketch of your home cupboard. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH <ul><li>the Sketch </li></ul>
  19. 19. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>We define scale as the relation between the drawing size and the real object </li></ul>A model uses a reduction scale
  20. 20. 2.3 Drafting scale 1:2 The Drawing size The Real size Page 38
  21. 21. 2.3 Drafting scale 1 cm measured on the drawing is equivalent to 1200cm in reality Page 38 1200 reality 1cm drawing 1:1200
  22. 22. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Scale types: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction scale: it is used to represent big objects , so they can be drawn on paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We usually use: 1:2 1:5 1:10… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this example we have reduced 1000 times the real size of the tree </li></ul></ul>1:1000 Real drawn Real Real
  23. 23. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Enlargement scale: it is used to represent small objects so we can see them on paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is used: 2:1 5:1 10:1 … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this example the drawing is two times the real object </li></ul>Drawing Real Safety pin 2:1 2:1
  24. 24. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>An example of scale application </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s draw a pencil that is 10cm high and 1cm wide using different scales: 2:1, 1:2, 1:4 </li></ul>1cm 10cm
  25. 25. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Scale 2:1 </li></ul>Real 2:1 1 wide 10 1 Real 2 Drawn High
  26. 26. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Scale 1:2 </li></ul>2:1 Real 1:2 1 wide 10 2 Real 1 Drawn High
  27. 27. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Scale 1:4 </li></ul>Real 2:1 1:2 1:4 Real 2:1 1:2 Real 1:2 2:1 Real 1:2 1 wide 10 4 Real 1 Drawn High
  28. 28. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Scale exercise </li></ul><ul><li>This drawing is 4,5cm long and 2,5 cm high, if we have used a 1:100 scale How high and long is the real car? </li></ul>4.5cm 2.5cm
  29. 29. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Scale 1:100 </li></ul>250 2,5 High 450 100 Real 4,5 1 Drawn Long 4.5cm 2.5cm
  30. 30. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Activity: </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s draw a plan of your classroom using your feet and your hands applying the suitable scale to draw it </li></ul>1 foot: 20cm 1 hand: 10cm
  31. 31. 31 feet are equivalent to 620cm 24 feet are equivalent to 480cm 4,5 hands = 45cm 3,5 hands=35cm Therefore we have 2.3 Drafting scale 4hands x 18cm/hand= 72cm 3hands x 18cm/hand= 54cm 31 feet x 20cm/foot= 620cm 24 feet x 20cm/foot=480cm
  32. 32. 2.3 Drafting scale Which scale could we use to draw the classroom and your desks on your notebooks? 54cm 72cm Desk 480cm 620cm Classroom width length
  33. 33. 2.3 Drafting scale Let’s use the 1:100 scale , so the drawing will be 100 times smaller than reality 480 4,8 wide 620 100 Real 6,2 1 Drawn Long Classroom 54 0,54 wide 72 100 Real 0,72 1 Drawn Long Desks
  34. 34. 2.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Homework: </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a plan of your bedroom using your feet and your hands. Apply a 1:25 scale to draw it </li></ul>1 foot: 20cm 1 hand: 10cm
  35. 35. 15feet= 300cm 20 pies = 400cm 70 100 Bed 150 150 Desk 200 330 bedroom Wide lenght habitación
  36. 36. 2.4 Diedric system
  37. 37. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>The diedric system represents the objects using a perpendicular projection on a plane </li></ul>
  38. 38. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>The projection or VIEW consists of drawing just what we see when we are perpendicular to the object and to the plane </li></ul>Page 28
  39. 39. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>To define an object we only need 3 views, floor, front and profile: </li></ul><ul><li>Floor view : from the top of the object </li></ul><ul><li>Front view: facing the object </li></ul><ul><li>Profile view: from the side </li></ul>Profile view Floor view Front view Front view Floor view Profile view
  40. 40. <ul><li>Draw the left profile, floor and front view of your pencil case. </li></ul>
  41. 41. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Diedric Rules </li></ul><ul><li>The front is usually indicated with an arrow </li></ul><ul><li>The views distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The front is always on top of the floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The profile is situated the other way round, that is, the left profile is situated on the right </li></ul></ul>front floor Left profile Right profile floor front
  42. 42. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>The same height: the object has the same height on the floor and on the profile views </li></ul><ul><li>The same width: on the front and on the floor views </li></ul><ul><li>The same depth: on the floor and on the profile views </li></ul>
  43. 43. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Exercise : Draw the front, left profile and floor views of the class chair </li></ul>
  44. 44. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Exercise : Draw the front, profile and floor views of the class chair </li></ul>
  45. 45. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Where do we have to be situated to see these objects like circles? </li></ul>
  46. 46. 2.4 Diedric system
  47. 47. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects Page 31
  48. 48. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  49. 49. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  50. 50. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  51. 51. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Non visible lines: when we know there is a hidden line we have to draw it using a discontinuous line </li></ul>hidden line
  52. 52. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Insert video </li></ul>
  53. 53. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Activity : draw the front, floor and right profile views of this figure colouring each face in one colour. </li></ul>
  54. 54. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Activity : draw the front, floor y left profile views of this figure colouring each face in a different colour. </li></ul>
  55. 55. 2.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Exercice: draw the right profile, front and floor views of these objects </li></ul>
  56. 56. 2.4 Diedric system
  57. 57. 2.4 Diedric system
  58. 58. 2.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>The standardizing is the group of rules that defines technical drawing . </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For paper size we use the DIN rule: A0,A1,A2… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lines are : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick continuous lines: are used to outline objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick discontinuous lines: indicate hidden lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thin continuous lines: are used for auxiliary measures and reference lines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 59. 2.5 Marking and standardizing Measure line Auxuliary Line Measure Reference line
  60. 60. 2.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>Outside thick continuous line </li></ul>Thick discontinuous line for a hidden edge
  61. 61. 2.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>Marking : indicating the real dimensions above the object </li></ul>
  62. 62. 2.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken </li></ul>Correct Wrong Correct Wrong Correct Wrong Correct Wrong
  63. 63. 2.5 Marking and standardizing. <ul><li>The measure lines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We place them parallel to the edge and slightly separated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are limited by the auxiliary lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The arrows are thin and enlongated, they go from one side to the other </li></ul></ul>Marking follows some rules: see page 37
  64. 64. 2.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>Auxiliary lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We place them perpendicular to the measure lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They cross the measure line a little bit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They never cut the measure line </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. 2.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken </li></ul>Correct Wrong
  66. 66. 2.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>The measures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We indicate the real measure in milimetres, but “mm” is never written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are placed above the measure line, never under it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We only use the extrictly necessary measures </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. 2.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken </li></ul>Correct Wrong
  68. 68. <ul><li>Activity : Draw the front, left profile and floor views of your pencil marking the measures </li></ul>2.5 Marking and standardizing
  69. 69. <ul><li>Let’s revise the important terms </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>What are we going to see in this unit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 Drawing tools and how to use them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.2 Drafts and sketches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.3 Drafting scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 Diedric system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 Marking and standardizing </li></ul></ul>Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
  71. 71. Vocabulary <ul><li>Paper size </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Clay, graphite, lead </li></ul><ul><li>Hard and soft pencils </li></ul><ul><li>Erasers, technical pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Sixty and forty-five degree rules </li></ul><ul><li>Sketch, draft, free hand drawing, measures </li></ul><ul><li>Scale, real and drawn size, reduction, enlargement scales </li></ul><ul><li>To be reduced 100 times… </li></ul><ul><li>Length, height, width </li></ul><ul><li>Long, high, wide. </li></ul>

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