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Eng Madera 1eso

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Eng Madera 1eso

  1. 1. Unit 3. The materials. Wood <ul><li>What are we going to see in this unit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 Materials and their classifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 Wood properties and constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 Wood extraction and processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.4 Wood classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5 Wood derivatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.6 Wood tools </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. 3.1 Materials and its classification Are these objects made with the suitable materials? Wheel Book light bulb hammer Material
  3. 3. 3.1 Materials and their classifications <ul><li>Each material has special properties that make it suitable for a particular instrument, tool, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, when we make an object we have to select the appropriate material. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>We can classify materials into two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural materials : they are obtained directly from the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic materials : we obtain them through a manmade process. </li></ul>3.1 Materials and their classifications Cotton Wood Plastic Concrete
  5. 5. <ul><li>We can classify materials according to their origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s start learning about wood! </li></ul>3.1 Materials and their classifications Wood Metal Plastic Stone material Ceramic and glass Textile material
  6. 6. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Wood is a raw material formed by cellulose and lignin . </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose : it is a natural fiber that supports a tree. It’s like its skeleton. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Lignin : it makes wood harder and more rigid, it’s like glue that holds the cellulose together. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Medulla: soft central part </li></ul><ul><li>Heartwood: dry hard wood </li></ul><ul><li>Sapwood: The sapwood carries water from the roots up to the leaves. </li></ul>The trunk has different parts with different properties
  9. 9. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Cambium: Thin transparent layer that develops new wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Bark: This last layer protects the tree from insects and disease. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Properties : </li></ul><ul><li>There are many types of wood, and each one has a special property: </li></ul><ul><li>Density : is the relation between mass and volume </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Hardness : it’s the resistance against an incision </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Effort resistance : it is the resistance to an effort </li></ul>Force Internal effort
  13. 13. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Sonority : is the way it transmits the sound </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>If we want to obtain a new wood board, we need to get wood from the environment and process it. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>1º Felling: C utting the trunk down with power saws. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>2º Delimbing : Removing branches from the trunks . </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>3º Transportation: </li></ul><ul><li>The wood is transported by truck, train or, in the past, by floating the trunks downstream. </li></ul>Truck
  18. 18. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>4º Debarking: we remove the bark with special machines. </li></ul>bark
  19. 19. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>5º Sawing trunks into boards: </li></ul><ul><li>The trunks are cut to minimize defects, so </li></ul><ul><li>we get good quality wood </li></ul>Boards
  20. 20. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>6º Drying: Removing water to prevent deformation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>7º Sanding: Finally, any imperfections are removed from the board. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>The type of wood depends on the type of tree it comes from. Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>Soft wood </li></ul><ul><li>Hard wood </li></ul>
  23. 23. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>Soft wood : u sually comes from resinous trees with perennial leaves. The wood has a clear color and is easy to manipulate . For example, pine and fir trees. </li></ul>pine fir
  24. 24. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>Hard wood : comes from trees with deciduous leaves. The wood is dark in colour and difficult to manipulate. For example, oak and ebony. </li></ul>oak ebany
  25. 25. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>Beech wood-For furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Oak wood- For barrels </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry wood- For musical instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Mahogany wood- For ornate furniture </li></ul>
  26. 26. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>You have to do the exercise 8 from page 61, but completing this table with 12 woods: </li></ul>Name of the Wood Colour Working Applications Ebany Black Really hard Figures and ornamental
  27. 27. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>We can obtain different materials from wood that improve the original properties. </li></ul><ul><li>We have two main groups of wood derivatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered wood </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul>
  28. 28. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Engineered wood </li></ul><ul><li>These wood is transformed through an industrial process. </li></ul><ul><li>Escan 62 </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s see the most important derivatives: engineered wood and paper </li></ul>
  29. 29. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>They have special properties: </li></ul><ul><li>They are more resistant to parasites (Woodworms, termites..) and to humidity, </li></ul><ul><li>They are cheaper and more environmentally friendly. </li></ul>
  30. 30. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Engineered wood examples : </li></ul><ul><li>Plywood : several sheets of wood . </li></ul><ul><li>Clipboard : thin slices of wood glued and pressed . The thinner the chips, the </li></ul><ul><li>more resistant the board. </li></ul><ul><li>MD (medium density) board: really small </li></ul><ul><li>slices of wood that create a </li></ul><ul><li>strongly engineered type of wood. </li></ul>
  31. 31. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>We obtain paper from wood after several steps of an industrial process </li></ul><ul><li>1.The wood is chipped </li></ul><ul><li>2.Pulp is obtained </li></ul><ul><li>3.The pulp is washed </li></ul><ul><li>4 It’s pressed and dried </li></ul>
  32. 32. 3.5 Wood derivatives The Paper Industrial process 1.The wood is chipped 2.Pulp is obtained 3.The pulp is washed 4 It’s pressed and dried
  33. 33. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Activity: </li></ul><ul><li>We have three kinds of wood, veneer wood, pine wood and cherry wood with the following prices. Which one should I choose for a desk?. Fill in the table </li></ul>Type of wood Price Use 100€ 200€ 300€
  34. 34. 3.5 Wood Tools <ul><li>Working with wood </li></ul><ul><li>We are going make objects with wood, but first we have to know how to…: </li></ul><ul><li>Measure and mark </li></ul><ul><li>Hold an </li></ul><ul><li>Cut and saw </li></ul><ul><li>Drill </li></ul><ul><li>Refine </li></ul><ul><li>Join </li></ul><ul><li>Refinishing </li></ul>
  35. 35. 3.5 Wood Tools 1.To measure and mark The first thing we have to do is to measure and mark the pieces of the object
  36. 36. 3.5 Wood Tools <ul><li>1.To measure and mark </li></ul><ul><li>We have to be careful when we measure, because one mistake can ruin our project </li></ul>
  37. 37. 3.5 Wood Tools <ul><li>1.To measure and mark </li></ul><ul><li>We have to make good use of the materials </li></ul>
  38. 38. 3.5 Wood Tools 1.To measure and mark Metal square: it’s used to mark 90º degrees Carpenter rule Metrics Metal rule
  39. 39. 3.5 Wood Tools Metal square: it’s used to mark 90º degrees
  40. 40. 3.5 Wood Tools 1.To measure and mark Carpenter pencil: you can sharpen it with a knife Punch: it’s use to make holes Metal compass: it’s used To transport measures
  41. 41. 3.5 Wood Tools 2 To hold We have to be careful and before cutting or manipulating any object we have to immobilize it
  42. 42. 3.5 Wood Tools 2 To hold Grab: it holds together an object with the table Screw jack: It’s used to hold in place objects
  43. 43. 3.5 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw Once we have marked and hold our material, we can cut it with a saw. We have different saws to make different cuts
  44. 44. 3.5 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The coping saw: it’s used to saw thin boards and to make dificults cuts
  45. 45. 3.5 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The crosscut handsaw : it’s used to saw thick Boards. It’s flexible so it can resist the efforts
  46. 46. 3.5 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The backsaws : it has a brace that helps to make straight cuts Brace
  47. 47. 3.5 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The metal saw: This saw is used to cut metal. It has a small set ( triscado )
  48. 48. 3.5 Wood Tools 4 To drill When we want to make a hole we can use a drill. We have two types, the electric and manual drill
  49. 49. 3.5 Wood Tools 5 To refine When we saw the material we have to refine the cut, in order to obtain straight sides
  50. 50. 3.5 Wood Tools 5 To refine The refine tools are the sandpaper and the files
  51. 51. 3.5 Wood Tools 5 To refine We use the files to refine metal and the rasp to refine wood File=> Metal Rasp => Wood striations Teeth
  52. 52. 3.5 Wood Tools 6 To joint When we want to put together two boards or any piece of wood we can hammer a nail into wood Nails Hammers
  53. 53. 3.5 Wood Tools 6 To joint We can also use screws and screwdrivers Screws Screwdriver
  54. 54. 3.5 Wood Tools 6 To joint Each screw has a special heads
  55. 55. 3.5 Wood Tools 6 To joint We can put together wood using glue, it’s cheap and easy
  56. 56. 3.5 Wood Tools 6 To joint Finally we are going to use the thermofusible gun too
  57. 57. 3.5 Wood Tools <ul><li>h. Refinishing: </li></ul><ul><li>Refinishing protects wood and improves its appearance. The wood has to be dry, clean and soft. </li></ul><ul><li>Dyeing. Water and alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Varnishing </li></ul><ul><li>wax finishing </li></ul><ul><li>Oil finishing </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul>

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