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Drawing appied to Technology 1 ESO

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Drawing appied to Technology 1 ESO

  1. 1. Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
  2. 2. Unit 2.Drawing applied totechnology What are we going to see in this unit?  2.1Drawing tools and how to use them  2.2 Drafts and sketches  2.3 Drafting scale  2.4 Diedric system  2.5 Marking and standardizing
  3. 3. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments Paper  Paper is made of cellulose that is obtained from trees  The paper size that we use is A4 . It is the result of dividing 1 m2 (A0) four times by half the longest side.
  4. 4. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments Pencil   Apencil has a lead covered with wood. The lead is made with graphite and clayLead clayWoodcover Graphite
  5. 5. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments Pencil hardnessThe more clay it contains the harder the lead willbe. We use letter H for hard pencils and letter Bfor soft ones. less clayHard: H More clay Soft: B Very hard Hard Medium Soft Very soft 6H 5H 4H 3H 2H H HB B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6BTechnique draw Artistic draw
  6. 6. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments Mechanical pencilsThey hold a graphite lead. They can be used fortechnical drawing (if used )with a soft lead. ERASERSErasers are made of rubber, they absorbgraphite and erase it.
  7. 7. 2.1 DRAWING TOOLS THE RULER It is a precision tool that makes it possible to measure and to transfer a distance. TRIANGULAR SET SQUARE A set square is a tool for drawing perpendicular (vertical) and parallel lines and for obtaining angles. There are 2 types of trianglular set squaresA 45 degree A 60 degree
  8. 8. 2.1 Drawing materials and instrumentsThe CompassIt is used for drawing circles and angles Advice: sharpen the lead tip by rubbing it on a fingernail file
  9. 9. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH DRAFT: It is a free hand drawing (just with a pencil). We show an idea or object without totally defining it.See picture in Page 41
  10. 10. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH DRAFT: It is a free hand drawing (just with a pencil). We show an idea or object without totally defining it.See picture in Page 40
  11. 11. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH  TTENTION! A A DRAFT IS NOT A BAD DRAWING AND A SKETCH IS NOT A GOOD DRAWING !!!!!!
  12. 12. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH The sketch: It is a free hand drawing too, but it includes the measures, therefore it shows the precise size and a shape similar to the final drawing. measurePage41
  13. 13. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH  Thedifference between them is that the draft gives us a simple idea of the object and the sketch gives us a complete defined picture with measures DRAFT SKETCH
  14. 14. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH  Activity: draw the draft and sketch of your pencil
  15. 15. 2.3 Drafting scale  We define scale as the relation between the drawing size and the real object A model uses a reduction scale
  16. 16. 1:5000001.3 Drafting scale The Drawing The Real size size
  17. 17. 2.3 Drafting scale 1:2 The Drawing The Real size sizePage38
  18. 18. Page2.3 Drafting scale 381 cm measured on the drawing is equivalent to200cm in reality 1:200 1cm drawing 200 reality
  19. 19. 2.3 Drafting scale Scale types: •  Reduction scale: it is used to represent big objects, so they can be drawn on paper – We usually use: 1:2 1:5 1:10… In this example we have reduced 1000 times the real size of the tree 1:1000drawn Real
  20. 20. 2.3 Drafting scale Enlargement scale: it is used to represent small objects so we can see them on paper – It is used: 2:1 5:1 10:1 … In this example the drawing is two times the real object Safety pin 2:1Draw Realing
  21. 21. 2.3 Drafting scaleAn example of scale application•  Let’s draw a pencil that is 10cm high and 1cm wide using different scales: 1:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:4 1cm 10cm
  22. 22. 2.3 Drafting scale 2:1Scale 2:1 High wide Real Drawn 2 Real 1 10 1
  23. 23. 2.3 Drafting scale 2:1Scale 1:2 High wide Real Drawn 1 1:2 Real 2 10 1
  24. 24. 2.3 Drafting scale 2:1Scale 1:4 High wide RealDrawn 1 1:2 1:4Real 4 10 1
  25. 25. 2.3 Drafting scaleScale exercise•  This drawing is 4,5cm long and 2,5 cm high, if we have used a 1:100 scale How high and long is the real car? 2.5cm 4.5cm
  26. 26. 2.5cm2.3 Drafting scaleScale 1:100 Long High 4.5cmDrawn 1 4,5 2,5Real 100
  27. 27. 2.5cm2.3 Drafting scaleScale 1:100 Long High 4.5cmDrawn 1 4,5 2,5Real 100 450 250
  28. 28. 2.3 Drafting scale•  Activity:Let’s draw a plan of your classroom using your feet and your hands applying the suitable scale to draw it 1 hand: 10cm 1 foot: 20cm
  29. 29. 2.3 Drafting scale feet are equivalent tocm Therefore we have hands = cm hands x 10cm/hand= cm Hands= cm hands x cm/hand= cm feet x 20cm/foot= cm feet x 20cm/foot= cm
  30. 30. 2.3 Drafting scale feet are equivalent tocm Therefore we have hands = cm Long 9 hands x 10cm/hand= Hands= cm 90 cm Wide 7 hands x 10cm/hand= 70 cm Long 32 feet x 20cm/ foot=640 cm Wide 23 feet x 20cm/ foot=460 cm
  31. 31. 2.3 Drafting scaleWhich scale could we use todraw the classroom and yourdesks on your notebooks? length width Classroom 620cm 480cm Desk 72cm 54cm
  32. 32. 2.3 Drafting scaleLet’s use the1:100 scale, so the drawing will be 100times smaller than reality Classroom Long wide Drawn 1 Real 100 620 460 Desks Long wide Drawn 1 Real 100 90 70
  33. 33. 07/12/2011 Drawing exam: Scale, Views and marking2.4 Diedric system
  34. 34. 2.4 Diedric systemThe diedric system represents the objectsusing a perpendicular projection on a plane
  35. 35. 2.4 Diedric system Where do we have to be situated to seethese objects like circles?
  36. 36. 2.4 Diedric system
  37. 37. 2.4 Diedric systemThe projection or VIEW consists of drawing justwhat we see when we are perpendicular to theobject and to the plane Page 28
  38. 38. Front view Right Profile view 6 1 7 8 4 5 Rayo proyectante 2 1 7 3 2 6 5 4 3 © Pedro J. Castela Floor view
  39. 39. Front view Right Profile viewFloor view
  40. 40. Floor view Right Profile view 1 7 2 6 5 4 3 Front view © Pedro J. Castela
  41. 41. Right Profile viewFront view 7 1 2 6 5 4 3 © Pedro J. Castela Floor view
  42. 42. Front view Right Profile view 1 7 2 6 8 4 5 1 7 4 5 6 3 2 3Floor view © Pedro J. Castela
  43. 43. 2.4 Diedric systemTo define an object we only need 3 views, floor, front and profile:  Floor view: from the top of the object  Front view: facing the object  Profile view: from the side Floor Left view Profile viewFrontview Left Profile view FrontFloor viewview
  44. 44. 2.4 Diedric system IMPORTANT: Follow these rules The same height: the object has the same height on the floor and on the profile views The same depth: on the floor and on The same width: the profile views on the front and on the floor views
  45. 45. 2.4 Diedric systemDiedric Rules The front is usually indicated with an arrow The views distribution  The front is always on top of the floor  The profile is situated the other way around, that is, the left profile is situated on the right front Left profile Right profile front floor floor
  46. 46.  Draw the left profile, floor and front view of your pencil case. Use a 1:4 scale front Left profile floor
  47. 47.  Drawthe left profile, floor and front view of my tamagochi. Use a 1:4 scale front Left profile floor
  48. 48. 2.4 Diedric system Insert video
  49. 49. 2.4 Diedric system Insert video
  50. 50. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise: Draw the front, left profile and floor views of the class chair front Left profile floor
  51. 51. 2.4 Diedric system  Check with your rule that all lines are matched
  52. 52. 2.4 Diedric system  Correct with RED color your exercise and copy my picture
  53. 53. 2.4 Diedric systemExercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects Page 31 You have to use Pencil Rules Draw big PICTURES
  54. 54. 2.4 Diedric systemExercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  55. 55. 2.4 Diedric systemExercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  56. 56. 2.4 Diedric systemExercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  57. 57. 2.4 Diedric systemVamos a ver cómo se dibujanlas vistas de la pieza mostradaen la figura, utilizando un papelcuadriculado (cuadrículagrande), de manera que cadacuadrícula de la pieza equivalea una cuadrícula del papel. Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  58. 58. 2.4 Diedric system A B ALZADOPara dibujar la vista de alzadonos fijamos en cuánto mide lapieza de ancho (A = 5) y dealto (B = 6) y dibujamos unrectángulo de esas medidas.Sólo tienes que contar loscuadritos. Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  59. 59. 2.4 Diedric system A B D ALZADOLa cara que tenemos máscerca mide D = 2 cuadros dealtura, por tanto trazamos unalínea a dos cuadros de la basedel rectángulo que contiene ala vista de alzado. Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  60. 60. 2.4 Diedric system A La cara vertical y la rampa tienen la misma altura. B D ALZADOPara terminar la vista dealzado, observa que tanto larampa como la cara verticaltienen la misma altura (4cuadros). Sin embargo, larampa tiene 2 cuadros deancho y la cara vertical 3. Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  61. 61. 2.4 Diedric system A B DLa vista en planta se sitúajusto debajo de la vista dealzado y en ella vemos la pieza Cdesde arriba. Sus dimensionesserán A = 5 y C = 5, es decir,un cuadrado de 5 x 5. PLANTA Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  62. 62. 2.4 Diedric system A B DPara dibujar la cara superior Eobservemos que E = 2cuadros. Por tanto, trazamos Cuna línea paralela a la carasuperior del cuadrado quecontiene a la vista en planta, auna distancia de 2 cuadros. PLANTA Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  63. 63. 2.4 Diedric system A B D La cara inferior y la rampa tienen la misma profundidad.Para dibujar la cara inferior y Ela rampa observemos que lasdos tienen una profundidad de C3 cuadros, pero distinto ancho.Por tanto, trazamos una líneaque separe ambas caras, demanera que la rampa tenga 2cuadros de ancho. PLANTA Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  64. 64. A B B D CLa vista de perfil izquierdo se Edibuja a la derecha del alzado, PERFIL IZQUIERDOa su misma altura. En principio, Cdibujamos un rectángulo dealtura B = 6 y ancho C = 5cuadros. Después borraremoslas líneas que sobren. Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  65. 65. 2.4 Diedric system A E B B D D CObservemos que la cara más Ecercana tiene forma de L. Por PERFIL IZQUIERDOtanto, la dibujamos así, Cteniendo en cuenta lasdimensiones D = 2 y E = 2cuadros. Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  66. 66. 2.4 Diedric system A E B B D D CLa cara correspondiente a la Erampa tiene forma de triángulo PERFIL IZQUIERDOrectángulo. Observa que la Crampa tiene una altura de 4cuadros y una profundidad de3cuadros. Su longitud noimporta. Para terminar,borramos las líneas quesobran. Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  67. 67. 2.4 Diedric systemEste sería el resultado final. Lavista de alzado y la vista enplanta están en la mismavertical y tienen el mismoancho (A), mientras que lasvistas de alzado y de perfilestán en la misma horizontal ytienen la misma altura (B). Haz clic para continuar © Pedro J. Castela
  68. 68. 2.4 Diedric system  Non visible lines: when we know there is a hidden line we have to draw it using a discontinuous line hidden line
  69. 69. 2.4 Diedric systemActivity: draw the front, floor and rightprofile views of this figure colouring eachface in one colour.
  70. 70. 2.4 Diedric systemActivity: draw the front, floor y left profile views of this figurecolouring each face in a different colour.
  71. 71. Tabla vistasCompletaEsta tabla Solución
  72. 72. Ejercicio para casa. 46 y 48 Ejerciciopara casa. 46 y 48 de la página 46 : realiza el perfil derecho, alzado y planta de estas figuras Solución
  73. 73. 2.5 Marking and standardizingMarking is the standard language thatengineers use to define the size,materials and properties of an object sothat anyone can understand it
  74. 74. 2.5 Marking and standardizing 2.- Lines   easures are in mm, other units are marked M   he lines are: T  Thick continuous lines: are used to outline objects  Thick discontinuous lines: indicate hidden lines  Thin continuous lines: are used for auxiliary measures and reference lines.  Dots and thin discontinuous lines: indicate a circumference or cylinder axis
  75. 75. 2.5 Marking and standardizing Circumference Auxuliary Line axis line MeasureMeasure line Reference line
  76. 76. 2.5 Marking and standardizing Measure line ends Measures position
  77. 77. 2.5 Marking and standardizing Activity:Draw the front, left profile and floor views of these objects marking the measures. Apply the correct scale
  78. 78. 2.5 Marking and standardizingYou have to use a frame
  79. 79. 2.5 Marking and standardizingMarking follows some rules   The measure lines:  We place them parallel to the edge and slightly separated  They are limited by the auxiliary lines   The arrows are thin and elongated, they go from one side to the other
  80. 80. 2.5 Marking and standardizing  Auxiliary lines  We place them perpendicular to the measure lines  They cross the measure line a little bit  They never cut the measure line
  81. 81. 2.5 Marking and standardizing  The measures:  We indicate the real measure in milimetres, but “mm” is never written  They are placed above the measure line, never under it  We only use the extrictly necessary measures
  82. 82. Solución Tabla vistas Ejercicio
  83. 83. Ejercicio para casa. 46 y 48
  84. 84. Ejercicio para casa. 46 y 48 Ejercicio

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