3 ESO Tecnologies drawing

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3 ESO Tecnologies drawing

  1. 1. Unit 1.Drawing applied to technology
  2. 2. Unit 1.Drawing applied totechnology What are we going to see in this unit?   .1 1 Drawing materials and instruments   .2 1 Drafts and sketches   .3 1 Drafting scale   .4 1 Diedric system   .5 1 Marking and standardizing   .6 1 Perspective systems
  3. 3. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments Paper Paper is made of cellulose that is obtained from trees The paper size that we use is A4 . It is the result of dividing 1 m2 (A0) four times by half the longest side.
  4. 4. 1.1 DRAWING TOOLS THE RULER It is a precision tool that makes it possible to measure and to transfer a distance. TRIANGULAR SET SQUARE A set square is a tool for drawing perpendicular (vertical) and parallel lines and for obtaining angles. There are 2 types of trianglular set squaresA 45 A 60degree degree
  5. 5. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments How to draw vertical and parallel lines with the set squareVertical: Parallel: Activity: Draw the set squares in your notebook as you can see them in both positions
  6. 6. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments Drawing angles: we can get 15º, 30º, 45º, 60º, 75º, 90º, 120º, 135º…angles combining the 30º, 45º , 60º and the 90º angles from the set squares You dont have to copy them because you can find them in your text book on page 25
  7. 7. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments SolutionDrawing angles exercise: you have to obtain, 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
  8. 8. 1.1 DRAFT AND SKETCH DRAFT: It is a free hand drawing (just with a pencil). We show an idea or object without totally defining it.Page 41
  9. 9. 1.1 DRAFT AND SKETCH  TTENTION! A A DRAFT IS NOT A BAD DRAWING AND A SKETCH IS NOT A GOOD DRAWING !!!!!!
  10. 10. 1.1 DRAFT AND SKETCH The sketch: It is a free hand drawing too, but it includes the measures, therefore it shows the precise size and a shape similar to the final drawing. measurePage41
  11. 11. 1.3 Drafting scale We define scale as the relation between the drawing size and the real object A model uses a reduction scale
  12. 12. 1.3 Drafting scale
  13. 13. 1.3 Drafting scale 1:2 The Drawing The Real size size
  14. 14. 1.3 Drafting scale1 cm measured on the drawing is equivalent to1200cm in reality 1:1200 1cm drawing 1200 reality
  15. 15. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale types: •  Reduction scale: it is used to represent big objects, so they can be drawn on paper – We usually use: 1:2 1:5 1:10… In this example we have reduced 1000 times the real size of the tree 1:1000drawn Real
  16. 16. 1.3 Drafting scale Enlargement scale: it is used to represent small objects so we can see them on paper – It is used: 2:1 5:1 10:1 … In this example the drawing is two times the real object Safety pin 2:1Drawing Real
  17. 17. 1.3 Drafting scaleAn example of scale application•  Let’s draw a pencil that is 10cm high and 1cm wide using different scales: 2:1, 1:2, 1:4 1cm 10cm
  18. 18. 1.3 Drafting scale 2:1Scale 2:1 High wide Real Drawn 2 Real 1 10 1
  19. 19. 1.3 Drafting scale 2:1Scale 1:2 High wide Real Drawn 1 1:2 Real 2 10 1
  20. 20. 1.3 Drafting scale 2:1Scale 1:4 High wide RealDrawn 1 1:2 1:4Real 4 10 1
  21. 21. 1.3 Drafting scaleScale exerciseUsing an electronic microscope we cansee a virus that is 1,5pm. This picture is6 cm long, do you know the scale used todraw it? 1pm= 10-12m=0,000000000001m
  22. 22. 1.3 Drafting scaleScale ???:1 LongDrawn ????? 6 1010pmReal 1 1,5 pm sol
  23. 23. 1.4 Diedric system
  24. 24. 1.4 Diedric systemThe diedric system represents theobjects using a perpendicular projectionon a plane
  25. 25. 1.4 Diedric systemThe projection or VIEW consists of drawingjust what we see when we are perpendicular tothe object and to the plane Page 28
  26. 26. RightFront Profileview view 6 1 7 8 4 5 Rayo 2 proyectante 1 7 3 2 6 5 4 3 Floor view © Pedro J. Castela
  27. 27. Floor Rightview Profile view 1 7 2 6 5 4 3 Front © Pedro J. Castela view
  28. 28. Right Profile viewFrontview 7 1 2 6 5 4 3 Floor view © Pedro J. Castela
  29. 29. Front Rightview Profile 1 7 view 2 6 8 4 5 1 7 4 5 6 3 2 3Floorview © Pedro J. Castela
  30. 30. Frontview Right Profile view Floor view
  31. 31. 1.4 Diedric system Insert video
  32. 32. 1.4 Diedric system To define an object we only need 3 views, floor, front and profile:  Floor view: from the top of the object  Front view: facing the object  Profile view: from the side Floor view Profile viewFrontview ProfileFloor view Front viewview
  33. 33. 1.4 Diedric systemDiedric Rules The front is usually indicated with an arrow The views distribution   he front is always on top of the floor T   he profile is situated the other way around, T that is, the left profile is situated on the right front Left profile Right profile front floor floor
  34. 34. 1.4 Diedric systemRemember: The same height: the object has the same height on the floor and on the profile views The same width: on the front and on the floor views The same depth: on the floor and on the profile views
  35. 35. 1.4 ex Chair exercise Exercise: Draw the front, left profile and floor views of the class chair. This chair is 80 cm high, 40 cm wide and 40 cm deep. Use the proper scale Solution
  36. 36. 1.4 exercise Objects Exercicie Where do we have to be situated tosee these objects like circles? Solution
  37. 37. 1.4 Exercise 11Complete the views of the following objects Solution
  38. 38. 1.4 Diedric system Non visible lines: when we know there is a hidden line we have to draw it using a discontinuous line hidden line
  39. 39. 1.4 Exercise. Scale ViewsActivity: draw the front, floor and left profileviews of this figure coloring each face in onecolor. Apply a proper scale 100cm 100cm Solution
  40. 40. 1.4 Diedric system Exercice: draw the right profile, front and floor views of these objects 100cm
  41. 41. 1.4 Exercise Final Objects
  42. 42. 1.4 Exercise Final Objects
  43. 43. 1.4 Exercise Final Objects
  44. 44. 1.5 Marking and standardizing  he standardizing is the group of T rules that define objects in technical drawing.
  45. 45. 1.5 Marking and standardizingUsing a standard language we candefine the size, materials andproperties of an object so that anyonecan read it
  46. 46. 1.5 Marking and standardizingThere are several elements used to draw a object, butwe are going to see only the most relevant: 1.  aper PFor paper size we use the DIN rule: A0,A1,A2…
  47. 47. 1.5 Marking and standardizing Circumference Auxuliary Line axis line MeasureMeasure line Reference line
  48. 48. 1.5 Marking and standardizing 2.- Lines   he lines are: T  Thick continuous lines: are used to outline objects  Thick discontinuous lines: indicate hidden lines  Thin continuous lines: are used for auxiliary measures and reference lines.  Dots and thin discontinuous lines: indicate a circumference or cylinder axis
  49. 49. 1.5 Marking and standardizingMarking : indicating the real dimensionsabove the object
  50. 50. 1.5 Marking and standardizing.Marking follows some rules   The measure lines:  We place them parallel to the edge and slightly separated  They are limited by the auxiliary lines   The arrows are thin and elongated, they go from one side to the other
  51. 51. 1.5 Marking and standardizing  Auxiliary lines  We place them perpendicular to the measure lines  They cross the measure line a little bit  They never cut the measure line
  52. 52. Measure line endsArrow: ends in a aux. LineLine: ends in a measure lineDot: ends in a line objectMeasures position
  53. 53. 1.5 Marking and standardizing  The measures:  We indicate the real measure in milimetres, but “mm” is never written  They are placed above the measure line, never under it  We only use the extrictly necessary measures
  54. 54. 1.5 Marking and standardizing Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken Correct Wrong
  55. 55. Exercise: Make a file of this object, drawing itsviews including all measures, AND SCALE Assembled size Width: 79 cm Wood widht: 5 cm Depth: 39 cm Height: 79 cm Max load/shelf: 13 kg
  56. 56. 1.6 Perspective systemsWhich one of these objects is a cube?
  57. 57. 1.6 Perspective systems They are all cubes, but drawn withdifferent perspectives
  58. 58. 1.6 Perspective systemsBut, what is a perspective?It is an approximate representation, on aflat surface (such as paper), of an imageas it is perceived by the eye.
  59. 59. 1.6 Perspective systems The simplest one is the one point perspective, where alllines go to one vanishing point
  60. 60. VanishingPointVideo link
  61. 61. 1.6 Perspective systems If we want to create a more realist drawing we have to use a two point perspectiveNow we have two vanishing points, where the left and right lines go
  62. 62. 1.6 Perspective systems Finally, we have the three pointsperspective, that creates an almost real view Lines go to the left, the right and the floor vanishing points
  63. 63. 1.6 Perspective systemsRegular objects are drawn using the caballera perspective All lines are parallel to Z, X or Y axes
  64. 64. 1.6 Perspective systems Y axe X and Y axes form a 90º angle and Z axe form a 135º angle 135º 90º 90º X axeZ axe
  65. 65. 1.6 Perspective systemsIn X and Y axes measures are applieddirectly. But, in order to create ahuman vision of the object, Z axeform a 135º angle and measures havea ½ reduction ½ reduction in all z measures
  66. 66. 10 10 10
  67. 67. You have todraw theviews andcaballerausing aproper scalesThemeasures arein km

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