3 ESO Technologies Drawing

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3 ESO Technologies Drawing

  1. 1. Unit 1.Drawing applied to technology
  2. 2. <ul><li>What are we going to see in this unit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 Drawing materials and instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Drafts and sketches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 Drafting scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.4 Diedric system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 Marking and standardizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.6 Perspective systems </li></ul></ul>Unit 1.Drawing applied to technology
  3. 3. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments <ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Paper is made of cellulose that is obtained from trees </li></ul><ul><li>The paper size that we use is A4 . It is the result of dividing 1 m 2 (A0) four times by half the longest side. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1.1 DRAWING TOOLS THE RULER It is a precision tool that makes it possible to measure and to transfer a distance. TRIANGULAR SET SQUARE A set square is a tool for drawing perpendicular (vertical) and parallel lines and for obtaining angles. There are 2 types of trianglular set squares A 45 degree A 60 degree
  5. 5. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments How to draw vertical and parallel lines with the set square Vertical: Parallel: Activity: Draw the set squares in your notebook as you can see them in both positions
  6. 6. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments Drawing angles: we can get 15º, 30º, 45º, 60º, 75º, 90º, 120º, 135º…angles combining the 30º, 45º , 60º and the 90º angles from the set squares You don't have to copy them because you can find them in your text book on page 25
  7. 7. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
  8. 8. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
  9. 9. 1.1 DRAFT AND SKETCH <ul><li>DRAFT: It is a free hand drawing (just with a pencil). We show an idea or object without totally defining it. </li></ul>Page 41
  10. 10. 1.1 DRAFT AND SKETCH <ul><li>ATTENTION! </li></ul><ul><li>A DRAFT IS NOT A BAD DRAWING AND A SKETCH IS NOT A GOOD DRAWING !!!!!! </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1.1 DRAFT AND SKETCH The sketch: It is a free hand drawing too , but it includes the measures, therefore it shows the precise size and a shape similar to the final drawing. measure Page 41
  12. 12. 1.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>We define scale as the relation between the drawing size and the real object </li></ul>A model uses a reduction scale
  13. 13. 1.3 Drafting scale 1:2 The Drawing size The Real size Page 38
  14. 14. 1.3 Drafting scale 1 cm measured on the drawing is equivalent to 1200cm in reality Page 38 1200 reality 1cm drawing 1:1200
  15. 15. 1.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Scale types: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction scale: it is used to represent big objects, so they can be drawn on paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We usually use: 1:2 1:5 1:10… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this example we have reduced 1000 times the real size of the tree </li></ul>1:1000 Real drawn Real Real
  16. 16. 1.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>Enlargement scale: it is used to represent small objects so we can see them on paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is used: 2:1 5:1 10:1 … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this example the drawing is two times the real object </li></ul>Drawing Real Safety pin 2:1 2:1
  17. 17. 1.3 Drafting scale <ul><li>An example of scale application </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s draw a pencil that is 10cm high and 1cm wide using different scales: 2:1, 1:2, 1:4 </li></ul>1cm 10cm
  18. 18. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale 2:1 Real 2:1 High wide Drawn Real 10 1
  19. 19. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale 1:2 2:1 Real 1:2 High wide Drawn 1 Real 2 10 1
  20. 20. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale 1:4 Real 2:1 1:2 1:4 Real 2:1 1:2 Real 1:2 2:1 Real 1:2 High wide Drawn 1 Real 4 10 1
  21. 21. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale exercise Using an electronic microscope we can see a virus that is 1,5pm. This picture is 6 cm long, do you know the scale used to draw it?
  22. 22. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale ???:1 Long Drawn ????? 6 10 10 pm Real 1 1,5 pm
  23. 23. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale ???:1 Long Drawn 410 7 6 10 7 pm Real 1 1,5 pm
  24. 24. 1.4 Diedric system
  25. 25. 1.4 Diedric system The diedric system represents the objects using a perpendicular projection on a plane
  26. 26. 1.4 Diedric system The projection or VIEW consists of drawing just what we see when we are perpendicular to the object and to the plane Page 28
  27. 27. 1.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Insert video </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Insert video </li></ul>
  29. 29. 1.4 Diedric system <ul><li>To define an object we only need 3 views, floor, front and profile: </li></ul><ul><li>Floor view : from the top of the object </li></ul><ul><li>Front view: facing the object </li></ul><ul><li>Profile view: from the side </li></ul>Profile view Floor view Front view Front view Floor view Profile view
  30. 30. 1.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Diedric Rules </li></ul><ul><li>The front is usually indicated with an arrow </li></ul><ul><li>The views distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The front is always on top of the floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The profile is situated the other way around, that is, the left profile is situated on the right </li></ul></ul>front floor Left profile Right profile floor front
  31. 31. 1.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>The same height: the object has the same height on the floor and on the profile views </li></ul><ul><li>The same width: on the front and on the floor views </li></ul><ul><li>The same depth: on the floor and on the profile views </li></ul>
  32. 32. 1.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Exercise: Draw the front, left profile and floor views of the class chair. This chair is 80 cm high, 40 cm wide and 40 cm deep. Use the proper scale </li></ul>
  33. 33. 1.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Exercise: Draw the front, profile and floor views of the class chair </li></ul>
  34. 34. 1.4 Diedric system Where do we have to be situated to see these objects like circles?
  35. 35. 1.4 Diedric system
  36. 36. 1.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects Page 31
  37. 37. 1.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  38. 38. 1.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  39. 39. 1.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  40. 40. 1.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Non visible lines: when we know there is a hidden line we have to draw it using a discontinuous line </li></ul>hidden line
  41. 41. 1.4 Diedric system Activity: draw the front, floor and left profile views of this figure colouring each face in one colour.
  42. 42. 1.4 Diedric system Activity: draw the front, floor y left profile views of this figure colouring each face in a different colour.
  43. 43. 1.4 Diedric system <ul><li>Exercice: draw the right profile, front and floor views of these objects </li></ul>
  44. 44. 1.4 Diedric system
  45. 45. 1.4 Diedric system
  46. 46. 1.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>The standardizing is the group of rules that define objects in technical drawing. </li></ul>
  47. 47. 1.5 Marking and standardizing Using a standard language we can define the size, materials and properties of an object so that anyone can read it
  48. 48. 1.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>There are several elements used to draw a object, but we are going to see only the most relevant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For paper size we use the DIN rule: A0,A1,A2… </li></ul>
  49. 49. 1.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>2.- Lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lines are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick continuous lines: are used to outline objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick discontinuous lines: indicate hidden lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thin continuous lines: are used for auxiliary measures and reference lines. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dots and thin discontinuous lines: indicate a circumference or cylinder axis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. 1.5 Marking and standardizing Measure line Auxuliary Line Measure Circumference axis line Reference line
  51. 51. 1.5 Marking and standardizing Marking : indicating the real dimensions above the object
  52. 52. 1.5 Marking and standardizing. <ul><li>The measure lines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We place them parallel to the edge and slightly separated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are limited by the auxiliary lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The arrows are thin and elongated, they go from one side to the other </li></ul></ul>Marking follows some rules
  53. 53. 1.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>Auxiliary lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We place them perpendicular to the measure lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They cross the measure line a little bit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They never cut the measure line </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. 1.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>The measures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We indicate the real measure in milimetres, but “mm” is never written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are placed above the measure line, never under it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We only use the extrictly necessary measures </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Measure line ends Arrow: ends in a aux. Line Line: ends in a measure line Dot: ends in a line object Measures position
  56. 56. 1.5 Marking and standardizing <ul><li>Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken </li></ul>Correct Wrong
  57. 57. Exercice: Make a file of this object, drawing its views including all measures, AND SCALE Assembled size Width: 79 cm Wood widht: 5 cm Depth: 39 cm Height: 79 cm Max load/shelf: 13 kg
  58. 58. 1.6 Perspective systems Which one of these objects is a cube?
  59. 59. 1.6 Perspective systems They are all cubes, but drawn with different perspectives
  60. 60. 1.6 Perspective systems But, what is a perspective? It is an approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is perceived by the eye.
  61. 61. 1.6 Perspective systems The simplest one is the one point perspective, where all lines go to one vanishing point
  62. 62. Vanishing Point Video link
  63. 63. 1.6 Perspective systems If we want to create a more realist drawing we have to use a two point perspective Now we have two vanishing points, where the left and right lines go
  64. 65. 1.6 Perspective systems Finally, we have the three points perspective, that creates an almost real view Lines go to the left, the right and the floor vanishing points
  65. 67. 1.6 Perspective systems Regular objects are drawn using the caballera perspective All lines are parallel to Z, X or Y axes
  66. 68. 1.6 Perspective systems X and Y axes form a 90º angle and Z axe form a 135º angle Z axe Y axe X axe 90º 90º 135º
  67. 69. 1.6 Perspective systems In X and Y axes measures are applied directly. But, in order to create a human vision of the object, Z axe form a 135º angle and measures have a ½ reduction ½ reduction in all z measures
  68. 70. 1.6 Perspective systems Exercise. You have to present the standard file of this object that has to describe the scale used, measures, views and caballera perspective. Measures: Assembled size Width: 79 cm Depth: 39 cm Height: 149 cm Wood width: 5 cm Max load/shelf: 13 kg Standard File Data : Name and Family name Grade and Group Scale and units Name of the file and short description

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