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Unit 3. The materials. Wood <ul><li>What are we going to see in this unit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 Materials and their c...
3.1 Materials and its classification Are these objects made with the suitable materials? Wheel Book light bulb  hammer Mat...
3.1 Materials and their classifications <ul><li>Each material has special properties that make it suitable for a particula...
<ul><li>We can classify materials into two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural materials : they are obtained directly from t...
<ul><li>We can classify materials according to their origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s start learning about wood! </li></ul>...
3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Wood is a raw material formed by cellulose and lignin . </li></ul><ul><li>Cel...
3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Lignin : it makes wood harder and more rigid, it’s like glue that holds the c...
3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Medulla:  soft central part </li></ul><ul><li>Heartwood:  dry  hard wood </li...
3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Cambium:  Thin transparent layer that develops new wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Ba...
3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Properties : </li></ul><ul><li>There are many types of wood, and each one has...
3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Hardness : it’s the resistance against an incision </li></ul>
3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Effort resistance : it is the resistance to an effort </li></ul>Force Interna...
3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Sonority : is the way it transmits the sound </li></ul>
3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>If we want to obtain a new wood board, we need to get wood from the environment...
3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>1º Felling: C utting   the trunk down with power saws. </li></ul>
3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>2º  Delimbing :   Removing branches from the trunks . </li></ul>
3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>3º Transportation: </li></ul><ul><li>The wood is transported by   truck, train ...
3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>4º Debarking:  we remove the bark with special machines. </li></ul>bark
3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>5º Sawing trunks into boards: </li></ul><ul><li>The trunks are cut to minimize ...
3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>6º Drying: Removing  moisture  to prevent deformation. </li></ul>
3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>7º Sanding: Finally, any imperfections are removed from the board. </li></ul>
3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>The type of wood depends on the type of tree it comes from. Classification: </li></ul><ul>...
3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>Soft wood : u sually comes from resinous trees with perennial leaves. The wood has a clear...
3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>Hard wood :  comes from trees with deciduous leaves. The wood is dark in  colour  and diff...
3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>Beech  wood-For furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Oak  wood- For barrels </li></ul><ul><li>Cherr...
3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>You have to do exercise 8 from page 61, completing this table with 12 types of wood: </li>...
Name of the Wood Color Working Applications  Ebony Ebano Black Really hard Figures and ornamental Mahogany Caoba Clear pin...
3.5 Wood derivatives  <ul><li>We can obtain different materials from wood that improve the original properties.  </li></ul...
3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Engineered wood </li></ul><ul><li>The engineered have special properties: </li></ul><ul><li>T...
3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>This wood is transformed through an industrial process in order to get different layers </li>...
3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Engineered wood examples : </li></ul><ul><li>Plywood :  several sheets of wood . </li></ul><u...
3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>We obtain paper from wood after several steps of an industrial proces...
3.5 Wood derivatives The Paper Industrial process 1.The wood is chipped 2.Pulp is obtained 3.The pulp is washed 4 It’s pre...
3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Activity:  </li></ul><ul><li>We have three kinds of wood: mahogany wood, wild pine and europe...
3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Activity:  </li></ul><ul><li>We have three kinds of wood: mahogany wood, wild pine and europe...
3.6 Wood Tools <ul><li>Working  with wood </li></ul><ul><li>We are going to make objects with wood, but first we have to k...
3.6 Wood Tools 1.To measure and mark  The first thing we have to do is to measure and mark the pieces of the object.
3.6 Wood Tools <ul><li>1.To measure and mark  </li></ul><ul><li>We have to be careful when we measure, because one mistake...
3.6 Wood Tools <ul><li>1.To measure and mark  </li></ul><ul><li>We have to make good use of the materials </li></ul>
3.6 Wood Tools 1.To measure and mark  Metal  square: it’s used to mark 90º degrees Carpenter ruler Tape measure Metal ruler
3.6 Wood Tools Metal  square: it’s used to mark 90º degrees
3.6 Wood Tools 1.To measure and mark  Carpenter pencil: you can sharpen it with a knife Punch: it’s use to make holes Meta...
3.6 Wood Tools 2 To hold We have to be careful before cutting or manipulating any object. We have to immobilize it.
3.6 Wood Tools 2 To hold G cramp: it holds the object to the table Vice: It’s used to hold objects in place
3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw Once we have marked and held our material, we can cut it with a saw. We have different saw...
3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw If we want to cut wood we need a big set saw and if we want to cut metal we need a small s...
3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The coping saw: it’s  used to saw thin  boards and to make difficult cuts
3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The  crosscut handsaw : it’s  used to saw thick  boards. It’s flexible so it can resist th...
3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The  backsaw : it has a brace that helps to make straight cuts  Brace
3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The  hack saw : This saw is used to cut metal. It has a small set Big set small set
3.6 Wood Tools 4 To drill When we want to make a hole we can use a wood screw or a drill (manual or electric).
3.6 Wood Tools 5 To refine  When we saw the material we have to refine the cut, in order to obtain straight sides
3.6 Wood Tools 5 To refine  The refining tools are glasspaper and files
3.6 Wood Tools 5 To refine  We use files to refine metal and the rasp to refine wood File=> Metal Rasp => Wood striations ...
3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join When we want to join together two boards or any pieces of wood we can hammer a nail into the wood...
3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join We can also use screws and screwdrivers Screws Screwdriver
3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join Each screw has a special head
3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join We can put together wood using glue. It’s cheap and easy
3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join Finally, we can also use a hot glue gun.
3.6 Wood Tools <ul><li>h. Refinishing:  </li></ul><ul><li>Refinishing protects  wood and improves its appearance.  The woo...
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1 ESO technology wood Unit

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1 ESO technology wood Unit

  1. 1. Unit 3. The materials. Wood <ul><li>What are we going to see in this unit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 Materials and their classifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 Wood properties and constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 Wood extraction and processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.4 Wood classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5 Wood derivatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.6 Wood tools </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. 3.1 Materials and its classification Are these objects made with the suitable materials? Wheel Book light bulb hammer Material
  3. 3. 3.1 Materials and their classifications <ul><li>Each material has special properties that make it suitable for a particular instrument, tool, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, when we make an object we have to select the appropriate material. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>We can classify materials into two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural materials : they are obtained directly from the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic materials : we obtain them through a manmade process. </li></ul>3.1 Materials and their classifications Cotton Wood Plastic Concrete
  5. 5. <ul><li>We can classify materials according to their origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s start learning about wood! </li></ul>3.1 Materials and their classifications Wood Metal Plastic Stone material Ceramic and glass Textile material
  6. 6. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Wood is a raw material formed by cellulose and lignin . </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose : it is a natural fiber that supports a tree. It’s like its skeleton. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Lignin : it makes wood harder and more rigid, it’s like glue that holds the cellulose together. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Medulla: soft central part </li></ul><ul><li>Heartwood: dry hard wood </li></ul><ul><li>Sapwood: The sapwood carries water from the roots up to the leaves. </li></ul>The trunk has different parts with different properties
  9. 9. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Cambium: Thin transparent layer that develops new wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Bark: This last layer protects the tree from insects and disease. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Properties : </li></ul><ul><li>There are many types of wood, and each one has a special property: </li></ul><ul><li>Density : is the relation between mass and volume </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Hardness : it’s the resistance against an incision </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Effort resistance : it is the resistance to an effort </li></ul>Force Internal effort
  13. 13. 3.2 Wood properties and constitution <ul><li>Sonority : is the way it transmits the sound </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>If we want to obtain a new wood board, we need to get wood from the environment and process it. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>1º Felling: C utting the trunk down with power saws. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>2º Delimbing : Removing branches from the trunks . </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>3º Transportation: </li></ul><ul><li>The wood is transported by truck, train or, in the past, by floating the trunks downstream. </li></ul>Truck
  18. 18. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>4º Debarking: we remove the bark with special machines. </li></ul>bark
  19. 19. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>5º Sawing trunks into boards: </li></ul><ul><li>The trunks are cut to minimize defects, so </li></ul><ul><li>we get good quality wood </li></ul>Boards
  20. 20. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>6º Drying: Removing moisture to prevent deformation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 3.3 Wood extraction and processing <ul><li>7º Sanding: Finally, any imperfections are removed from the board. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>The type of wood depends on the type of tree it comes from. Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>Soft wood </li></ul><ul><li>Hard wood </li></ul>
  23. 23. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>Soft wood : u sually comes from resinous trees with perennial leaves. The wood has a clear color and it is easy to manipulate . For example, pine and fir trees. </li></ul>pine fir
  24. 24. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>Hard wood : comes from trees with deciduous leaves. The wood is dark in colour and difficult to manipulate. For example, oak and ebony. </li></ul>oak ebony
  25. 25. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>Beech wood-For furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Oak wood- For barrels </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry wood- For musical instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Mahogany wood- For ornate furniture </li></ul>
  26. 26. 3.4 Wood classification <ul><li>You have to do exercise 8 from page 61, completing this table with 12 types of wood: </li></ul>Name of the Wood Colour Working Applications Ebony Black Really hard Figures and ornamental
  27. 27. Name of the Wood Color Working Applications Ebony Ebano Black Really hard Figures and ornamental Mahogany Caoba Clear pink HARD ornate furniture Wild pine Pino silvestre Veining with reddish-colored Soft Furniture Black poplar Chopo negro Clear red Soft Carpentry Beech Haya Pink Soft Models Balsa Balsa Pale brown Soft Isolation and packaging Red fir Abeto rojo Yellowish white with grain Soft Musical instruments European oak Roble europeo Clear Brown Hard Furniture and cabinetmaking Walnut Nogal Brown Soft Furniture
  28. 28. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>We can obtain different materials from wood that improve the original properties. </li></ul><ul><li>We have two main groups of wood derivatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered wood </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul>
  29. 29. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Engineered wood </li></ul><ul><li>The engineered have special properties: </li></ul><ul><li>They are more resistant to parasites (Woodworms, termites..) and to humidity, </li></ul><ul><li>They are cheaper and more environmentally friendly. </li></ul>
  30. 30. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>This wood is transformed through an industrial process in order to get different layers </li></ul>
  31. 31. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Engineered wood examples : </li></ul><ul><li>Plywood : several sheets of wood . </li></ul><ul><li>Clipboard : thin slices of wood glued and pressed . The thinner the chips, the </li></ul><ul><li>more resistant the board. </li></ul><ul><li>MD (medium density) board: really small </li></ul><ul><li>slices of wood that create a </li></ul><ul><li>strongly engineered type of wood. </li></ul>
  32. 32. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>We obtain paper from wood after several steps of an industrial process </li></ul><ul><li>1.The wood is chipped </li></ul><ul><li>2.Pulp is obtained </li></ul><ul><li>3.The pulp is washed </li></ul><ul><li>4 It’s pressed and dried </li></ul>
  33. 33. 3.5 Wood derivatives The Paper Industrial process 1.The wood is chipped 2.Pulp is obtained 3.The pulp is washed 4 It’s pressed and dried
  34. 34. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Activity: </li></ul><ul><li>We have three kinds of wood: mahogany wood, wild pine and european oak wood with their respective prices. Which one should I choose for a desk? Fill in the table </li></ul>Type of wood Price Use 100€ 200€ 300€
  35. 35. 3.5 Wood derivatives <ul><li>Activity: </li></ul><ul><li>We have three kinds of wood: mahogany wood, wild pine and european oak wood with their respective prices. Which one should I choose for a desk? Fill in the table </li></ul>Type of wood Price Use Wild pine 100€ Cheap furniture European oak 200€ Furniture and c abinetmaking Mahogany 300€ Ornate furniture
  36. 36. 3.6 Wood Tools <ul><li>Working with wood </li></ul><ul><li>We are going to make objects with wood, but first we have to know how to…: </li></ul><ul><li>Measure and mark </li></ul><ul><li>Hold </li></ul><ul><li>Cut and saw </li></ul><ul><li>Drill </li></ul><ul><li>Refine </li></ul><ul><li>Join </li></ul><ul><li>Refinish </li></ul>
  37. 37. 3.6 Wood Tools 1.To measure and mark The first thing we have to do is to measure and mark the pieces of the object.
  38. 38. 3.6 Wood Tools <ul><li>1.To measure and mark </li></ul><ul><li>We have to be careful when we measure, because one mistake can ruin our project. </li></ul>
  39. 39. 3.6 Wood Tools <ul><li>1.To measure and mark </li></ul><ul><li>We have to make good use of the materials </li></ul>
  40. 40. 3.6 Wood Tools 1.To measure and mark Metal square: it’s used to mark 90º degrees Carpenter ruler Tape measure Metal ruler
  41. 41. 3.6 Wood Tools Metal square: it’s used to mark 90º degrees
  42. 42. 3.6 Wood Tools 1.To measure and mark Carpenter pencil: you can sharpen it with a knife Punch: it’s use to make holes Metal compass: it’s used to transport measures
  43. 43. 3.6 Wood Tools 2 To hold We have to be careful before cutting or manipulating any object. We have to immobilize it.
  44. 44. 3.6 Wood Tools 2 To hold G cramp: it holds the object to the table Vice: It’s used to hold objects in place
  45. 45. 3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw Once we have marked and held our material, we can cut it with a saw. We have different saws to make different cuts
  46. 46. 3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw If we want to cut wood we need a big set saw and if we want to cut metal we need a small set saw Big set small set
  47. 47. 3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The coping saw: it’s used to saw thin boards and to make difficult cuts
  48. 48. 3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The crosscut handsaw : it’s used to saw thick boards. It’s flexible so it can resist the efforts
  49. 49. 3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The backsaw : it has a brace that helps to make straight cuts Brace
  50. 50. 3.6 Wood Tools 3 To cut and saw The hack saw : This saw is used to cut metal. It has a small set Big set small set
  51. 51. 3.6 Wood Tools 4 To drill When we want to make a hole we can use a wood screw or a drill (manual or electric).
  52. 52. 3.6 Wood Tools 5 To refine When we saw the material we have to refine the cut, in order to obtain straight sides
  53. 53. 3.6 Wood Tools 5 To refine The refining tools are glasspaper and files
  54. 54. 3.6 Wood Tools 5 To refine We use files to refine metal and the rasp to refine wood File=> Metal Rasp => Wood striations Teeth
  55. 55. 3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join When we want to join together two boards or any pieces of wood we can hammer a nail into the wood Nails Hammers
  56. 56. 3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join We can also use screws and screwdrivers Screws Screwdriver
  57. 57. 3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join Each screw has a special head
  58. 58. 3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join We can put together wood using glue. It’s cheap and easy
  59. 59. 3.6 Wood Tools 6 To join Finally, we can also use a hot glue gun.
  60. 60. 3.6 Wood Tools <ul><li>h. Refinishing: </li></ul><ul><li>Refinishing protects wood and improves its appearance. The wood has to be dry, clean and soft. </li></ul><ul><li>Dying. Water and alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Varnishing </li></ul><ul><li>Wax finishing </li></ul><ul><li>Oil finishing </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul>

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