Psychology of bullying


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Psychology of bullying

  2. 2. DEFINITION Bullying is a distinctive pattern of deliberately harming and humiliating others. Durable behavioral style, largely because bullies get what they want—at least at first. Bullies are made, not born. Happens at an early age. (“Bullying, 2002).
  3. 3. TYPES OF BULLYING 1- Overt types Physical Verbal 2- Covert type
  4. 4. TYPES OF BULLYING 1. Physical bullying makes up 30.5% of school bullying Damaging property. Pushing Hitting, kicking, Pinching
  5. 5. TYPES OF BULLYING 2. Verbal bullying Verbal abuse. 47% of bullying in school intimidation. Name calling, Insults. Teasing.
  6. 6. TYPES OF BULLYING • 3. Covert bullying • Carried out behind the bullied person's back. • Designed to harm someone's social reputation and/or cause humiliation. Includes: * spreading rumours. * negative facial or physical gestures, menacing looks. * playing nasty jokes to embarrass and humiliate • mimicking unkindly * encouraging others to socially exclude someone * damaging someone's social reputation or social acceptance.
  7. 7. TYPES OF BULLYING .4- Cyberbullying • Overt or covert bullying behaviours using digital technologies. • Include - Harassment via a mobile phone. - Deliberately excluding someone from social networking .
  8. 8. WHY DO PEOPLE BULLY? The purpose of bullying is to hide inadequacy. Bullying has nothing to do with managing ; Good managers manage, bad managers bully. Management is managing; bullying is not managing. • Anyone who chooses to bully is admitting their inadequacy, and the extent to which a person bullies is a measure of their inadequacy. • • • •
  9. 9. WHY DO PEOPLE BULLY? • Bullies project their inadequacy on to others: a) to avoid facing up to their inadequacy and doing something about it. b) to avoid accepting responsibility for their behaviour . c) to reduce their fear of being seen for what they are, namely a weak, inadequate and often incompetent individuals. d) to divert attention away from their inadequacy - in an insecure or badly-managed workplace. this is how inadequate, incompetent and aggressive persons keep their places.
  10. 10. PERSONALITY TRAIT OF BULLY • Unaccept responsibility for their behaviour • Enjoy the benefits of living in the adult world, but unaccept the prerequisite of adult world. • Abdication and denial responsibility for their behaviour and its consequences. • Refuse to know any other way of behaving • Unwilling to recognise that there could be better ways of behaving. • Bullying is obsessive and compulsive; the serial bully has to have someone to bully and appears to be unable to survive without a current target.
  11. 11. PERSONALITY TRAIT OF BULLY low self-confidence and low self-esteem, and thus feel insecure. Inadequate to fulfil the duties and obligations of their position fear being revealed. This fear of exposure often borders on paranoia.
  12. 12. PERSONALITY TRAIT OF BULLY Bullies are seething with resentment, bitterness, hatred and anger. have prejudices as a vehicle for removal their anger onto others. Bullies are driven by jealousy and envy. Rejection is a powerful motivator of bullying.
  13. 13. CONSEQUENCES OF SOCIAL BULLYING Victims suffer depression, anxiety, social isolation, and low self-esteem. Victims turn to suicide or commit homicidal acts as a result of extreme mental and social pressures. Individuals bullied in childhood: - Emotional wounds into adulthood, - Leading to depression, social isolation. - Inability to react appropriately to situations.
  14. 14. HOW DO BULLIES SELECT THEIR TARGETS? • Self-deprecation, indecisiveness, and approval seeking low assertiveness • Need to feel valued • Quick to apologise when accused, even if not guilty (this is a useful technique for defusing an aggressive customer) • Perfectionism • Highe- levels of dependency and guilt. • always be reasonable • High coping skills under stress. • Internalise anger rather than express it
  15. 15. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Harassment Has a strong physical component, eg contact and touch in all its forms, intrusion into personal space and possessions, Workplace bullying Almost exclusively psychological (eg criticism), may become physical later, especially with male bullies, but almost never with female bullies Although bullies are deeply prejudiced, sex, race Harassment is usually linked to sex, race, and gender play little part; it's usually prejudice, discrimination, etc discrimination on the basis of competence Harassment may consist of a single incident or a Bullying is rarely a single incident and tends to be few incidents or many incidents an accumulation of many small incidents, The person being bullied may not realise they are The person who is being harassed knows almost being bullied for weeks or months - until there's a straight away they are being harassed moment of enlightenment
  16. 16. HOW TO DEAL WITH BULLYING? • Person should tell someone; a parent, teacher, or counselor. • Parents must take an active role in their child’s life and safety. • Parent must take steps to stop this behavior.
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  18. 18. • Bullying is an inefficient way of working, resulting in disenchantment, demoralisation, demotivation, disaffection, and alienation. Bullies run dysfunctional and inefficient organisations; staff turnover and sickness absence are high whilst morale, productivity and profitability are low. Prosperity is illusory and such organizations are a bad long-term investment. Projection and denial are hallmarks of the serial bully. • Bullying is present behind all forms of harassment, discrimination, prejudice, abuse, persecution, conflict and violence. When the bullying has a focus (eg race or gender) it is expressed as racial prejudice or harassment, or sexual discrimination and harassment, and so on. When the bullying lacks a focus (or the bully is aware of the Sex Discrimination Act or the Race Relations Act), it comes out as pure bullying; this is an opportunity to understand the behaviours which underlie almost all reprehensible behavior. I believe bullying is the single most important social issue of today.
  19. 19. • Bullying can consist of many different types of behaviors • Physical bullying consists of any type of physical violence, no matter how small. This type of bullying makes up 30.5% of school bullying. (Time for Tolerance, 2008). This type of bullying can range from actually beating of the victim or a simple action of sticking out one’s foot and tripping someone. Another type of bullying is verbal bullying. This type of bullying consists of name calling, teasing, making fun of others, and threats of violence. This type of bulling makes up 46.5% of bullying incidents in school. (Time for Tolerance, 2008)
  20. 20. • Next is intimidation. This type of bullying occurs when the victim is threatened in order for the bully to get them to do what they want them to do such as homework assignments or giving them money.
  21. 21. • most disturbing is cyber bullying. This type of bullying is perhaps the most dangerous type of bullying as it can be done anonymously. Cyber bullying can find many mediums such as email, text messaging, and social networks such as Face Book and MySpace. Here the bully can remain unknown as they can create fake screen names and profiles. It makes it easier to be a bully and to fall victim. Cyber bullying can consist of threats of violence, verbal abuse, and spreading false information for the purpose of embarrassing someone or hurting their reputations. The Cyber Bullying Research Center says that “We define cyberbullying [sic] as: • "Cyberbullying [sic] is when someone repeatedly harasses, mistreats, or makes fun of another person online or while using cell phones or other electronic devices."(Cyberbullying Research Center, 2011).
  22. 22. • Use of force to abuse or intimidate others. • Be habitual and involve an imbalance of social or physical power. • Include verbal harassment or threat, physical assault or coercion and may be directed repeatedly towards particular victims, perhaps on grounds of race, religion, gender, sexuality, or ability.[2][3] If bullying is done by a group, it is called mobbing.
  23. 23. • Emotional Bullying, clinically called relational aggression, is the act of attacking someone’s feelings and the relationships they have will other people. Typical outlets for emotional bullying are gossip, rumors and outright lies. Emotional bullying happens in in person, on Facebook, via text or email. And if you think only teenage girls engage in such behavior, think again. There is evidence of it as early as in grade school and it is rampant in the workforce.
  24. 24. WHAT CAUSES PEOPLE TO BECOME EMOTIONAL BULLIES? • Following parental example: children learn by example, so, if one or both of their parents uses emotional bullying to get what they want, a child will learn to do the same. The behaviour tends to become more prevalent during the teenage years as this is when a child starts trying to behave like an adult. • Low self-esteem: people who do not value themselves will assume that other people do not either and so not expect others to put themselves out for them willingly. Consequently, they feel obliged to use coercion to get what they want. Obviously, if you have been emotionally bullied by your parents, you will feel unloved and tend to have a low self-esteem. • Inherent unreasonableness: the self-centred who want everything their own way, but who are intelligent enough to recognize (at least subconsciously) that this is unreasonable, will resort to emotional bullying rather than asking for what they want. This way, they can delude themselves that the target is giving in to their demands because it is what they want. • Fear of responsibility: people who feel that asking their target for what they want would make them responsible for someone else’s actions may resort to emotional bullying in order to circumvent a fear of responsibility. As above, if they don’t actually ask for what they want, they can delude themselves that the target does everything because they want to.
  25. 25. • Social bullying is deliberate, repetitive and aggressive social behavior intended to hurt others. This type of behavior generally includes verbal abuse, gossip or other actions that cause mental and emotional harm and social isolation for the victim. Schools, sports activities, colleges, domestic and work situations and neighborhoods are some of the places in which this type of bullying occurs. • The goal of social bullying is to belittle and harm another individual or group. In middle school, for example, bullying might take the shape of teasing unpopular children. Ridiculing another child’s clothes, making fun of the way he speaks, and mocking his academic achievements or his race or culture are examples of behaviors that a bully might exhibit to gain power over another child.
  26. 26. WHY BULLYING? • Social bullying is generally caused by a combination of factors. In almost all cases, the bully lacks empathy for his targeted individual or group. In some cases, he has learned this behavior from observing others, or he may have been the victim of bullying earlier in life. Jealousy is another cause, whereby an individual feels threatened by the characteristics or achievements of another individual and engages in bullying as a way to feel empowered and dominant.
  27. 27. • What is cyber bullying? • Cyber bullying is the use of electronic media - especially mobile phones and the internet - to intimidate, threaten or upset someone. • Cyber bullying can include: • texting scary or rude messages by mobile phone • sending unpleasant photographs by mobile phone • using online message boards, chat rooms or social networking sites to post cruel messages • deleting the victim's name from or ignoring their messages on social networking sites
  28. 28. • Research suggests that cyber bullying is common among teenagers - at least one in five has been a victim of it. The practice is becoming more widespread. • A major difference between cyber bullying and other types of bullying is that the cyber bully can follow your child into the house, even into his or her bedroom. Another disturbing aspect of cyber bullying is that the victim often feels there’s nowhere to hide.