Slides (PDF) for 100YSS 2012 session on Vessel Archives

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PDF of slides (only; slides+notes separate and more detailed) for 2012 100YSS Conference in Houston TX. Session is a proposal for a type of very-long-term archive as habitat.

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Slides (PDF) for 100YSS 2012 session on Vessel Archives

  1. 1. Existential Risk, Human Survival, and the Future of Life in the Universe:Interstellar Civilization through Vessel Archives Heath  Rezabek,  MLIS heath.rezabek@gmail.com 100  Year  Starship  Symposium September  13-­‐16,  2012.    Houston,  Texas. ORIGINS / © Lucy West 2012 / Used by Permission
  2. 2. Session  slides  available.slideshare.net/heathrezabekbiota.cc/vessel-slides.pdf ORIGINS / © Lucy West 2012 / Used by Permission
  3. 3. Exploring further... Brief  highlights Only  a  few  key  ideas  could  be  covered  in  this  20   minute  session.    To  save  time,  topics  in   breakout  slides  will  not  be  explored  in  depth. Refer  to  paper  for  details The  working  Paper  is  50  pages,  and  covers  all   key  elements  of  this  proposal.    References  are   also  cited  there. Contact Inquiries  and  collaboration  welcomed. heath.rezabek@gmail.com heath.rezabek@gmail.com biota.cc/vessel.pdfORIGINS (Detail)© Lucy West 2012 / Used by Permission
  4. 4. EXOPLANET TRANSIT / ESA / Illustration by AOES Medialab 2003
  5. 5. The Fermi Paradox and The Great Silence Are  we  alone? EXOPLANET TRANSIT / ESA / Illustration by AOES Medialab 2003
  6. 6. The Fermi Paradox and The Great Silence Kepler  and  0ther  observations  tell  us  that   there  is  no  shortage  of  worlds  to  be   detected. Billions  of  years  for  worlds  to  develop. Radiant  life  or  von  Neumann  probes  would  need  <  1  million  years. Where  are  they? This  is  the  Fermi  Paradox. The  quiet  in  place  of  any  other  signs  of  life:    the  Great  Silence. EXOPLANET TRANSIT / ESA / Illustration by AOES Medialab 2003
  7. 7. Exploring further... Possible  answers  to  the  Fermi   Paradox Responsibility  to  strive, regardless  of  the  unknown   status  of  other  life biota.cc/vessel.pdfEXOPLANET TRANSITESA / Illustration by AOES Medialab 2003
  8. 8. The Fermi Paradox and The Great Silence Is  life  widespread,  or  as  uncommon as  we  seem  to  be? Learning  the  truth  through  interstellar  travel  will  take  time. We  must  foster  a  supporting—and  surviving—interstellar  civilization. EXOPLANET TRANSIT / ESA 2003 / Illustration by AOES Medialab
  9. 9. MASSIVE TERRESTRIAL STRIKE / Don Davis / NASA
  10. 10. Existential Risk Will  we  endure? MASSIVE TERRESTRIAL STRIKE / Don Davis / NASA
  11. 11. Existential Risk 100  years  to  achieve  our  primary  goal. Our  endeavor  could  be  cut  short  before  that   time  has  passed.   The  risk  that  we  may  not  endure  is  termed  Existential  Risk. An  existential  risk  is  one  that  threatens  the  premature   extinction  of  Earth-­‐originating  intelligent  life  or  the  permanent   and  drastic  destruction  of  its  potential  for  desirable  future   development.   -­‐  Nick  Bostrom Existential  Risk  Prevention  as  the  Most  Important  Task  for  Humanity  (2011) MASSIVE TERRESTRIAL STRIKE / Don Davis / NASA
  12. 12. Existential Risk “...  the  permanent  and  drastic  destruction  of  its   potential  for  desirable  future  development.” Survival  alone  is  not  enough. In  some  cases,  a  surviving  society  may  be  brutalized,  stagnant,  or   diminished  irreparably.    Bostrom’s  2011  classification  sets  aside   discussion  of  particular  causes. Strict  focus  on  outcomes  helps  us  envision  possible  recovery  scenarios.   MASSIVE TERRESTRIAL STRIKE / Don Davis / NASA
  13. 13. Existential Risk Classification  of  Existential  Risk     Human  Extinction   Humanity  goes  extinct  prematurely,  i.e.,  before  reaching  technological  maturity. Permanent  Stagnation Humanity  survives  but  never  reaches  technological  maturity.     Subclasses:  Unrecovered  Collapse,  Plateauing,  Recurrent  Collapse Flawed  Realization Humanity  reaches  technological  maturity  but  in  a  way  that  is  dismally  and  irremediably  flawed.       Subclasses:  Unconsummated  Realization,  Ephemeral  Realization Subsequent  Ruination Humanity  reaches  technological  maturity  in  a  way  that  gives  good  future  prospects,  yet   subsequent  developments  cause  the  permanent  ruination  of  those  prospects. -­‐  Nick  Bostrom Existential  Risk  Prevention  as  the  Most  Important  Task  for  Humanity  (2011) MASSIVE TERRESTRIAL STRIKE / Don Davis / NASA
  14. 14. Existential Risk Classification  of  Existential  Risk     Human  Extinction   Humanity  goes  extinct  prematurely,  i.e.,  before  reaching  technological  maturity. Permanent  Stagnation Humanity  survives  but  never  reaches  technological  maturity.     Subclasses:  Unrecovered  Collapse,  Plateauing,  Recurrent  Collapse Flawed  Realization Humanity  reaches  technological  maturity  but  in  a  way  that  is  dismally  and  irremediably  flawed.       Subclasses:  Unconsummated  Realization,  Ephemeral  Realization Subsequent  Ruination Humanity  reaches  technological  maturity  in  a  way  that  gives  good  future  prospects,  yet   subsequent  developments  cause  the  permanent  ruination  of  those  prospects. -­‐  Nick  Bostrom Existential  Risk  Prevention  as  the  Most  Important  Task  for  Humanity  (2011) MASSIVE TERRESTRIAL STRIKE / Don Davis / NASA
  15. 15. Existential Risk Classification  of  Existential  Risk     Human  Extinction   Humanity  goes  extinct  prematurely,  i.e.,  before  reaching  technological  maturity. Permanent  Stagnation Humanity  survives  but  never  reaches  technological  maturity.     Subclasses:  Unrecovered  Collapse,  Plateauing,  Recurrent  Collapse Flawed  Realization Humanity  reaches  technological  maturity  but  in  a  way  that  is  dismally  and  irremediably  flawed.       Subclasses:  Unconsummated  Realization,  Ephemeral  Realization Subsequent  Ruination Humanity  reaches  technological  maturity  in  a  way  that  gives  good  future  prospects,  yet   subsequent  developments  cause  the  permanent  ruination  of  those  prospects. -­‐  Nick  Bostrom Existential  Risk  Prevention  as  the  Most  Important  Task  for  Humanity  (2011) MASSIVE TERRESTRIAL STRIKE / Don Davis / NASA
  16. 16. Existential Risk Classification  of  Existential  Risk     Human  Extinction   Humanity  goes  extinct  prematurely,  i.e.,  before  reaching  technological  maturity. Permanent  Stagnation Humanity  survives  but  never  reaches  technological  maturity.     Subclasses:  Unrecovered  Collapse,  Plateauing,  Recurrent  Collapse Flawed  Realization Humanity  reaches  technological  maturity  but  in  a  way  that  is  dismally  and  irremediably  flawed.       Subclasses:  Unconsummated  Realization,  Ephemeral  Realization Subsequent  Ruination Humanity  reaches  technological  maturity  in  a  way  that  gives  good  future  prospects,  yet   subsequent  developments  cause  the  permanent  ruination  of  those  prospects. -­‐  Nick  Bostrom Existential  Risk  Prevention  as  the  Most  Important  Task  for  Humanity  (2011) MASSIVE TERRESTRIAL STRIKE / Don Davis / NASA
  17. 17. Existential Risk Imperative To  achieve  an  interstellar  civilization  while   addressing  existential  risk,  we  must  do  more  than   survive:    we  must  preserve  our  aspirations,  our   capabilities,  our  cultural  resources,  and  our   biodiversity. MASSIVE TERRESTRIAL STRIKE / Don Davis / NASA
  18. 18. What  type  of  archive  would  answer  to  Permanent  Stagnation  or  Flawed  Realization?   Gregory  Benford  suggested  one  example  in  1992,  addressing   catastrophic  loss  of  biodiversity. DIATOM 1 (Sarah Parker-Eaton & Louise Hibbert) Photo via Bradbury J: Natures Nanotechnologists: Unveiling the Secrets of Diatoms. PLoS Biol 2/10/2004: e306. (CC-BY-2.5) 2004
  19. 19. The Library of Life DIATOM 1 (Sarah Parker-Eaton & Louise Hibbert) Photo via Bradbury J: Natures Nanotechnologists: Unveiling the Secrets of Diatoms. PLoS Biol 2/10/2004: e306. (CC-BY-2.5) 2004
  20. 20. The Library of Life The  Library  of  Life:    A  thought  experiment   on  avoiding  irreversible  loss  of  biodiversity. A  broad  program  of  freezing  species  in  threatened  ecospheres  could   preserve  biodiversity  for  eventual  use  by  future  generations.  Sampling   without  studying  can  lower  costs  dramatically.  […]    Much  more   information  than  species  DNA  will  be  saved,  allowing  future   biotechnology  to  derive  high  information  content  and  perhaps  even   resurrect  then-­‐extinct  species. -­‐  Gregory  Benford Abstract  for  “Saving  the  Library  of  Life”    (1992) DIATOM 1 (Sarah Parker-Eaton & Louise Hibbert) Photo via Bradbury J: Natures Nanotechnologists: Unveiling the Secrets of Diatoms. PLoS Biol 2/10/2004: e306. (CC-BY-2.5) 2004
  21. 21. The Library of Life Controversial,  but  galvanizing. My  main  concern  is  that  people  will  conclude  that  scientists  have   given  up  on  preserving  living  biodiversity,  or  that  future  species   extinctions  are  not  so  worrisome  because  we  can  always  reconstitute   the  species  and  genera  that  we  render  extinct.  But  […]  these  potential   obstacles  can  be  circumvented:  by  stressing  [...]  that  the  very  fact  that   such  steps  are  being  taken  is  an  indication  of  how  serious  the  problem   is. -­‐  Carl  Sagan Letter  to  Benford  in  Deep  Time  (1999) The  Library  of  Life  proposal  was  one  of  the  deepest  and  earliest   influences  on  my  Vessel  Archives  proposal.    It  taught:    We  cannot  be   afraid  to  galvanize  our  efforts,  when  confronting  existential  risk. DIATOM 1 (Sarah Parker-Eaton & Louise Hibbert) Photo via Bradbury J: Natures Nanotechnologists: Unveiling the Secrets of Diatoms. PLoS Biol 2/10/2004: e306. (CC-BY-2.5) 2004
  22. 22. The Library of Life What  type  of  facility  would  be  needed  to   carry  a  Library  of  Life,  or  house  a  cultural   equivalent,  over  the  very-­‐long-­‐term? Cultural  archives  would  require  different  methods,  and  the  facility   itself  could  take  on  as  many  different  forms  as  there  are  cultures... DIATOM 1 (Sarah Parker-Eaton & Louise Hibbert) Photo via Bradbury J: Natures Nanotechnologists: Unveiling the Secrets of Diatoms. PLoS Biol 2/10/2004: e306. (CC-BY-2.5) 2004
  23. 23. Vessel Archives Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  24. 24. Vessel Archives Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  25. 25. Vessel Archives A  Vessel  Archive  is  a  self-­‐contained,  sustainable  habitat,   which  harbors  the  traces  of  Earths  cultures  and  biomes. These  installations  would  serve  in  the  near-­‐term  as  examples   of  sustainability  and  as  ambassadors  for  societys   understanding  of  the  100  Year  Starship  Mission,  and  would   serve  in  the  long-­‐term  as  protective  vessels  for  humanitys   aspirations,  knowledge,  and  the  traces  of  life  itself. Vessel  Archives  would  be  dedicated  to  their  twin  goals  of   education,  and  preservation.     Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  26. 26. Vessel Archives Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  27. 27. Vessel Archives Vessel  (noun.) The  term  vessel  describes  our  focused-­‐purpose  arcology  in   part  through  its  several  meanings.     A  vessel  is  a  ship;  a  vehicle  meant  to  ply  the  waters  (on  Earth),   or  the  space  between  the  stars.     A  vessel  is  a  container  into  which  is  poured  something  meant   to  be  stored  or  carried.     A  vessel  is  a  conduit  or  a  medium  for  transmission. Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  28. 28. Vessel Archives Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  29. 29. Vessel Archives The  installation  as  a  whole  should  be  designed  as  self-­‐ sufficient,  sustainable,  and  resilient  in  case  of  existential   catastrophe. Each  Vessel  Archive  should  be  designed  to  harbor  a  diverse   and  interdisciplinary  crew  and  staff  of  just  a  few  thousand,  per   archive. They  would  be  colonies  on  Earth,  dedicated  to  the  legacy  of   life. Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  30. 30. Vessel Archives Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  31. 31. Vessel Archives One  habitat  for  a  few  thousand  will  not  solve  our  societal   challenges  or  safeguard  life  on  Earth.    Connected  communities   of  hundreds  or  thousands  of  Vessel  Archives  around  the   world,  each  sharing  concrete  methods  for  sustainable  design   with  society  at  large,  may  do  better... Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  32. 32. Vessel Archives Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  33. 33. Vessel Archives A  Vessel  Archive’s  outer  exhibits,  clearly  visible  to  a  curious   public,  would  house  resources  and  environments  introducing   the  100  Year  Starship  Mission. At  the  heart  of  a  Vessel  Archive  would  be  labs  for  research  and   development,  core  collections,  and  sample  banks  of  the   cultural  and  biological  records. This  core  archive  (like  a  Library  of  Life)  could  be  replicated,   and  transferred  in  whole  or  in  part  to  a  100  Year  Starship,  to   serve  as  its  memory  of  Earth. Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  34. 34. Vessel Archives Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  35. 35. Vessel Archives The  Vessel  Archive,  carried  out  in  many  forms,  would  address   the  debilitating  outcomes  of  existential  risk: Permanent  Stagnation;  (Unrecovered  Collapse;   Plateauing;  Recurrent  Collapse) Flawed  Realization;  (Unconsummated  Realization;   Ephemeral  Realization) Vessel  Archives  would  also  address  the  other  two  outcome   classes. Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  36. 36. Vessel Archives Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  37. 37. Many  other  approaches  inform  the  Vessel  Archive  proposal,  starting  with  the  need  to  encourage  hybrid  vigor  through  an  open  specification... biota.cc/vessel.pdf STAR MAP / © Debra Joiner 2012 / Used by Permission
  38. 38. Exploring further...Creative  CommonsSeed  several  instances  of  open  specification  and  resource  sites  to  explore,  detail,  and  document  the  creation  of  Vessel  Archives,  encouraging  hybrid  vigor.biota.cc/vessel.pdf
  39. 39. The 100 Year Starship: Inviting Humanity Given  the  time,  I’d  explore  how  we  could   inspire  the  public  with  the  100  Year   Starship  Mission,  through  interactive   exhibits  at  existing,  familiar  institutions:     Museums,  Planetariums,  Arboretums,   Observatories,  Universities,  Libraries... DAEDALUS ARRIVES / © Adrian Mann 2012 / Used by Permission
  40. 40. Exploring further... Many  Forms  and  Formats   possible  for  conveying  the   100YSS  Mission  Story Scenario-­‐Gaming,  Simulations,   and  Role-­‐Play biota.cc/vessel.pdfDAEDALUS SEPARATED© Adrian Mann 2012 / Used by Permission
  41. 41. Exploring further... Becoming  an  Interstellar   Civilization Redefining  our  Cosmology biota.cc/vessel.pdfSTAR MAP© Debra Joiner 2012 / Used by Permission
  42. 42. Biophilia and Biophilic Design: A Pattern Language I’d  detail  architectural  approaches  we   could  use  to  build  Vessel  Archives  as   dedicated,  multipurpose  facilities. EDEN PROJECT: TROPICAL BIOME / Photo via Steve Keiretsu (CC-BY-1.0) 2001
  43. 43. Exploring further... Binary  DNA  Data  Sequencing Recent  work  (Church/Gao/Kosuri  2012)  is   discussed,  along  with  possible  applications.DIATOM 1 (Sarah Parker-Eaton & Louise Hibbert) biota.cc/vessel.pdfPhoto via Bradbury J: Natures Nanotechnologists: Unveiling the Secretsof Diatoms. PLoS Biol 2/10/2004: e306. (CC-BY-2.5) 2004
  44. 44. In the Paper... Arcology  (Paolo  Soleri,  1969) Compact  and  integrated  installations  as  self-­‐ contained  cities. biota.cc/vessel.pdfFrom ARCOLOGY: The City in the Image of Man© Paolo Soleri 1969 / Used by Permission
  45. 45. Exploring further... The  Biophilia  Hypothesis  and   Biophilic  Design Pattern  Languages  (Christopher   Alexander) biota.cc/vessel.pdfTHORNCROWN CHAPEL (E. Fay Jones)Photo via Bobak (CC-BY-SA-2.5) 2006
  46. 46. Exploring further... 100YSS:  Icarus  Interstellar   Project  Hyperion Research  on  very-­‐long-­‐term  habitat  design   factors.   100YSS:    Icarus  Interstellar   Project  Persephone Research  on  evolving  architecture  for  very-­‐long-­‐ term  and  extrasolar  habitat  design. (Biophilic  Design,  Pattern  Languages,   Arcology  /  habitats:    All  applicable.)LILYPAD / biota.cc/vessel.pdfArchitect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008Visualization © Philippe Steels 2008Visualization Used by Permission
  47. 47. Exploring further... Preservation  of  Cultural   Architecture  and  Vernacular   Pattern  Languages Case  study:    Traditional  Japanese  architectural   solutions  and  patterns.Photo via Alijava (CC-BY-SA-2.5) 2010 biota.cc/vessel.pdfBAMBOOPhoto via Alijava (CC-BY-SA-2.5) 2012
  48. 48. Exploring further... The  Long  Now  Foundation 10,000  Year  Clock  to  encourage  very-­‐long-­‐term   thinking. Deep  Archival Bruce  Sterling  on  very-­‐long-­‐term  archival. biota.cc/vessel.pdfCLOCK OF THE LONG NOW (Long Now Foundation)Photo via Alijava (CC-BY-SA-2.5) 2007
  49. 49. Exploring further... Mission  launch  capability  as   deep  design  goal Core  Vessel  Archives  as  cargo  on   100YSS  ships biota.cc/vessel.pdfPhoto via Alijava (CC-BY-SA-2.5) 2007
  50. 50. biota.cc/vessel.pdf STAR MAP / © Debra Joiner 2012 / Used by Permission
  51. 51. But  none  of  these  things  matter,in  the  absence  of  a  100  year  answer to  this: STAR MAP / © Debra Joiner 2012 / Used by Permission
  52. 52. PALE BLUE DOT / NASA / JPL 1990
  53. 53. Architect © Vincent Callebaut Architectures 2008LILYPAD / Floating Ecopolis Visualization Used by Permission and © Philippe Steels 2008
  54. 54. James Webb Space Telescope Mirror 37 / NASA / MSFC / David Higginbotham / Emmett Given 2010
  55. 55. The Great Filter James Webb Space Telescope Mirror 37 / NASA / MSFC / David Higginbotham / Emmett Given 2010
  56. 56. The Great Filter We  began  with  the  Great  Silence,  and  end  by   considering  the  Great  Filter. The  Great  Silence  implies  that  one  or  more  of  these  steps  [from   organic  stellar  material  to  expansive  interstellar  life  and  colonization]   are  very  improbable;  there  is  a  “Great  Filter”  along  the  path  between   simple  dead  stuff  and  explosive  life.  The  vast  majority  of  stuff  that   starts  along  this  path  never  makes  it.    [...]    The  fact  that  our  universe   seems  basically  dead  suggests  that  it  is  very  hard  for  advanced   explosive  lasting  life  to  arise. -­‐  Robin  Hanson The  Great  Filter  -­‐  Are  We  Almost  Past  It?    (1998) James Webb Space Telescope Mirror 37 / NASA / MSFC / David Higginbotham / Emmett Given 2010
  57. 57. The Great Filter James Webb Space Telescope Mirror 37 / NASA / MSFC / David Higginbotham / Emmett Given 2010
  58. 58. STEM CELLS / © Douglas B. Cowan 2012 / Used by Permission
  59. 59. Countless Generations to Come STEM CELLS / © Douglas B. Cowan 2012 / Used by Permission
  60. 60. Countless Generations to Come The  stakes  are  high,  but  the  potential  future  benefits  of  undertaking  this   work  are  also  vast,  when  considering  the  long-­‐term  potential  of  our   interstellar  civilization. To  calculate  the  loss  associated  with  an  existential  catastrophe,  we   must  consider  how  much  value  would  come  to  exist  in  its  absence.    It   turns  out  that  the  ultimate  potential  for  Earth-­‐originating  intelligent   life  is  literally  astronomical.  […]  The  relevant  figure  is  not  how  many   people  could  live  on  Earth  but  how  many  descendants  we  could  have  in   total.  ...  Even  if  we  use  the  most  conservative  of  […]  estimates,  […]  we   find  that  the  expected  loss  of  an  existential  catastrophe  is  greater  than   the  value  of  1018  human  lives.    This  implies  that  the  expected  value  of   reducing  existential  risk  by  a  mere  one  millionth  of  one  percentage   point  is  at  least  ten  times  the  value  of  a  billion  human  lives. -­‐  Nick  Bostrom Existential  Risk  Prevention  as  the  Most  Important  Task  for  Humanity  (2011) STEM CELLS / © Douglas B. Cowan 2012 / Used by Permission
  61. 61. ORIGINS / © Lucy West 2012 / Used by Permissionbiota.cc/vessel-slides.pdf
  62. 62. ORIGINS / © Lucy West 2012 / Used by Permissionbiota.cc/vessel-slides.pdf
  63. 63. “The  most  astounding  fact  ...  is  the  knowledge  that  the  atoms  that  comprise  life  on  Earth,  the  atoms  that  make  up  the  human  body,  are  traceable  to  the  crucibles  that  cooked  light  elements  into  heavy  elements  in  their  core  ...  under  extreme  temperatures  and  pressures.    These  stars  ...  went  unstable  in  their  later  years.    They  collapsed  and  then  exploded,  scattering  their  enriched  guts  across  the  galaxy.    Guts  made  of  carbon,  nitrogen,  oxygen,  and  all  the  fundamental  ingredients  of  life  itself.    These  ingredients  become  part  of  gas  clouds  that  condense,  collapse,  form  the  next  generation  of  solar  systems—stars  with  orbiting  planets—and  those  planets  now  have  the  ingredients  for  life  itself.    So  that  when  I  look  up  at  the  night  sky,  and  I  know  that—yes—we  are  part  of  this  universe,  we  are  in  this  universe...    But  perhaps  more  important  than  both  of  those  facts,  is  that  the  universe  is  in  us.    When  I  reflect  on  that  fact,  I  look  up—many  people  feel  small,  because  theyre  small  and  the  universe  is  big;  but  I  feel  big.    Because  my  atoms  came  from  those  stars.”-­‐  Neil  deGrasse  Tyson TIME:  10  Questions  for   Neil  deGrasse   Tyson. ORIGINS / © Lucy West 2012 / Used by Permission biota.cc/vessel-slides.pdf

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