Chapter 9


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Motivation and Emotions

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Chapter 9

  2. 2. MOTIVATION • Is the force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do • Motivated behavior is energized, directed, and sustained • The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms • A general term describing need and instinct regulated behavior with respect to goals • Motivated behavior is any behavior that is energized in an organize fashion to satisfy a need or gain a goal
  3. 3. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • Instinct Theory • Instinct • Is an innate (unlearned) biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species • An inherited behavior pattern in response to an environmental stimulus • Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned • Complexity pattern behavior that is innate to the universe of a species • Evolutionary Theory • Refers to goals and their expected consequences • The evolutionary approach to motivation emphasizes the role of instincts in directing behavior
  4. 4. DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY • Drive-Reduction Theory • Homeostatic Drives for physiological harmony • Specific drives to satisfy a need • When people lack some basic biological requirement such as water, a drive to obtain that requirement is produced • Needs • • Internal deficiency; causes drive • • Is a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation A need is a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation Drives • • Energized motivational state • • Is an aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need Motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior in order to fulfill some need Homeostasis • The body’s tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state • The process by which an organism strives to maintain some optimal level of internal biological function by compensation for deviations from its usual, balanced internal state
  5. 5. OPTIMUM AROUSAL THEORY • Optimum Arousal Theory • Drives seek the highest physiological arousal • There is a level of arousal at which organisms function best • Yerkes-Dodson Law • States that there is an optimal level or arousal for best performance on any task • The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated without interfering with performance
  6. 6. HUNGER • Hunger • Genetic factors play a key role in determining a person’s weight • The resting metabolic rate is the rate at which a person burns calories to keep functioning • The Biology of Hunger • One important factor is changes in the chemical composition of the blood • Changes in levels of glucose regulate feelings of hunger • Gastric Signals • Stomach contractions that cause hunger pains
  7. 7. BLOOD CHEMISTRY • Glucose • • • (Blood sugar) us an important factor in hunger, probably because the brain critically depends on sugar for energy Decrease hunger Insulin • • Increase hunger Leptin • Released by fat cells, decrease food intake and increase, energy expenditure or metabolism, • Decrease hunger • In humans, leptin concentrations have been linked with weight, body fat, and weight loss in response to dieting • A hormone that, when released into the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being full • Role of leptin in obesity • Genetics and obesity
  8. 8. HYPOTHALAMUS • Lateral hypothalamus v. Ventromedial hypothalamus • Lateral hypothalamus • Involved in stimulating eating • lateral hypothalamus is involved in stimulating eating. When an electrical current is passed through this area in a well-fed animal, the animal begins to eat • the later hypothalamus is the part of brain that regulates important bidy functions, including hunger. • Ventromedial hypothalamus • Reducing hunger and restricting eating • ventromedial hypothalamus is involved in reducing hunger and restricting eating. When this area of an animal's brain is stimulated, the animal stops eating
  9. 9. OBESITY • Obesity • A condition in which the body weight of a person is 20 percent or more ove the ideall body weight for that person’ height • 1. Genetics • Metabolism- the rate at which food is converted to energy and expended but the body • 2. Set-point weight • the weight maintained when the individual makes no effort to gain or lose weight • Set point is determined in part by the amount of stored fat in the body • The particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain
  10. 10. SEX • Brain functioning • Brain functioning related to sex radiates outward to connect with a wide range of other brain areas in both the limbic system and the cerebral cortex • Hypothalamus • Motivation for sexual behavior is centered in the hypothalamus • Several brain structure play a role in sexual behavior, but the hypothalamus in the brain is the center for sexual motivation. • Cerebral cortex • Amygdala • Us linked with emotional memories • Plays a central role in the emotion of fear • Is activated when we experience negative emotions • Limbic system • The limbic system, which runs through the hypothalamus, also seems to be involved in sexual behavior
  11. 11. HORMONES/NEUROTRANSMITTERS • Hormones • Related to sex hormones • Testosterone • Neurotransmitters • The release of dopamine • Sane reward in the brain and oxytocin • Dopamine is the neurotransmitter involved with orgasm. • Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response Pattern • 1st to study sexual response • Research to physical actives to sex
  12. 12. SEX EDUCATION • Comprehensive v. Abstinence Approaches • Comprehensive • • Safe sex; practices safe sex; information about sex Abstinence • Don’t do it unless your marriage
  13. 13. KINSEY REPORTS • The Kinsey Reports • Looking in general in what people do by surveying people • Father of sexology • Current Findings • Gender Differences • Male have a stronger sex drive • Female have a wider range with sexualize
  14. 14. SEXUAL ORIENTATION • Sexual Orientation • • • Refers to the direction of his or her erotic interests A person who identifies himself or herself as heterosexual is generally sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex Heterosexual, Homosexual or Bisexual • • Homosexual= 5% of the population • • Heterosexual= opposite sex Bi-sexual= opposite sex plus same sex Origins of Sexual Orientation • • • Brain difference between male and female Social factors Gay and Lesbian Functioning
  15. 15. PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Hierarchy of needs=that must be satisfied in the following sequence: physiological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. • According to Maslow, higher level needs are seen in a person when their basic needs are relatively sated • Self-Actualization • • Self-actualization is possible only after the other needs in the hierarchy are met • • The highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs, is the motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being. Self-actualization occurs when one reaches their full potential as a human being Deci and Ryan’s Self-Determination Theory • Self-determination theory=asserts that there are three basic organismic needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy • They are basic to human growth and functioning, just as water, soil, and sunshine are necessary for plant growth.
  16. 16. THE PURSUIT OF GOALS • Self-regulation • The process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important objectives • A key aspect of self-regulation is getting feedback about how we are doing in our goal pursuits • The process by which an organism pursues important objectives by setting goals and monitoring progress is called self-regulation
  17. 17. EMOTION • Is feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal (such as a fast heartbeat), conscious experience (thinking about being in love with someone), and behavioral expression (a smile or grimace). • Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior
  18. 18. BIOLOGY OF EMOTION • Autonomic Nervous System • • Neural system that connects brain with internal organs and glandes Sympathetic v. Parasympathetic • Sympathetic • Sympathetic nervous system=arouses the body in reaction to a stressor, evoking the fight-or-flight response • Part on the autonomic nervous system that activates body for emergency action • • Parasympathetic • Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)= calms the body. • • Promotes relaxation and healing • • Whereas the sympathetic nervous system prepares the individual for fighting or running away Part of the autonomic nervous System that quiets body and conserves energy Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems evolved to improve the human species' likelihood for survival
  19. 19. MEASURING AROUSAL • Skin Conductance Level • • Skin conductance level (SCL) response, a rise in the skin's electrical conductivity when sweat gland activity increases Polygraph • A machine examiners use to try to determine whether someone is lying. • Polygraph monitors changes in the body—heart rate, breathing, and SCL—thought to be influenced by emotional states • Amygdala • Part of limbic system that produces fear responses
  20. 20. THEORIES OF EMOTION • James-Lange Theory • • The theory proposes that after the initial perception of a stimulus, the experience of the emotion results from the perception of one's own physiological changes (changes in heart rate, breathing, and sweating patterns, for example). • • Emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment The belief that emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation Cannon-Bard Theory • • The body plays a less important role than in the James-Lange theory. • • The proposition that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously The belief that both physiological and emotional arousal are produced simultaneously by the same nerve impulse . Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory • The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a non-specific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cue • Support a cognitive view of emotions • Participants who were exposed tp the “angry” man interpreted their physical arousal as anger • Participants who were exposed to the “happy” man interpreted their phusical arousal as happiness
  21. 21. FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS • Facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect the • Facial expressions not only reflect emotional experience, they also help determine how people experience and label emotions
  22. 22. GENDER DIFFERENCES • Men and women feel emotions equally, but express them differently • Men and women may experience different emotions in the same situation • Anger • Men tend to direct their anger outward • Women tend to direct their anger inward • Women are more skilled at understanding nonverbal components or emotion
  23. 23. CLASSIFYING EMOTIONS • Valence • • Refers to whether it feels pleasant or unpleasant Arousal • Arousal level of an emotion is the degree to which the emotion is reflected in an individual's being active, engaged, or excited versus being more passive, relatively disengaged, or calm.