Chapter 8 Human Development Psy

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Psychology: Human Development
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Chapter 8 Human Development Psy

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENT • DEVELOPMENT • REFERS TO THE PATTERN OF CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN HUMAN CAPABILITIES THAT OCCURS THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF LIFE • THE PATTERN OF CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN A HUMAN CAPABILITIES THAT OCCURS THROUGH A LIFE, INVOLVING BOTH GROWTH AND DECLINE • THE STUDY OF HOW HUMAN GROW, DEVELOP, AND CHANGE THROUGHOUT O LIFE SPAN
  2. 2. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES • CROSS- SECTIONAL STUDIES • A NUMBER OF PEOPLE ARE ASSESSED AT ONE POINT IN TIME, AGE DIFFERENCES CAN THEN BE NOTED. • A RESEARCH DESIGN IN WHICH GROUP OF PEOPLE ARE ASSESSED ON A PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLE AT ONE POINT IN TIME
  3. 3. RESILIENCE • REFERS TO A PERSON'S ABILITY TO RECOVER FROM OR ADAPT TO DIFFICULT TIMES. RESILIENCE MEANS THAT DESPITE ENCOUNTERING ADVERSITY, A PERSON SHOWS SIGNS OF POSITIVE FUNCTIONING • A PERSON‟S ABILITY TO RECOVER FROM OR ADAPT TO DIFFICULT TIMES • RESILIENCE MEANS THAT DESPITE ENCOUNTERING ADVERSITY, A PERSON SHOWS SIGNS OF POSITIVE FUNCTIONING
  4. 4. PHYSICAL, COGNITIVE, AND SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES • PHYSICAL PROCESSES: • INVOLVE CHANGES IN AN INDIVIDUAL‟S BIOLOGICAL NATURE. • GENES INHERITED FROM PARENTS. THE HORMONAL CHANGES OF PUBERTY AND MENOPAUSE, AND THE CHANGES THROUGHOUT LIFE IN THE BRAIN, HEIGHT, AND WEIGHT, AND MORTAR SKILLS ALL REELECT THE DEVELOPMENT • COGNITIVE PROCESSES: • INVOLVE CHANGED IN AN INDIVIDUAL‟S THOUGHT, INTELLIGENCE, AND LANGUAGE • SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES • INVOLVE CHANGES IN AN INDIVIDUAL'S RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER PEOPLE. CHANGES IN EMOTIONS, AND CHANGES IN PERSONALITY
  5. 5. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • IS A TIME OF ASTONISHING CHANGE, BEGINNING WITH THE CONCEPTION • CONCEPTION • OCCURS WHEN A SINGLE SPERM CELL FROM THE MALE MERGES WITH THE FEMALE‟S OVUM (EGG ) TO PRODUCE A ZYGOTE, A SINGLE CELL WITH 23 CHROMOSOMES FROM THE MOTHER AND 23 FROM THE FATHER • WHEN A SPERM PENETRATES THE OVUM • ZYGOTE • FERTILIZED EGG
  6. 6. GERMINAL PERIOD • WEEKS 1 AND 2: THE GERMINAL PERIOD BEGINS WITH CONCEPTION. AFTER 1 WEEK AND MANY CELL DIVISIONS, THE ZYGOTE IS MADE UP OF 100 TO 150 CELLS. BY THE END OF 2 WEEKS, THE MASS OF CELLS HAS ATTACHED TO THE UTERINE WALL. • FIRST TWO WEEKS AFTER CONCEPTION
  7. 7. EMBRYONIC PERIOD • WEEKS 3 THROUGH 8: THE RATE OF CELL DIFFERENTIATION INTENSIFIES, SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE CELLS DEVELOP, AND THE BEGINNINGS OF ORGANS APPEAR (FIGURE 8.1A). IN THE THIRD WEEK, THE NEURAL TUBE, WHICH EVENTUALLY BECOMES THE SPINAL CORD, STARTS TO TAKE SHAPE • WEEKS THREE THROUGH EIGHT AFTER CONCEPTION
  8. 8. FETAL PERIOD • MONTHS 2 THROUGH 9: AT 2 MONTHS, THE FETUS IS THE SIZE OF A KIDNEY BEAN AND HAS ALREADY STARTED TO MOVE AROUND. AT 4 MONTHS, THE FETUS IS 5 INCHES LONG AND WEIGHS ABOUT 5 OUNCES • TWO MONTHS AFTER CONCEPTION UNTIL BIRTH
  9. 9. TERATOGENS • IS AN AGENT OR PROCEDURE WHICH ELICITS SUCH IRREGULAR OR ODD GROWTH; A PROCEDURE REFERRE TO AS TERATO-GENESIS; A TERATOMORPH IS A FETUS OR CHILD WITH GROWTH IRREGULARITIES • GROWTH OF A CHILD IS UNMORAL
  10. 10. INFANT DEVELOPMENT • REFLEXES • • • ROOTING-TURNING THE HEAD AND OPENING THE MOUTH IN THE DIRECTION OF A TOUCH ON THE CHEEK SUCKING- SUCKING RHYTHMICALLY IN RESPONSE TO ORAL STIMULATION GRASPING-CURLING THE FINGERS AROUND AN OBJECT • TECHNIQUE INVOLVES GIVING AN INFANT A CHOICE OF WHAT OBJECT TO LOOK AT. IF AN INFANT SHOWS A RELIABLE PREFERENCE FOR ONE STIMULUS (SAY, A PICTURE OF A FACE) OVER ANOTHER (A SCRAMBLED PICTURE OF A FACE) WHEN THESE ARE REPEATEDLY PRESENTED IN DIFFERING LOCATIONS, WE CAN INFER THAT THE INFANT CAN TELL THE TWO IMAGES APART. RESEARCH TECHNIQUE THAT INVOLVES GIVING AN INFANT A CHOICE OF WHAT OBJECT TO LOOK AT • PREFERENTIAL LOOKING •
  11. 11. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE • PUBERTY • PERIOD OF RAPID SKELETAL AND SEXUAL MATURATION THAT OCCURS MAINLY IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE • ANDROGENS V. ESTROGENS • ANDROGENS • THE CLASS OF SEX THAT PREDOMINATES IN MALES. PRODUCED BY THE TESTES IN MALES, AND BY THE ADRENAL GLANDS IN BOTH MALE AND FEMALE • FOR MEN, HIGHER ANDROGEN LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SEXUAL MOTIVATION AND ORGASM FREQUENCY • THE CLASS OF SEX HORMONES THAT PREDOMINATE IN FEMALES PRODUCED MAINLY BY THE OVARIES • ESTROGENS
  12. 12. CHILDHOOD COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • PIAGET‟S THEORY • • • JEAN PIAGET (1896-1980) SWISS PSYCHOLOGIST WHO BECAME LEADING THEORIST IN 1930S PIAGET BELIEVED THAT “CHILDREN ARE ACTIVE THINKERS, CONSTANTLY TRYING TO CONSTRUCT MORE ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD” COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS A STAGE PROCESS • PIAGET‟S APPROACH • • • PRIMARY METHOD WAS TO ASK CHILDREN TO SOLVE PROBLEMS AND TO QUESTION THEM ABOUT THE REASONING BEHIND THEIR SOLUTION DISCOVERED THAT CHILDREN THINK IN RADICALLY DIFFERENT WAYS THAN ADULTS PROPOSED THAT DEVELOPMENT OCCURS AS A SERIES OF „STAGES‟ DIFFERING IN HOW THE WORLD IS UNDERSTOOD
  13. 13. SCHEMAS, ASSIMILATION AND ACCOMMODATION • SCHEMAS • CONCEPTS OR FRAMEWORKS THAT ORGANIZE INFORMATION • • OCCURS WHEN INDIVIDUALS INCORPORATE NEW INFORMATION INTO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE INDIVIDUAL‟S INCORPORATION OF NEW INFORMATION INTO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE • • • OCCURS WHEN INDIVIDUALS ADJUST THEIR SCHEMAS TO NEW INFORMATION AN INDIVIDUAL‟S ADJUSTMENT OF HIS OR HER SCHEMES TO NEW INFORMATION ADJUST SCHEMAS TO NEW INFORMATION • ASSIMILATION • ACCOMMODATION
  14. 14. PIAGET‟S STAGES • SENSORIMOTOR • • • • • • • INFANT EXPERIENCES WORLD IN SENSORY INFORMATION AND MOTOR ACTIVITIES LASTS FROM BIRTH TO ABOUT 2 YEARS OF AGE. IN THIS STAGE , INFANTS CONSTRUCT AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD BY COORDINATING SENSORY EXPERIENCES (SUCH AS SEEING AND HEARING) WITH MOTOR (PHYSICAL) ACTIONS—HENCE THE TERM SENSORIMOTOR PIAGET‟S FIRST STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, LASTING FROM BIRTH TO ABOUT 2 YRS. OF AGE, DURING WHICH INFANTS CONSTRUCT AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD BY COORDINATING SENSORY EXPERIENCES WITH MOTOR (PHYSICAL) ACTIONS INFORMATION IS GAIN THROUGH THE SENSE AND MOTOR ACTIONS CHILD PERCEIVES AND MANIPULATES BUT DOES NOT REASON SYMBOLS BECOME INTERNALIZED THROUGH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT COORDINATE SENSATIONS WITH MOVEMENTS
  15. 15. PIAGET‟S STAGES • OBJECT PERMANCE • IS PIAGET'S TERM FOR THE CRUCIAL ACCOMPLISHMENT OF UNDERSTANDING THAT OBJECTS CONTINUE TO EXIST EVEN WHEN THEY CANNOT DIRECTLY BE SEEN, HEARD, OR TOUCHED • PIAGET‟S TERM FOR THE CRUCIAL ACCOMPLISHMENT OF UNDERSTANDING THAT OBJECT AND EVENTS CONTINUE TO EXIST EVEN WHEN THEY CANNOT DIRECTLY BE SEEN, HEARD, OR TOUCHED • THE UNDERSTANDING THAT OBJECTS EXIST INDEPENDENT OF ONE‟S ACTIONS OR PERCEPTION OF THEM
  16. 16. PREOPERATIONAL • PIAGET‟S SECOND STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT LASTING FROM ABOUT 2-7 YEARS OF AGE, DURING WHICH THOUGHT IS MORE SYMBOLIC THAN SENSORIMOTOR THOUGHTS • PREOPERATIONAL THOUGHT IS MORE SYMBOLIC THAN SENSORIMOTOR THOUGHT. IN PRESCHOOL YEARS, CHILDREN BEGIN TO REPRESENT THEIR WORLD WITH WORDS, IMAGES, AND DRAWINGS. • CHILDREN SOMETIMES THINK ILLOGICALLY BY ADULT STANDARDS • SYMBOLIC THINKING, LANGUAGE USED; EGOCENTRIC THINKING, IMAGINATION/EXPERIENCE GROW, CHILD DE-CENTERS
  17. 17. FORMAL OPERATIONAL • FORMAL OPERATIONAL • PIAGET‟S FOURTH STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, WHICH BEGINS AT 11 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE AND CONTINUES THROUGH THE ADULT YEARS; IT FEATURES THINKING ABOUT THINGS THAT ARE NOT CONCRETE, MAKING PREDICTIONS, AND USING LOGIC TO COME UP WITH HYPOTHESES ABOUT THE FUTURE • USE OF FULL ADULT LOGIC • THINKS ABSTRACTLY, HYPOTHETICAL IDEAS: ETHICS, POLITICS, SOCIAL/MORAL ISSUES EXPLORED • HYPOTHETICAL-DEDUCTIVE THINKING • THE ABILITY TO APPLY LOGICAL THOUGHT TO ABSTRACT AND HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS IN THE PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
  18. 18. CRITIQUE OF PIAGET‟S THEORY • UNDERESTIMATES CHILDREN‟S ABILITIES • OVERESTIMATES AGE DIFFERENCES IN THINKING • VAGUENESS ABOUT THE PROCESS OF CHANGE • UNDERESTIMATES THE ROLE OF THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT • LACK OF EVIDENCE FOR QUALITATIVELY DIFFERENT STAGES
  19. 19. EVALUATING PIAGET‟S THEORY • SOME COGNITIVE ABILITIES EMERGE EARLIER THAN PIAGET THOUGHT • PIAGET OVERESTIMATED FORMAL OPERATIONS • CULTURE AND EDUCATION ALSO INFLUENCE DEVELOPMENT
  20. 20. VYGOTSKY‟S SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACH • EMPHASIZED THE CHILD‟S INTERACTION WITH THE SOCIAL WORLD AS A CAUSE OF DEVELOPMENT • VYGOTSKY BELIEVED LANGUAGE TO BE THE FOUNDATION OF SOCIAL INTERACTION AND THOUGHT • PIAGET BELIEVED LANGUAGE WAS A BYPRODUCT OF THOUGHT
  21. 21. HARLOW‟S STUDY • • • • • SOCIAL ISOLATION LEADS TO SERIOUS PROBLEMS NORMAL DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES AFFECTIONATE CONTACT LACK OF SOCIAL CONTACT, RATHER THAN LACK OF PARENT CAUSES THE PROBLEM LESSER PERIODS OF ISOLATION MAY BE OVERCOME, LONGER PERIODS CAUSE IRRITABLE DAMAGE HARLOW STUDY- INFANT RHESUS MONKEYS • • • US IT NOURISHMENT OR CONTACT THAT MATTERS? CHOOSE BETWEEN TWO SURROGATE “MOTHERS” • • COLD WIRE MOTHER VERSUS WARM CLOTH MOTHER INFANTS PREFERRED CLOTH MOTHER ACROSS SITUATIONS CONTACT COMFORT IS CRITICAL TO ATTACHMENT
  22. 22. AINSWOTH‟S STRANGE SITUATION • USED TO STUDY QUALITY OF ATTACHMENT IN INFANTS • OBSERVE CHILD‟S REACTION WHEN MOTHER IS PRESENT WITH THE CHILD IN A “STRANGE” ROOM • OBSERVE THE CHILD‟S REACTION WHEN MOTHER LEAVES • OBSERVES THE CHILD‟S REACTION WHEN MOTHER RETURNS
  23. 23. ERIKSON‟S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES • TRUST VERSUS MISTRUST: INFANCY (BIRTH TO 1½ YEARS) IS CONCERNED WITH ESTABLISHING TRUST IN THE SOCIAL WORLD. AT THIS STAGE, THE HELPLESS INFANT DEPENDS ON CAREGIVERS TO ESTABLISH A SENSE THAT THE WORLD IS A PREDICTABLE AND FRIENDLY PLACE. ONCE TRUST IS ESTABLISHED, TODDLERS BEGIN TO SEE THEMSELVES AS INDEPENDENT AGENTS IN THE WORLD. • AUTONOMY VERSUS SHAME AND GUILT: DURING TODDLERHOOD (1½ TO 3 YEARS), CHILDREN, MANY OF WHOM ARE GOING THROUGH TOILET TRAINING, EXPERIENCE THE BEGINNINGS OF SELF-CONTROL. WHEN THESE YOUNG CHILDREN HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO EXPERIENCE CONTROL OVER THEIR OWN BEHAVIORS, THEY DEVELOP THE CAPACITY FOR INDEPENDENCE AND CONFIDENCE.
  24. 24. ERIKSON‟S THEORY STAGES • INITIATIVE VERSUS GUILT: IN EARLY CHILDHOOD (AGES 3 TO 5), PRESCHOOLERS EXPERIENCE WHAT IT IS LIKE TO FORGE THEIR OWN INTERESTS AND FRIENDSHIPS AND TO TAKE ON RESPONSIBILITIES. IF YOU HAVE EVER SPENT TIME WITH A 3-YEAR-OLD, YOU KNOW HOW OFTEN THE CHILD WANTS TO HELP WITH WHATEVER AN ADULT IS DOING. WHEN THEY EXPERIENCE A SENSE OF TAKING ON RESPONSIBILITY, PRESCHOOLERS DEVELOP INITIATIVE. OTHERWISE, ACCORDING TO ERIKSON, THEY MAY FEEL GUILTY OR ANXIOUS. • INDUSTRY VERSUS INFERIORITY: DURING MIDDLE AND LATE CHILDHOOD (6 YEARS TO PUBERTY), CHILDREN ENTER SCHOOL AND GAIN COMPETENCE IN ACADEMIC SKILLS. JUST AS THE LABEL INDUSTRY WOULD SUGGEST, CHILDREN FIND THAT THIS IS THE TIME TO GET TO WORK, LEARN, ACHIEVE, AND LEARN TO ENJOY LEARNING.
  25. 25. PARENTING STYLES • AUTHORITARIAN-VALUE OBEDIENCE AND USE A HIGH DEGREE OF POWER ASSERTION THE AUTHORITARIAN PARENT FIRMLY LIMITS AND CONTROLS THE CHILD WITH LITTLE VERBAL EXCHANGE. IN A DIFFERENCE OF OPINION ABOUT HOW TO DO SOMETHING, FOR EXAMPLE, THE AUTHORITARIAN PARENT MIGHT SAY, “YOU DO IT MY WAY OR ELSE.” CHILDREN OF AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS SOMETIMES LACK SOCIAL SKILLS, SHOW POOR INITIATIVE, AND COMPARE THEMSELVES WITH OTHERS • • • • • MAKE ARBITRARY RULES, EXPECT UNQUESTIONING OBEDIENCE, PUNISH TRANSGRESSIONS PARENTS ARE CONTROLLING AND PUNITIVE CORRELATED WITH LACK OF IMITATIVE, POOR COMMUNICATION SKILLS, SOCIAL INCOMPETENCE AUTHORITATIVE-LESS CONCERNED WITH OBEDIENCE, GREATER USE OF INDUCTION • • • • AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING ENCOURAGES THE CHILD TO BE INDEPENDENT BUT STILL PLACES LIMITS AND CONTROLS ON BEHAVIOR SET HIGH BUT REALISTIC STANDARDS, REASON WITH CHILD, ENFORCE LIMITS, AND ENCOURAGE OPEN COMMUNICATION AND INDEPENDENCE PARENTS ENCOURAGE INDEPENDENCE WITH LIMITS CORRELATED WITH SOCIAL COMPETENCE, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, AND SELF-RELIANCE
  26. 26. PARENTING STYLES • PERMISSIVE-MOST TOLERANT, LEAST LIKELY TO USE DISCIPLINE • • • • PERMISSIVE PARENTING PLACES FEW LIMITS ON THE CHILD'S BEHAVIOR. A PERMISSIVE PARENT LETS THE CHILD DO WHAT HE OR SHE WANTS MAKE FEW RULES OR DEMANDS, ALLOW CHILDREN TO MAKE THEIR OWN DECISIONS AND CONTROL THEIR BEHAVIOR PARENTS ARE INVOLVED, BUT PLACE FEW LIMITS • NEGLECTFUL-COMPLETELY UNINVOLVED • • • NEGLECTFUL PARENTING IS DISTINGUISHED BY A LACK OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN THE CHILD'S LIFE PARENTS ARE GENERALLY UNINVOLVED CORRELATED WITH LESS SOCIAL INCOMPETENCE AND POOR SELF-CONTROL
  27. 27. SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE • ERIKSON‟S IDENTITY V. IDENTITY CONFUSION • IDENTITY, ADOLESCENTS MUST FIND OUT WHO THEY ARE, WHAT THEY ARE ALL ABOUT, AND WHERE THEY ARE GOING IN LIFE. • THOSE WHO DO NOT SUCCESSFULLY RESOLVE THE CRISIS BECOME CONFUSED, SUFFERING WHAT ERIKSON CALLS IDENTITY CONFUSION.
  28. 28. MARCIA‟S THEORY OF IDENTITY STATUS • JAMES MARCIA PROPOSED THE CONCEPT OF IDENTITY STATUS TO DESCRIBE AN ADOLESCENT'S POSITION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDENTITY • EXPLORATION REFERS TO A PERSON'S INVESTIGATING VARIOUS OPTIONS FOR A CAREER AND FOR PERSONAL VALUE • COMMITMENT INVOLVES DECIDING WHICH IDENTITY PATH TO FOLLOW AND PERSONALLY INVESTING IN AT • IDENTITY DIFFUSION: THE ADOLESCENT HAS NEITHER EXPLORED NOR COMMITTED TO AN IDENTITY. • ADOLESCENTS EXPERIENCING IDENTITY DIFFUSION MAY DESCRIBE THEMSELVES AS NOT CARING ABOUT MUCH IN THE WORLD TAINING THAT IDENTITY
  29. 29. • IDENTITY MORATORIUM: THE ADOLESCENT IS ACTIVELY EXPLORING AND TRYING ON NEW ROLES BUT HAS NOT COMMITTED TO A PARTICULAR IDENTITY. • IDENTITY FORECLOSURE: THE ADOLESCENT HAS COMMITTED TO A PARTICULAR IDENTITY BUT HAS DONE SO WITHOUT ACTUALLY EXPLORING HIS OR HER OPTIONS • IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT: AFTER EXPLORING THE OPTIONS AND COMMITTING TO AN IDENTITY, THE ADOLESCENT EMERGES WITH A SENSE OF HIS OR HER OWN VALUES AND PRINCIPLES, A SENSE OF THE KIND OF PERSON HE OR SHE WISHES TO BE, AND GOAL COMMITMENTS THAT PROVIDE HIS OR HER LIFE WITH A FEELING OF PURPOSE.
  30. 30. ERIKSON‟S ADULT STAGES OF SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • IDENTITY EXPLORATION, ESPECIALLY IN LOVE AND WORK: EMERGING ADULTHOOD IS THE TIME OF SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN IDENTITY FOR MANY INDIVIDUALS. • INSTABILITY: RESIDENTIAL CHANGES PEAK DURING EMERGING ADULTHOOD, A TIME DURING WHICH THERE ALSO IS OFTEN INSTABILITY IN LOVE, WORK, AND EDUCATION. • SELF-FOCUS: EMERGING ADULTS “ARE SELF-FOCUSED IN THE SENSE THAT THEY HAVE LITTLE IN THE WAY OF SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS, LITTLE IN THE WAY OF DUTIES AND COMMITMENTS TO OTHERS, WHICH LEAVES THEM WITH A GREAT DEAL OF AUTONOMY IN RUNNING THEIR OWN LIVES” (ARNETT, 2006, P. 10). • FEELING “IN BETWEEN”: MANY EMERGING ADULTS CONSIDER THEMSELVES NEITHER ADOLESCENTS NOR FULLFLEDGED ADULTS.
  31. 31. SOCIAL FACTORS • GENDER ROLES • ROLES THAT REFLECT THE INDIVIDUAL‟S EXPECTATIONS FOR HOW FEMALES AND MALES SHOULD THINK, ACT, AND FEEL. • CULTURE PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN THE CONTENT OF GENDER ROLES • • SOME CULTURES EMPHASIZE THAT CHILDREN SHOULD BE REARED TO ADOPT TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES OTHER CULTURES EMPHASIZE REARING BOYS AND GIRLS TO BE MORE SIMILAR—RAISING BOYS TO BE JUST AS CARING TOWARD OTHERS AS GIRLS AND RAISING GIRLS TO BE JUST AS ASSERTIVE AS BOYS • GENDER SIMILARITIES • HYDE‟S PROPOSITION THAT MEN AND WOMEN( AND BOYS AND GIRLS) ARE MUCH MORE SIMILAR THAN THEY ARE DIFFERENT
  32. 32. KOHLBERG‟S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT • PRECONVENTIONAL MORALITY • THE INDIVIDUAL'S MORAL REASONING IS BASED PRIMARILY ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF A BEHAVIOR AND ON PUNISHMENTS AND REWARDS FROM THE EXTERNAL WORLD. REASONING IS GUIDED BY NOT WANTING HEINZ TO GO TO JAIL OR BY CONCERN FOR THE PHARMACIST'S PROFITS.
  33. 33. KOHLBERG‟S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT • CONVENTIONAL MORALITY • THE INDIVIDUAL ABIDES BY STANDARDS LEARNED FROM PARENTS OR SOCIETY'S LAWS. AT THIS LEVEL THE PERSON MIGHT REASON THAT HEINZ SHOULD ACT IN ACCORD WITH EXPECTATIONS OR HIS ROLE AS A GOOD HUSBAND OR SHOULD FOLLOW THE LAW NO MATTER WHAT
  34. 34. KOHLBERG‟S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT • POST-CONVENTIONAL MORALITY • THE INDIVIDUAL RECOGNIZES ALTERNATIVE MORAL COURSES, EXPLORES THE OPTIONS, AND THEN DEVELOPS AN INCREASINGLY PERSONAL MORAL CODE. AT THIS LEVEL, THE PERSON MIGHT REASON THAT HEINZ'S WIFE'S LIFE IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN A LAW.
  35. 35. DEATH, DYING, AND GREVING • TERROR MANAGEMENT THEORY • THE STUDY OF HOW HUMAN BEINGS REACT TO THE CONCEPT OF DEATH
  36. 36. KUBLER-ROSS‟S STAGES OF DEATH • DENIAL: THE PERSON REJECTS THE REALITY OF IMPENDING DEATH. HE OR SHE MAY EXPRESS THOUGHTS SUCH AS “I FEEL FINE—THIS CANNOT BE • ANGER: ONCE THE REALITY OF DEATH SETS IN, THE INDIVIDUAL FEELS ANGRY AND ASKS, “WHY ME?” THE UNFAIRNESS OF THE SITUATION MAY BE • BARGAINING: THE INDIVIDUAL MAY BARGAIN WITH GOD, WITH DOCTORS, OR WITHIN HIS OR HER OWN HEAD: “IF I CAN JUST HAVE A LITTLE MORE • • DEPRESSION: THE PERSON FEELS PROFOUND SADNESS AND MAY BEGIN TO GIVE UP ON LIFE: “WHAT'S THE POINT OF DOING ANYTHING?” • KÜBLER-ROSS EVENTUALLY APPLIED HER STAGES OF DYING TO A VARIETY OF LIFE EXPERIENCES, SUCH AS GRIEVING FOR A LOVED ONE OR MOURNING THE LOSS OF A JOB OR RELATIONSHIP TRUE.” ESPECIALLY UPSETTING. TIME, I'LL DO ANYTHING.” ACCEPTANCE: THE PERSON COMES TO TERMS WITH THE DIFFICULT REALITY OF HIS OR HER OWN DEATH. A REALIZATION SETS IN THAT “IT WILL BE OKAY.”
  37. 37. BONANNO‟S THEORY OF GRIEVING • RESILIENCE: RESILIENT INDIVIDUALS EXPERIENCE IMMEDIATE GRIEF OVER THEIR LOSS BUT ONLY FOR A BRIEF TIME AND RETURN • RECOVERY: IN THE RECOVERY PATTERN, THE INDIVIDUAL EXPERIENCES PROFOUND SADNESS AND GRIEF THAT DISSIPATES MORE • CHRONIC DYSFUNCTION: IN THIS CASE, A TRAUMATIC GRIEF EXPERIENCE LEADS TO A LONG-TERM DISRUPTION OF FUNCTIONING IN • DELAYED GRIEF OR TRAUMA: SOME INDIVIDUALS DO NOT EXPERIENCE THE SADNESS OR DISTRESS EVOKED BY A LOSS IMMEDIATELY QUICKLY TO THEIR PREVIOUS LEVELS OF FUNCTIONING. SUCH INDIVIDUALS DO NOT EXPERIENCE A PROFOUND DISRUPTION OF LIFE, DESPITE HAVING GONE THROUGH A STAGGERING LOSS. SLOWLY. THE INDIVIDUAL WILL ULTIMATELY RETURN TO PREVIOUS LEVELS OF FUNCTIONING, BUT AS A MUCH SLOWER AND MORE GRADUAL UNFOLDING OVER TIME. IMPORTANT LIFE DOMAINS. CHRONICALLY DYSFUNCTIONAL INDIVIDUALS MAY ULTIMATELY BE AT RISK FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS SUCH AS DEPRESSION, WHICH WE WILL CONSIDER IN CHAPTER 12. FOLLOWING THAT LOSS. INSTEAD, THESE INTENSE FEELINGS MAY COME OVER THE PERSON WEEKS OR EVEN MONTHS LATER.

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