Chapter 42 Circulation and gas exchange


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Chapter 42 Circulation and gas exchange

  2. 2. VOCABULARY • Heart • Muscular pump that uses metabolic energy to elevate the hydrostratic pressure of the circulatory fluid (blood or hemolymph); fluid then flows down a pressure gradient through the body and eventually returns to the heart • Open circulatory system • Circulatory system in which fluid called hemolymph bathes the tissues and organs directly and there is no distinction between the circulating fluid and the interstitial fluid • Hemolymph • Invertebrates with an open circulatory system. The body fluid that bathes tiissues • Closed circulatory system • Circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid • Blood • Cardiovascular system • Closed circulatory system with a heart and branching network of arties. Capillaries, and veins’ characteristic of vertebrates • Arteries • Vessel that carries blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body • Arterioles • Small vessel tgat convey blood to the capillaries
  3. 3. • Capillaries • Are microscopic vessels with very thin, porus walls • Capillary beds • Network of capillaries in a tissue or organ • Venules • A vessel tat conveys blood between a capillary bed and a vein • Veinsatria • Ventricles • Heart chamber that pumps blood out of the heart; a space in the vertebrate brain, filled with cerebrospinal fluid • Single circulation • Circulatory system consisting of a single pump and circuit, in which blood passes from the sites of gas exchange to the rest of the body before returning to the heart • Double circulation • Circulatory system consisting of separate pulmonary and systemic circuits, in which blood passes through the heart after completing each circuit
  4. 4. • Pulmonary circuit • Branch of the circulatory system that supplies the lungs • Pulmocutaneous circuit • Branch of the circulatory system in many amphibans that supplies the lungs and skin • Systemic circuit • Branch of the circulatory system that supplies all body organs except those involved in gas exchange • Cardiac cycle • Alternating contractions and relaxations of the heart • Systole • Stage of the cardiac cycle in which a heart chamber contracts and pumps blood • Cardiac output • Volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle of the heart • Heart rate • Frequency of heart contraction • Stroke volume • Volume of blood pumped by a heart ventricle in a single contraction
  5. 5. • Atrioventricular vale • Heart valve located between each atrium and ventricle that prevents a backflow of blood when the ventricle contracts • Semilunar valves • Vale located at each exited the heart, where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle • Heart murmur • Hissing sound that most often results from blood squirting backward through a leaky valve in the heart • Sinoatrial node • Region in the right atrium of the heart that sets the rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract; the pacemaker • Electrocardiogram • Record of the electrical impulses that travel through heart muscle during the cardiac cycle • EKG • Atrioventricular node • Region of specialized heart muscle tissue between the left and right atria where electrical impulses are delayed for about 0.1 second befor spreading to both ventricles causing them to contract • Endothelium • Simple squamous layer of cells lining the lumen of blood vessels
  6. 6. • Systolic pressure • Blood pressure in the arties during contraction of the ventircles • Pulse • Rhythmic bulging of the artery walls with each heartbeat • Diastolic Pressure • blood pressure in the arties when the ventricles are relaxed • Vasoconstriction • Decrease in the diameter of blood vessels caused by contraction of smooth muscles in the vessel walls • Vasodilation • Increase in the diameter of blood vessels caused by relaxation of smooth muscles in the vessel walls • Lymphatic system • System of vessels and nodes, separate from the circulatory system, that returns fluid, proteins, and cells to the blood • Lymph • Colorless fluid, derived from interstitial fluid, in the lymphatic system of vertebrates
  7. 7. • Lymph nodes • Organ located along a lymph vessel. • Lymph nodes filter lymph and contain cells to the blood • Plasma • Liquid matrix of blood in which the cells are suspended • Platelets • Pinched-off cytoplasmic fragment of a specialized bone marrow cell. Circulate in blood and are important in blood clotting • Erythrocytes • Blood cell that contains hemoglobin, which transports oxygen; also called a red blood cell • Hemoglobin • Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen • Leukocytes • Blood cell that functions in fighting infections
  8. 8. • Thrombus • Fibrin-containing clotthat forms in a blood vessel and blocksthe flow of blood • Stem Cells • Any relatively unspecialized cell that can produce, during a single division. One identical daughter cell and one more specialized daughter cell that can undergo further differentiation • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) • Particle in the blood made up of thousands of cholesterol molecules and other lipids bound to a protein • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) • Particle in the blood made up of cholesterol and other lipids surrounded by a single layer of phospholipid[ids in which proteins are embedde7 • Heart attack • Damage or death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from prolonged blockage of one or more coronary arteries
  9. 9. • Stroke • Death of nervous tissue in the brain.usually resulting from reupture or blockage of arteries in the head • Hypertension • Disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high • Gas exchange • Uptake of molecular oxygen from the environment and the discharge of carbon dioxide to the environment • Partial pressure • Pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture of gases • Ventilation • Countercurrent exchange • Exchange of a substance or heat between two fluids flowing in opposite direction • Tracheal system • Insects, a system of branched, air-filled tubes thagt extends throughout the body and carries oxygen directly to cells • Lungs • Infolded respiratory surface of a terrestrial vertebrate, land snaul, or spider that connects to the atmosphere by a narrow tubes
  10. 10. • Larynx • Portion of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cored; also known as the voice box • Trachea • Portion of the respiratory tract that passes from the larynx to the bronchi; also known as the windpipe • Bronchi • One of a pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs • Bronchioles • Fine branch of the bronchi that transports air to alveoli • Alveoli • One of the dead-end, multilobed air sacs where gas exchange occurs in a mammalian lung • Surfactants • Substance secreted by alveoli that decrease surface tension in the fluid that coats the alveoli • Positive pressure breathing • Breathing system in which air is forced into the lungs
  11. 11. • Negative pressure breathing • Breathing system in which air is pulled into the lungs • Diaphragm • Sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the thoracic cavity in mammals • Tidal volume • Volume of air a mammal inhales and exhale in each breath • Vital capacity • Maximum volume of air that a mammal can inhale and exhale with each breath • Residual volume • Amount of air that remains in the lungs after forceful exhalation • Respiratory pigments • Protein that transports oxygen in blood or hemolymph • Myoglobin • Oxygen- storing, pigmented protein in muscle cells
  12. 12. 3 JOBS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM • Transport • Moves Material around (oxygen, minerals, proteins and etc.) • Regulation • Transport hormones and help maintain hormones • Protection
  13. 13. DIFFERENT BETWEEN OPEN AND CLOSED SYSTEM • Open System • Every thing is mix together • No distinction between circulating fluid and fluid of body tissue • Closed System • Circulating fluid is always enclosed within vessels that transport blood away from and back to pump the heart • Overview of Close and Open System • Open System- there is no distinction or separations between the circulating fluid and the body fluids • Closed System- circulating fluid (blood) never leaves the blood vessel
  14. 14. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT • Pulmonary Circuit • Moves the blood from the heart to the lungs and back t the heart • Systemic Circuit • Moves the blood from the heart to the body and back to the heart
  15. 15. BLOOD FLOWS THROUGH THE HEART TO THE BODY • Oxgenated blood exits the lungs through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium • Then from the atrium to the left ventricle • Ventricle contracts forcing the blood out in a single strong pulse • Blood then moves into the aorta • Oxygenated blood flows from the aorta to the body
  16. 16. HOW THE HEAR CONTRACT • Starts as the SA (sinoatrial) nodes • Called pace maker • Membrane spontaneously depolaizes • Wave spreads to the Av (atrioventricular) nodes • Signal traces through bundles of cardiac muscle • Along septum to the heart apex • Up the ventricles walls causing contractions • Ventricles wall contracts and empties the heart • An electrical current makes the heart contract. Which, signals the initiates in the SA Node. Then makes its way to the Av node. Moving along the septum Contracting the ventricles.
  17. 17. ARTERIES, VEINS, AND CAPILLARIES • Arteries • Transport from the heart • Carry oxygenated blood • Arteries are very elastic due to the high pressure that they endure. They carry blood away from the heart. • Veins • Return blood to the heart • Carries deoxygenated blood to the heart from varies parts of the body • Veins are not very elastic and they carry blood back to the heart. • Capillaries • Capillaries are where diffusion occurs and materials move into and out of the vessels/
  18. 18. DIFFERENT BLOOD PRESSURE • Systolic pressure: peak of pressure • Diastolic Pressure: low pressure