Chapter 18


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Chapter 18

  1. 1. Chapter 18: Progressive Era JSRCC 122
  2. 2. Progressives  People in favor of or working towards improvements in politics and social settings
  3. 3. Muckrakers  Writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, meatpacking, child labor, and more, primarily in the first decade of the twentieth century; their popular books and magazine articles spurred public interest in reform.  A new generation of journalists writing for mass-circulation national magazines exposed the ills of industrial and urban life.   Major novelists of the era took a similar unsparing approach to social ills.   Lincoln Steffens Upton Sinclair Journalists fighting to expose corrupt politics in the early 1900s
  4. 4. Lincoln Steffens  Wrote the influential book the shame of the cities   Was an important expose of how corrupt most U.S. cities were The Shame of the Cities by Lincoln Steffens  Published as a series in McClure’s Magazine in 1901-1902  In book form in 1904
  5. 5. Ida Tarbell  Wrote the book called “The Standard Oil Company”  She revealed after years of diligent research the illegal means used by John D. Rockefeller to monopolize the early oil industry  published in two volumes in 1904  History if the Standard Oil Company was the most substantial product of what Theodore Roosevelt disparaged as “muckraking”-the use of journalistic skills to expose the underside of American life
  6. 6. Upton Sinclair  Published the Jungle in 1906    Whose description of unsanitary slaughterhouses and the sale of rotten meat stirred public outrage Led directly to the passage of the pure food and drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 5he Jungle, by Upton Sinclair, highlighted all of the unclean and/or unsafe practices of the meat packaging industry
  7. 7. Pure Food and Drug Act  An act “for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes
  8. 8. Ellis Island  Reception center in New York Harbor through which most European immigrants to America were processed from 1892 to 1954
  9. 9. Henry Ford  Henry Ford revolutionized manufacturing with the moving assembly line.  Ford paid his employees five dollars a day so that they could afford to buy his car.  Ford had worked as an apprentice in Michigan machine shop and later as an engineer  He didn’t invent the automobile, but he developed the techniques of production and marketing that brought it within the reach of ordinary Americans  1905; he established the Ford Motor Company, one of small automobile manufacturing firms  1913; ford’s factory in Highland Park, Michigan, adopted the method of production known as the moving assembly line  Model-T
  10. 10. Socialist Party  1901  1912, they claimed 150,000 dues-paying members, publishes hundreds of newspapers, enjoyed substantial support in the American Federation of labor, and had elected scores of local officials  Their goal was to abolish the “capitalistic system”
  11. 11. Eugene V. Debs  Socialism=Political equality and economic freedom’  Election of 1912- 6% of popular vote  Appeal to Reason-largest weekly circulation  The railroad union leader who, had been jailed during the Pullman Strike of 1894   Debs criss-crossed the country preaching that control of economy by a democratic government held out the hope of uniting “political equality and economic freedom” Eugene Debs Organized the American Socialist Party in 1901
  12. 12. Mother Jones  Mary “Mother” Jones  Who at the age of 83 had been jailed after addressing the Colorado strikers
  13. 13. Margaret Sanger  Wrote : The Woman Rebel  Went to jailed of distributing  1911, she began a column on venereal disease, from the mails  1914, Sanger was openly advertising birth-control devices in her own journal called “Woman Rebel”  1916, she opened a clinic in a working class neighborhood of Brooklyn had began distributing contraceptive device to poor Jewish and Italian women, and action for which she was sentenced a month in prison
  14. 14. Robert LaFollette  Wisconsin’s “laboratory for democracy’   Taxing corporations   Primary elections State regulations of railroads and utilities Under the progressive Republican leadership of Robert La Follette, Wisconsin led the way in regulating big business  Known as the “Wisconsin Idea”
  15. 15. 16th Amendment  The 16rth Amendment was ratifies in 1916  It legalized a graduated federal income tax  Senators now had to be chosen by a direct election of the people of a state, not by the state governments  U.S. Constitution create a national income tact  It gave the federal government the power to directly tax its citizens
  16. 16. 17th Amendment  Congress passed the 17th Amendment in 1913  U.S. Constitution required state legislatures to select their state’s senators to the U.S. Congress  Constitution didn’t require any specific procedure for legislatures to follow.  As a result, each state’s method of selecting senators varied, and deadlocks within legislature led occasional unfilled seats  1866  Congress mandated each state voted separately  If, they didn’t agree on a senator, two bodies met in joint session and voted until senator was elected
  17. 17. Jane Addams  Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago
  18. 18. Theodore Roosevelt  Roosevelt's Square Deal attempted to confront the problems caused by economic consolidation by distinguishing between "good" and "bad" corporations.  Roosevelt used the Sherman Antitrust Act to dissolve the Northern Securities Company.  He pushed to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and for more regulation of the food and drug industry.  Youngest man ever to hold the office of president  Succession to presidency; reelection in 1904  Limits on corporate power    "Good trusts" and "bad trusts" Northern Securities case Mediation between labor and capital; 1902 coal strike arbitration
  19. 19. Gifford Pinchot  Head of the U.S. Forest Service  Ordered millions of acres be set aside as wildlife preserves  Encouraged congress to create new national parks
  20. 20. Woodrow Wilson  Democrat  “new freedom”  State’s rights; Laissez-faire  Unions  Anti-trust  1st term  Held press conferences and delivered messages to Congress  Outlawed child labor  8 hour work day  Money to farmers  Graduated income tax