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Emergent Countries, Emergent Media: Currency as National Identity


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Slideshow highlighting post 1991 nation states and redesigned currency.

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Emergent Countries, Emergent Media: Currency as National Identity

  1. 1. Emergent  Countries,  Emergent  Media     ~~~~~   Currency  as  Na6onal  Iden6ty   Heather  Lusty   University  of  Nevada,  Las  Vegas  
  2. 2. “…[A]lmost  all  independent  countries   choose  to  assert  their  na6onality  by   having,  to  their  own  inconvenience  and   that  of  their  neighbors,  a  peculiar   currency  of  their  own.”     ~  John  Stuart  Mill,  1848.  
  3. 3. Croa6a  ~  1991   Croa6a  declared  its  independence  from   Yugoslavia  (1918-­‐1992)  in  1991,  one  of  the  first   republics  of  Yugoslavia  to  do  so.     Croa6a’s  first  state  issued  currency  (1991-­‐1993),   the  Dinar(a),  featured  a  portrait  of  Roger  Joseph   Boskovic  on  the  front,  and  Ivan  Mestrovic’s  1932   sculpture  Glasojlica  Mother  Croa6a  on  the   reverse.  
  4. 4. Croa6an  Dinar   R.  Boskovic  was  an  18th  c  physicist,  astronomer,   mathema6cian,  philosopher,  poet,  diplomat  (et  al)   from  Dubrovnik  whose  fame  and  pres6ge  mark  Croa6a   as  a  post-­‐Renaissance  culture  in  its  own  right.    
  5. 5. Croa6an  Dinar   The  Glasoljica  Croa6an  Mother  sculpture,  by  Ivan   Mestrovic,  is  a  na6onal  symbol  of  Croa6a,  the  keeper   of  Croa6an  heritage  and  iden6ty.  
  6. 6. Ukraine  ~  1991   Divided  between  the  Tsardom  of  Russia  and   Hapsburg  Austria  during  the  Par66ons  of  Poland   (1772-­‐1795),  briefly  independent  and   interna6onally  recognized  during  the  Russian   Revolu6on  (1905),  and  one  of  the  founding   republics  of  the  Soviet  Union  (1922),  Ukraine   finally  gained  its  independence  when  the  Soviet   Union  dissolved  in  1991.  
  7. 7. Ukrainian  Karbovantsiv   Ukraine’s  first  state-­‐issued  karbovantsiv  (1991-­‐1992)   featured  two  versions  of  the  founding  Vikings  of  Kiev  (a   medieval  Viking  stronghold  and  commercial  center),   and  a  portrait  of  the  Cathedral  of  St.  Sophia  in  Kiev  on   the  reverse.    
  8. 8. Ukrainian  Karbovantsiv   Lower  denomina6on  karbovanets  feature  Libyd,  sister   to  the  founding  brothers  (see  next  slide).  Libyd’s  figure   on  the  front  of  the  notes  emphasizes  Kiev’s  Viking   heritage  through  its  ship-­‐prow  pose;  the  image  also   echoes  the  Winged  Victory  (Louvre),  a  clear  associa6on   with  classical  seafaring  na6ons.  
  9. 9. Ukrainian  Karbovantsiv   Higher  denomina6on  karbovantsiv  feature  Kiev’s   founding  Viking  brothers,  Kyi,  Shcheck,  and  Khoryv,   with  sister  Libyd  on  the  prow.  Both  front  images  recall   Ukraine’s  pre-­‐colonial  and  pre-­‐Soviet  Republic  state,   emphasizing  its  rich  cultural  heritage  and  independent   history.  
  10. 10. Belarus  ~  1992   Aier  a  long  stretch  of  occupancy  by  the   Kingdom  of  Lithuania,  the  Grand  Duchy  of   Lithuania,  the  Polish  Lithuania   Commonwealth,  the  Russian  Empire,  and   then  the  Soviet  Union,  Belarus  declared  its   independence  in  1991.  
  11. 11. Belarussian  Ruble   The  first  Belarussian  rubles  (1992-­‐1996)  featured  a   “Pagonya”  warrior  on  horseback  (a  recurring   historical  figure  associated  with  Belarus  before  it  was   occupied  and  absorbed  by  neighboring  states;  the   “Pagonya”  was  approved  as  the  official  emblem  of   the  Republic  of  Belarus  on  May  14,  1995)  on  the   front  of  all  denomina6ons.       The  reverse  showcased  a  variety  of  local  wildlife  on   the  lower  values,  and  architecture  on  the  higher   (Victory  Plaza,  Academy  of  Sciences  Bldg.,  and  city   views,  all  the  capital  of  Minsk).  
  12. 12. Belarussian  Ruble  
  13. 13. European  Union  ~  1999   The  introduc6on  of  the  euro  in  1999  marked  an  important   recogni6on  by  an  interna6onal  body  of  the  importance  of   individual  culture  within  a  shared  community.  Planning  and   prepara6on  for  the  launch  of  the  new  currency  took  years.   The  notes  share  the  same  designs  across  all  countries  in   Europe,  inspired  by  the  theme  “ages  and  styles  of  Europe,”   depic6ng  the  architectural  styles  from  seven  periods  of   Europe’s  cultural  history  through  elements  such  as  windows,   gateways,  and  bridges:  Classical,  Romanesque,  Gothic,   Renaissance,  Baroque  and  Rococo,  Iron  and  glass   architecture,  and  Modern  twen6eth-­‐century  architecture   (Eagleton  and  Williams  246).  The  choice  of  architectural   images  are  intended  to  show  the  unity  between  European   na6ons,  with  a  window  or  doorway  on  the  front  of  each  note   to  symbolize  openness  and  coopera6on,  and  a  bridge  on  the   back  represen6ng  coopera6on  and  communica6on  between   Europe  and  the  world  (246).    
  14. 14. The  Euro  
  15. 15. Libya  ~  2012   Although  the  modern  state  of  Libya  was  created   in  1951,  the  2011  revolu6on  that  overthrew   Muammar  Gaddafi’s  government  necessitated  a   redesign  of  the  na6onal  currency  (and  the   removal  of  dictator’s  visage  from  said  currency).   English  text  has  replaced  the  Arabic  text  on  the   back,  and  the  Gaddafi  era  “Jamahiriya”  (“Great   Socialist  People's  Libyan  Arab  Jamahiriya,”   established  1977)  has  been  removed  from  the   notes.  
  16. 16. Libyan  Dinar  (old)    
  17. 17. Libyan  Dinar  (new  1  &  50  notes)  
  18. 18. Islamic  State  ~  2014   Islamic  State  announced  plans  for  a  new  “na6onal”  currency   in  November  2014  by  Isis,  as  a  move  to  “emancipate  itself   from  the  satanic  global  economic  system;”  propaganda  shows   designs  for  a  range  of  coins  (quoted  in  Dearden,  3).  They   recently  released  photos  of  coinage  they  claim  to  be  min6ng:   one  side  is  the  message:  “The  Islamic  State  –  a  caliphate   based  on  the  doctrine  of  the  Prophet”  in  Arabic;  (Dearden  2).       The  propaganda  released  included  explana6ons  of  the  design   details;  “images  including  wheat  stalks,  crescents  a  shield  and   sword  deno6ng  jihad,  a  map  of  the  world  (reflec6ng  the   group’s  aspira6ons  for  global  dominance),  and  even   renderings  of  a  pair  of  Islamic  landmarks,  the  Umayyad   mosque  in  Damascus  and  Al  Aqsa  mosque  in  Jerusalem.  The   group  provided  explana6ons  of  each  design  and  its  grounding   in  Islamic  religious  texts”  (Bulos  2).    
  19. 19. ISIS  Currency  (sketch)  
  20. 20. Scotland  ~  20  ??   Several  countries  and  regions  around  Europe  (and   elsewhere)  are  ac6vely  eyeing  independence  from   their  current  parent  systems  based  on  iden6ty  and   shared  cultural  heritage.  Scotland’s  succession  vote   in  Sept.    2014  (defeated  by  a  very  slim  margin)  and   Catalonia’s  affirma6ve  vote  (2015)  to  succeed  from   Spain  are  indica6ons  that  the  na6onal  borders   created  in  the  aiermath  of  WWI  and  WWII  are  not   as  clear  and  firm  as  “parent”  cultures  assume.  
  21. 21. Defaced  Bri6sh  Pound   Image  courtesy  of  The  Scotsman,  by  Dundee  Courier.  01  Feb  2016.   In  early  2016,  blue  and  black  s6ckers  reading  “Scossh  UDI   movement”  (Unilateral  Declara6on  of  Independence)   began  appearing  on  currency  across  the  country.  The   s6ckers  cover/obscure  the  Queen’s  head  on  one  side,   instead  promo6ng  the  blue  wording  over  the  outline  of  a   Sal6re  (the  na6onal  flag  of  Scotland).  
  22. 22. Conclusion   Na6onal  currency  is  a  prominent,  public  visual   medium  through  which  countries  ar6culate  and   maintain  concep6ons  of  shared  cultural  heritage   and  na6onal  iden6ty.  As  the  poli6cal  globe   con6nues  to  evolve,  we  will  see  more  such   expressions  of  na6onalism  through  currency   (and  postage)  –  integral  manifesta6ons  of  socio-­‐ ethnic  ideology  and  iden6ty.  
  23. 23. References   Anderson,  Benedict.  Imagined  Communi3es:  Reflec3ons  on  the  Origin  and  Spread  of                  Na3onalism.  London:  Verso,  1983.   Bulos,  Nabih.  “Islamic  State  wants  to  create  its  own  currency.”  Los  Angeles  Times.                  13  November  2014.  Web.   Cuhaj,  George  S.  Editor.  Standard  Catalog  of  World  Paper  Money.  General  Issues:                  1961-­‐present.  14th  Edi6on.  Wisconsin:  Krause  Publica6ons,  2008.     Dearden,  Lizzie.  “Isis  claims  to  mint  gold  and  silver  coins  for  currency  free  from  ‘satanic’                  global  Economy.”  The  Independent.  24  June  2015.   Eagleton,  Catherine,  and  Johnathan  Williams.  Money:  A  History.  Buffalo,  NY:  Firefly                  Books,  1997.   Hart,  Keith.  The  Memory  Bank:  Money  in  an  Unequal  World.  New  York:  TEXERE,  2000.   Helleiner,  Eric.  “Na6onal  Currencies  and  Na6onal  Iden66es.”  The  American  Behavioral                        Scien3st  (Aug  1998):  1409-­‐36.   Mudd,  Douglas.  All  the  Money  in  the  World:  The  Art  of  History  of  Paper  Money  and                            Coins  from  An3quity  to  the  21st  Century.  Singapore:  Harper  Collins,  2006.