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Margaret Kantz, textual sources

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  1. 1. “ Helping Students Use Textual Sources Persuasively” Margaret Kantz
  2. 2. Why use textual sources?
  3. 3. Analyzing Kantz <ul><li>Audience? </li></ul><ul><li>How is she entering the “conversation”? </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose (exigence)? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Facts, Opinions, Claims <ul><li>What is the difference? (Alice knows.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conflicting ideas <ul><li>What do you do if sources disagree? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Shirley do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000-45,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What would Alice do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical analysis </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rhetorical Analysis <ul><li>Encoder= writer/speaker/ rhetor </li></ul><ul><li>Decoder=reader/listener/ audience </li></ul><ul><li>Reality= constraints </li></ul><ul><li>(Exigence=purpose) </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Battle of Agincourt <ul><li>We won! And it was really hard, too. </li></ul><ul><li>We lost. But we were outnumbered! </li></ul>10,000 British soldiers 45,000 British soldiers
  8. 8. The Battle of Agincourt <ul><li>10,000 British soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Churchill, “A History of British Progress” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>written in 1930s, beginning of WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exigence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage readers to take pride in glorious history of British accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>45,000 British soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monsieur and Madame Guizot, “A History of France” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative opinion of England, British tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exigence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show how French were taken advantage of, how the battle was not so glorious </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What would Alice/Shirley do? <ul><li>5 teams </li></ul><ul><li>First to buzz in and answer correctly gets a point </li></ul><ul><li>Group with the most points gets a bonus point </li></ul>
  10. 10. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Definition of a fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: thinks sources transmit facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: facts are claims </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>How do they read sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: narrative/story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: a “message sent by someone to somebody for a reason ” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Why do they write? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: to find the truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: to make an argument </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>View of themselves as writers; what is their goal? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: to be credible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: to persuade, say something new </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>View of their task (task representation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: original argument </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>How do they organize their writing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: in the order she found it, order the source writer puts it in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: in the order that fits her purpose to convince her audience </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Who is more likely to plagiarize? Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Who writes more drafts? Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice; summary, rhetorical analysis, argument </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>View of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: Research is not creative, but a static task designed to examine students on their understanding of facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: Research is creative, and students are scholars “w h o work to find answers to problem questions” and who “s e t reading and writing goals for themselves that will allow them to think constructively.” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>What “tool” does Alice have in her toolbox that Shirley does not? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical situation </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. More questions <ul><li>It seems like everything worth saying has already been said—how do you create an original argument? How can research be creative? Do you think that this would make research more enjoyable? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it possible for sources to disagree in ways other than pro/con? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Kantz think that plagiarism can be understandable, or even inevitable? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Kantz suggest that multiple drafts are useful? </li></ul>
  21. 21. What did the instructor do wrong, and how could she fix it? <ul><li>Minimal notes on draft, and those notes had to do with formalist issues </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t sequence the assignment, pacing it with enough time to allow students’ thoughts to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t teach rhetorical reading and writing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Gave “weak assignment and an ineffective critique of the draft” </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t tell Shirley she was expected to say something original, that she should look for discrepant facts/conflicts in her sources, or that she should use her notes to comment on the sources and use the notes to plan her paper </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t teach Shirley to look for arguments instead of facts </li></ul>