Haas and Flower

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Haas and Flower

  1. 1. “ Rhetorical Reading Strategies and Construction of Meaning” Christina Haas and Linda Flower
  2. 2. Who are you as a reader? <ul><li>What are you good at, as a reader? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think you’re not good at when it comes to reading? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there anything you wish you had been taught better or differently? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are Haas and Flower adding to the conversation? <ul><li>Niche: “our knowledge of how readers actually carry out this interpretive process with college-level expository texts is rather limited” (122). </li></ul><ul><li>Occupying the niche: “we observed a sharp distinction between the rhetorical process these experienced readers demonstrated and the processes of freshman readers” (123). </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is the central difference between experienced and inexperienced readers?
  5. 5. Methodology <ul><li>“ think-aloud procedure” (122) </li></ul><ul><li>Ten readers: four experienced, three average inexperienced, three above average inexperienced </li></ul><ul><li>Coding: content strategies, feature strategies, rhetorical strategies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Findings WOW! 13% 1% Rhetorical strategies 20% 22% Feature strategies 67% 77% Content strategies Experienced Readers Students
  7. 7. Let’s compare: how experienced are you as readers? <ul><li>Take out your paper from yesterday, when you were asked to interpret the text at various intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade papers with a partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Code the paper for content, feature, and rhetorical strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare results. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Coding <ul><li>Content strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ concerned with content or topic information” (129) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “so we’re talking about psychological principles here” (129) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function/feature strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ refer to conventional, generic functions of texts” (130) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “Is this the introduction?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhetorical strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ concerned with constructing a rhetorical situation for the text” (130) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “So the author is trying to make the argument that you need scientific specialists in psychology” (131) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Do you read rhetorically? <ul><li>How do you compare? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you change your reading strategies to be more successful? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Using what you know <ul><li>One claim this article makes is that when readers try to understand texts, they bring their own knowledge to them. What kinds of knowledge did you bring to this article that helped you make sense of it? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Developing a reading strategy <ul><li>Kantz and Haas and Flower agree that students should have strategies to read rhetorically (75, 136). Kantz suggests teaching students “a set of heuristics” based on rhetorical situation (75). </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s do it. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Creating a heuristic for rhetorical reading <ul><li>What kinds of questions should you ask yourself as you’re reading to make sense of difficult material? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Testing our heuristic <ul><li>Let’s read the following passages to see if our heuristic works. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The series exists to show gigantic and hideous robots hammering one another. So it does. The last hour involves a battle for the universe which for some reason is held at the corner of Michigan Avenue and Wacker Drive in Chicago. This battle is protracted mercilessly beyond all reason, at an ear-shattering sound level, with incomprehensible Autobots and Decepticons sliced up into spurts of action with no sense of the space they occupy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Of course, solving sexism isn't just a matter of a handful of women making it to the top. New Zealand still has issues with domestic violence and there is a 12% wage gap. (No, Thompson, there really, really is.) But the U.N. still ranks New Zealand as the fifth most gender-equal society in the world, behind only Iceland, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. (For comparison: The U.K. was ranked 15th, Australia was 20th, and the U.S., where the wage gap is a whopping 23%, came in at 31st.) So to hear the head of the Employers and Manufacturers' Association — a fairly mainstream pro-business lobbying group — say that women are bad employees because they're, like, always getting their periods and stuff is just bizarre. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>This shows that the deficit and debt is a spending problem, not a revenue problem. President Bush, with both Democrat and Republican Congresses, did lose control of spending during his presidency, as federal spending as a percent of GDP rose by one-seventh during his two terms. But President Obama, once he got behind the steering wheel, accelerated madly in precisely the wrong direction, increasing federal spending by nearly one-third in his first three years, and proposing in his 2012 budget to increase it by nearly two-thirds more by 2021. Adding that on top of our exploding entitlements, which ObamaCare made worse by adopting or expanding three new entitlements, is how America’s Ticking Bankruptcy Bomb was lit, as I explain in my new book with the same title. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>O.K., the obvious question: If Medicare is so much better than private insurance, why didn’t the Affordable Care Act simply extend Medicare to cover everyone? The answer, of course, was interest-group politics: realistically, given the insurance industry’s power, Medicare for all wasn’t going to pass, so advocates of universal coverage, myself included, were willing to settle for half a loaf. But the fact that it seemed politically necessary to accept a second-best solution for younger Americans is no reason to start dismantling the superior system we already have for those 65 and over. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>To date no examination of composing processes has dealt primarily with unskilled writers. As long as “average” or skilled writers are the focus, it remains unclear as to how process research will provide teachers with a firmer understanding of the needs of students with writing problems. </li></ul>

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