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  1. 1. “ Rhetorical Situations and their Constituents” Keith Grant-Davie
  2. 2. Write <ul><li>In your own words, how would you define “rhetorical situation”? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Text <ul><li>Send a text message to a friend, explaining the term “rhetorical situation” to them. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Discuss <ul><li>How did the two definitions differ, if at all? </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Grant-Davie adding to the “conversation”? <ul><li>Establish a territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bitzer, Vatz, Consigny </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish a niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ more thoroughly developed scheme” (104) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupy a niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More comprehensive analysis of exigence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetors are as important as audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any of constituents can be plural (106) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What are the four constituents? <ul><li>RACE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetor(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exigence(s) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What’s so special about exigence? <ul><li>Should answer three questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What the discourse is about (106) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses stases (like who?/what?/where?/when?/why?) re. fact and definition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topic, but also more abstract meaning; what values and issues are at stake? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why it is needed (107) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stases of cause and value </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why this, and why now? (kairos) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What it should accomplish (108) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stases of policy or procedure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goals, intended reaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially both primary and secondary objectives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. How can the constituents be plural? <ul><li>Audience (110) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone who happens to hear/read a discourse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apparent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Readers/listeners who form part of an external rhetorical situation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imagined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audience the writer has in mind (resides in writer before and during composing) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audience roles suggested by the discourse itself (derived by readers, including the author-as-reader) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Multiple rhetors? Exigences? <ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Course syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Grant-Davie’s article </li></ul>
  10. 10. Constraints <ul><li>“ w o rking either for or against the rhetor’s objectives ” (111) </li></ul><ul><li>“ a l l factors in the situation, aside from the rhetor and the audience, that may lead the audience to be either more or less sympathetic to the discourse, and that may therefore influence the rhetor’s response to the situation ” (112) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Yes, but what are they? <ul><li>Emerging text of the discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical, historical background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural, moral, religious, political, economic climate </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Let’s practice analyzing <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Get into groups of 4-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a rhetorical situation that you encounter often (or have encountered recently) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the rhetor(s), audience(s), constraints, and exigence(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Share </li></ul>
  13. 13. Compound rhetorical situation <ul><li>Best Western sign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exigences </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Other questions <ul><li>Grant-Davie claims “l i ke exigence, then, audience can partly influence the identity of the rhetor ” (110). How is this possible? Can you give any examples? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you part of Grant-Davie’s audience? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reflect <ul><li>How can an awareness of rhetorical situation help you as a reader? As a writer? </li></ul>


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