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Enc1102 Drafting Research Paper


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Enc1102 Drafting Research Paper

  1. 1. Drafting your research paper
  2. 2. Mini-peer review: Outline and methodology • Outline – Includes sections for IMRD? – Results and/or Discussion section is logically divided into sub-categories, if necessary? – Logical order? – Enough detail? • Methodology – Includes what, how, from whom, analysis, and limitations? – Organized logically? – Enough details to follow?
  3. 3. Organize your data into your outline • Decide what main pieces of evidence you want to include (quotes, numbers). • Add them to your outline. – Copy them onto the page or – Create a number system (1 for intro, 2 for methods, 3 for expertise section, etc.) and write the corresponding number next to your data or – Color code
  4. 4. Clarify main ideas • Write a topic sentence for one of your sections. – Should connect to overall argument and also the main point of that paragraph/section – Example: “One of the first topics discussed in this section of the conversation was how these students defined creativity.” • Connects to section argument (“Defining Creativity and Its Place in Writing”), but could connect to overall argument better • Better: “In our conversation, students easily arrived at a common definition of creativity, but they confessed that such creativity is rarely encouraged in the classroom.”
  5. 5. Start drafting one of your sections. • Decide what evidence you’ll use to support your topic sentence. • Decide what order to present your evidence in. – Example: • Interviews: – “thinking outside the box” – “looking at a problem from a different perspective” – Quote from Matt about fairytale writing
  6. 6. Drafting with evidence • For each piece of evidence, you should include: – Context – Evidence – Analysis (here or later
  7. 7. Start drafting one of your sections. • Start writing about one piece of evidence. – Context • “The four participants generally agreed on what it essentially means to be creative.” – Evidence • “They concluded that creativity is ‘thinking outside of the box’ and ‘looking at a problem from a different perspective.’” – Analysis • “As predicted, answers to this question were very brief and to the point. Their answers to the follow-up questions, however, proved more interesting.” (This student has more analysis at the end of the section. You could also choose to do your analysis here.)
  8. 8. Drafting with evidence • Add another piece. Show the connections. – Context / topic sentence • “I next asked a series of questions about how these students use their creativity in their writing assignments.” • Better, more argument-driven version: “The students’ responses about their use of creativity in writing assignments indicate that their instructors allow some creativity, but still have restrictive requirements that limit students’ ability to express themselves.”
  9. 9. Drafting with evidence • Evidence – “When I asked what they think about creativity when it comes to writing, Matt responded that he “has learned to write his papers to earn the grade that he needs,” a remark with which Erica agreed. This answer led the group into a conversation about creative writing in which Michael stated that creativity is relative to the class situation. He explained that a creative writing class heavily values creativity in writing more than an entry level English class does. Erica, however, responded, “Even in creative writing classes you have to follow what [the instructors] want, so you can’t exactly write the way you want.” • Include analysis if writing a findings/combined results and discussion section
  10. 10. Drafting with evidence • Context – “The final question in this section dealt with how these students applied their creativity in their writing.” – Better: “When asked about the ways that they applied creativity in writing, students yet again described the limitations that academic work presents.”
  11. 11. Drafting with evidence • Evidence – “Matt responded with a story about a paper he had just turned in: I just turned in this paper in which I had to ask three people to tell me the same fairytale in three different manners, and then I had to analyze it. And we were encouraged to be creative, which prompted me to think this is going to be great, but then when you read the guidelines, your creativity had to follow the guidelines of using other works as references that weren’t creative. The creativity was limited because my creativity doesn’t necessarily follow the works in which we had to reference.
  12. 12. Drafting with evidence • Include analysis either after all the evidence has been presented, or intersperse analysis throughout. – “What we can gather from this data are some general conclusions about creativity. For one, students want to be creative in their writing. They feel it offers extensive flexibility and keeps the writing process lively. Students attempt to utilize creativity to their advantage, and are even encouraged by their instructors to do so, such as when a teacher gives a writing assignment and says, ‘Be creative.’ However, grading does not reinforce this encouragement, as evidenced in what Matt said about the research paper in which he had to analyze fairytales.”
  13. 13. Drafting with evidence • Keep adding until the end of the paragraph/section. • Remember that you can have multiple paragraphs in each section. • Write an analysis of the section that connects to your overall argument. • Share.
  14. 14. Remember Swales and the CARS model? • Establish territory – Claim centrality – Make a topic generalization – Review previous items of research • Establish niche – Counter-claim – Indicate a gap – Raise a question – Continue a tradition • Occupy niche – Outline purposes – Announce principal findings – Indicate research-report structure
  15. 15. Let’s establish a territory “The college English classroom has become one of the most highly debated subjects over the last ten years. Literacy instruction in this environment—as well as high school classrooms—has become the main focus and concern for teachers and researchers alike. A long and contentious debate rages on how to administer writing instruction in these settings. Some are concerned that students are no longer being taught how to write, but what to write.” (claim centrality/topic generalization)
  16. 16. Establishing a territory, take 2 “I remember my first day as a Publix bagger two years ago. I went in thinking, ‘Shoot, any moron could put groceries in a bag.’ On my first day I was paired with Dennis, a sixty-five-year-old bagger who’d been working for Publix for eight years. He didn’t say much, but he told me to watch him and, when I felt I was ready, to go ahead and take over for him. I then observed what to put with what, what to keep by itself, and what to double-bag. It was a little more complicated than I had thought and I was impressed by their means of communicating these rules to me.” (topic generalization: it’s okay to have a little fun with this)
  17. 17. Let’s establish a niche “While most would agree that this is true, they disagree on what to do about it. But in order to fully capture the essence of this heated argument, we need to take a closer look at what teachers value in writing instruction. Furthermore, we need to consider creativity and its role in writing instruction.” (indicating gaps: sneak preview of argument)
  18. 18. Wait…back to establishing territory? “The general opinion among scholars and teachers is that writing instruction has become too formulaic and too rigid. Many advocate that we strip the system down to its core values. For example, Sharon Gibson lays out a framework that essentially captures the essence of writing instruction.” (review previous items of research: LIT REVIEW)
  19. 19. Let’s occupy the niche. “Much has been discussed on the topic of creativity and literacy instruction from a teacher’s standpoint. The perception among these teachers (and most teachers, for that matter) is that creativity must be allowed to flourish in a classroom setting. And most teachers are, in fact, applying creative methods in their writing instruction. What is missing from this conversation, however, is the most important voice: the student’s. How do students perceive the use of creativity in a classroom setting?” (conclusion to lit review; pointing to research question.) • You could (and probably should) outline research/findings here: – “In order to answer this question, I conducted a study in which I [brief description of methods]. My findings suggest that [preview of findings].”
  20. 20. What do I say in the conclusion? • Sum up important points – “Creativity, according to the students that participated in the focus group, is no longer coming from the extensive imaginations of students, but has instead been defined and laid out by teachers for the students to exploit. This form of creativity does not provide students with a way to express their specific type of creativity, and when students attempt to do so, they are penalized through harsh grading. It is time that teachers and instructors lift the restraints that this rigid definition of creativity has established, allowing students to think critically about writing assignments through the lenses of their own, individualized versions of creativity.”
  21. 21. What do I say in the conclusion? • Point to the bigger picture: why it matters – Implications for people’s lives – Implications for future research – Implications for teaching “As for creativity, I am advocating that instructors lift the restraints of the current standards in today’s classroom by simply allowing creativity to be expressed in a way that is suitable to each individual student and not standardized. It is important to remember that each student is different, and each student can bring something mind-blowing and unique to the table if he or she is simply allowed to do so. Creativity is in the eyes of the beholder, and it is the responsibility of teachers to recognize and take this into account in their classrooms.”
  22. 22. What to include in your paper • Descriptive title • Introduction • Methodology • Results/Findings – Divided into sub-categories with subject headings • Discussion (or conclusion) • Any Appendixes where you may want to include further data • Works Cited
  23. 23. Formatting • Major headings should be in bold • Minor headings should be in italics • Headings can be centered, or aligned left • Double-spaced • If you include images in your paper, label, “Figure 1,” “Figure 2,” etc., so you can refer to them in your writing.