Book Club Reading is Seeing  – Jeffery Wilhelm
Reading is seeing  <ul><li>Wilhelm, J. D. (2004).  Reading is seeing: learning to visualize scenes, characters, ideas, and...
Author Bio
Author bio  <ul><li>15 years classroom teaching experience </li></ul><ul><li>Currently Boise State University as a Profess...
Author bio  <ul><li>Current Work  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studying how the arts and technology can be used to fu...
Key Points  <ul><li>Reading is seeing  </li></ul>Source:  .JenniferLeigh. Source:  . nerdcoresteve . Source:  . edalorzo ....
#1 Visualization  Source: sinkdd Source:  bogdan Source: giuss95
#1 Visualization –  students must be taught to visualize <ul><li>“ What we see is guided by an author’s descriptions, but ...
#1 Visualization –  students must be taught to visualize <ul><li>“ Good readers also often create  visual devices and ment...
#1 Visualization  <ul><li>“ Eliot Eisner posits that “those who cannot imagine, cannot read.””  </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm...
#1 Visualization  <ul><li>Benefits of Teaching Visualization Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Increased student interest and e...
#1 Visualization  <ul><li>Social Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Students are surrounded with visual literacies in their ever...
#1 Visualization  <ul><li>Strategies to use in the classroom:  </li></ul><ul><li>Think–Alouds  </li></ul><ul><li>Read–Alou...
#2 Learner Centered Approach Source h.cato Source h.cato Source h.cato Source h.cato
#2 Learner Centered Approach <ul><li>“ This model focuses on the relationship between the teacher and the learner, the tex...
#2 Learner Centered Approach <ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>“… learning must attend to student interests and goals…” ...
#2 Learner Centered Approach <ul><li>Important Tenets </li></ul><ul><li>All Learning is social and transactional  </li></u...
#2 Learner Centered Approach <ul><li>Important Tenets Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is providing assistance to the ...
#3 Connect Reading  TO THE REAL LIFE Source: __o__ Source: Ana Cotta
#3 Connect Reading to Real Life <ul><li>Ways to Visualize the World  - Schema  </li></ul><ul><li>“  It is important for th...
#3 Connect Reading to Real Life <ul><li>Good Teaching is Sequenced: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Assessment  </li></ul><ul><li>Mo...
#3 Connect Reading to Real Life <ul><li>Seven Step Sequence for Visualization  </li></ul><ul><li>Create mental images for ...
#3 Connect Reading to Real Life <ul><li>Activities for Visualization  </li></ul><ul><li>Writing in the sand </li></ul><ul>...
#4 Building    Background    Knowledge Source:  yakobusan Source:  hanne_exurban
#4 Building Background Knowledge <ul><li>“ I’ve experienced many moments…  </li></ul><ul><li>when students shocked me  </l...
#4 Building Background Knowledge <ul><li>“…  frontloading is the first instructional move a teacher makes towards improvin...
#4 Building Background Knowledge <ul><li>Activities  </li></ul><ul><li>First-hand experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Timelines ...
#5 Set the scene Source: pietro_C Source:  pietro_C Source: brajeshwar Source: pyersinia
#5 Set the scene <ul><li>Inferencing – “It involved the ability to see connections, relationships, and patterns between va...
#5 Set the scene <ul><li>Activities to Build Character Understanding  </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Profile  </li></ul><ul...
#5 Set the scene <ul><li>Activities to Build Understanding of Setting  </li></ul><ul><li>Tableaux </li></ul><ul><li>Flow C...
Thoughts to Ponder  Source: moriza
Thoughts to Ponder  <ul><li>“ When I walk into a classroom and see a lectern in front and all the desks in rows, I see a t...
<ul><ul><li>Students are just as good about figuring out your teaching theories by looking at your room. When you walk int...
Thoughts to Ponder  <ul><li>“ In inquiry frameworks for curriculum, students can progress from their own current abilities...
Thoughts to Ponder  <ul><ul><li>Scenes from our reading can be emblazoned in our memories for a lifetime,”   (Wilhelm, Pg....
Thoughts to Ponder  <ul><li>Readers must be able to create visual images that bring the story to life. For those who canno...
Thoughts to Ponder  <ul><li>Reading must go beyond merely decoding words. Students who are unable to visually create what ...
Recommendations  Source:  Dean Ayres
Teacher  Recommendation  <ul><li>I love the work of Jeffrey Wilhelm and I find the way he explains challenging philosophic...
<ul><li>I do believe that this book has a lot of great ideas for teachers. I think any pre-service teacher to gain from re...
<ul><li>I do not believe I would recommend this book for parents and other stakeholders. While it is an excellent read it ...
Webliography <ul><li>Useful websites to check out  </li></ul>
Webliography - Bie <ul><li>Project Based Learning (PBL) is a learner- centered approach to teaching. The process centers a...
Webliography - Wonderopolis <ul><li>Through the power of creativity and imagination Wonderopolis is a place for kids to le...
Webliography – Go! Animate <ul><li>Have students make their reading come to life by creating an animated video. This simpl...
Webliography – Go Comics  <ul><li>Wilhelm mentions that teachers should be using literacies students are already exposed t...
Webliography - Fakebook <ul><li>Another activity Wilhelm suggests is to dive deeply in investigating the characteristics o...
Bibliography
Bibliography <ul><li>Rader, L. A. (2010). Teaching Students to Visualize: Nine Key Questions for Success.  Preventing Scho...
Bibliography <ul><li>Miller, S. R., & Hopper, P. F. (2010). Supporting Reading Goals through the Visual Arts.  Reading Imp...
bibliography <ul><li>Crick, R., & McCombs, B. L. (2006). The Assessment of Learner-Centered Practices surveys: An English ...
Presentation bibliography <ul><li>Dr. Jeff Wilhelm. (n.d.).  Dr. Jeff Wilhelm . Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://j...
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Book Club Presentation

  1. 1. Book Club Reading is Seeing – Jeffery Wilhelm
  2. 2. Reading is seeing <ul><li>Wilhelm, J. D. (2004). Reading is seeing: learning to visualize scenes, characters, ideas, and text worlds to improve comprehension and reflective reading . New York: Scholastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Where to buy? </li></ul><ul><li> Amazon </li></ul><ul><li> Barnes and Noble </li></ul>Source: bn.com
  3. 3. Author Bio
  4. 4. Author bio <ul><li>15 years classroom teaching experience </li></ul><ul><li>Currently Boise State University as a Professor of English Education </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Maine Writing Project and the Boise State Writing Project </li></ul><ul><li>Written over 20 books about literacy education </li></ul>Source: Jeffrey Wilhelm Source: Jeffrey Wilhelm Source: Jeffrey Wilhelm Source: Jeffrey Wilhelm Source: Jeffrey Wilhelm
  5. 5. Author bio <ul><li>Current Work </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studying how the arts and technology can be used to further support reading and writing in the classroom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NCTE Promising Research Award </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russell Award for Distinguished Research </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voices from the Middle Service Award </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jeffery Wilhelm Website </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry Based Instruction (video) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key Points <ul><li>Reading is seeing </li></ul>Source: .JenniferLeigh. Source: . nerdcoresteve . Source: . edalorzo . Scenes from our reading can be emblazoned in our memories for a lifetime,” (Wilhelm, Pg. 9).
  7. 7. #1 Visualization Source: sinkdd Source: bogdan Source: giuss95
  8. 8. #1 Visualization – students must be taught to visualize <ul><li>“ What we see is guided by an author’s descriptions, but it is an elixir of these cues and our own experiences – we are the artists after all, creating each frame of the movie based on the script from the text,” (Wilhelm, Pg. 10). </li></ul>
  9. 9. #1 Visualization – students must be taught to visualize <ul><li>“ Good readers also often create visual devices and mental models to organize and store the facts for themselves,” </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 10). </li></ul><ul><li>Struggling readers fail to construct the necessary images needed to make understanding of the text they read. </li></ul>Source: sinkdd
  10. 10. #1 Visualization <ul><li>“ Eliot Eisner posits that “those who cannot imagine, cannot read.”” </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 14) </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization improves comprehension skills and test scores. (Wilhelm, Pg. 14) </li></ul>Source: giuss95
  11. 11. #1 Visualization <ul><li>Benefits of Teaching Visualization Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Increased student interest and engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Improved comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Further development of student’s metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Further development of prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Improved written fluency </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 14,15) </li></ul>
  12. 12. #1 Visualization <ul><li>Social Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Students are surrounded with visual literacies in their ever day life. Bringing such literacies into the classroom creates a bridge between school and real life. </li></ul><ul><li>A way to bridge reading comprehension to writing and other multimedia literacies. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for student collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure for students to “democratic avenues of making meaning” </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 16,17 ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. #1 Visualization <ul><li>Strategies to use in the classroom: </li></ul><ul><li>Think–Alouds </li></ul><ul><li>Read–Alouds </li></ul><ul><li>Embrace alternative texts and literacies </li></ul><ul><li>Overlay Maps </li></ul><ul><li>View video Excerpts </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm (Pg. 56-70) </li></ul>Source: bogdan
  14. 14. #2 Learner Centered Approach Source h.cato Source h.cato Source h.cato Source h.cato
  15. 15. #2 Learner Centered Approach <ul><li>“ This model focuses on the relationship between the teacher and the learner, the text and the reader, and the relationship between the knowledge … and the context … in which such knowledge is learned and will be used.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 26 ) </li></ul>Source h.cato
  16. 16. #2 Learner Centered Approach <ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>“… learning must attend to student interests and goals…” </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on context and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reading requires using one’s life experiences…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Meaning is the conversation between the reader and the text…’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 27 ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. #2 Learner Centered Approach <ul><li>Important Tenets </li></ul><ul><li>All Learning is social and transactional </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an apprenticeship to a community of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing how to do something means being fluent in the language and the strategies of performance </li></ul><ul><li>What is learned must be taught </li></ul><ul><li>Learners move on a continuum from novice practice to more expert practice </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 30,31 ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. #2 Learner Centered Approach <ul><li>Important Tenets Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is providing assistance to the child to do what she cannot yet do on her own </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching is always in the learner’s zone of proximal development </li></ul><ul><li>Different students have different ZPDs so instructional methods must be flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Building from the known to the new </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 32,33 ) </li></ul>
  19. 19. #3 Connect Reading TO THE REAL LIFE Source: __o__ Source: Ana Cotta
  20. 20. #3 Connect Reading to Real Life <ul><li>Ways to Visualize the World - Schema </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is important for the teacher to understand that students’ spontaneous use of imagery will be individual and unique, shaped by their personal experience and background knowledge,” (Wilhelm, Pg. 36). </li></ul><ul><li>“ While there are no absolutely right or wrong ways of imagining a text… there are valid and invalid images,” (Wilhelm, Pg. 36). </li></ul>Source: __o__
  21. 21. #3 Connect Reading to Real Life <ul><li>Good Teaching is Sequenced: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual Release </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Mastery </li></ul>Source: http://infolitnow.com
  22. 22. #3 Connect Reading to Real Life <ul><li>Seven Step Sequence for Visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Create mental images for concrete objects </li></ul><ul><li>Create elaborate mental images of the imagined concrete object </li></ul><ul><li>Envision Familiar objects and settings from personal experience </li></ul><ul><li>Add familiar actions and events, then relationships and settings </li></ul><ul><li>Picture characters, settings, details, and events while listening to a story read aloud </li></ul><ul><li>Study text illustrations and use them to create internal images. </li></ul><ul><li>Create mental pictures independently </li></ul><ul><li>(Whilhelm, Pg. 47-49) </li></ul>
  23. 23. #3 Connect Reading to Real Life <ul><li>Activities for Visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Writing in the sand </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing word representations </li></ul><ul><li>Picture flash cards </li></ul><ul><li>Information gap activity </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary tableaux </li></ul><ul><li>Video clips </li></ul><ul><li>(Whilhelm, Pg. 57-54) </li></ul>Source: Ana Cotta Source: Ana Cotta
  24. 24. #4 Building Background Knowledge Source: yakobusan Source: hanne_exurban
  25. 25. #4 Building Background Knowledge <ul><li>“ I’ve experienced many moments… </li></ul><ul><li>when students shocked me </li></ul><ul><li>with what they didn’t know, yet… </li></ul><ul><li>amazed me with what they did know.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 73) </li></ul>Source: hanne_exurban
  26. 26. #4 Building Background Knowledge <ul><li>“… frontloading is the first instructional move a teacher makes towards improving students’ comprehension,” (Wilhelm, Pg. 98). </li></ul><ul><li>The Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Incite curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Access background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Build schema (Wilhelm, Pg. 75) </li></ul>
  27. 27. #4 Building Background Knowledge <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>First-hand experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Popcorn/Listening </li></ul><ul><li>K-W-L </li></ul><ul><li>Floorstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Webbing </li></ul><ul><li>Wheels/Clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Photo Galleries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 77-89) </li></ul></ul>Source: yakobusan
  28. 28. #5 Set the scene Source: pietro_C Source: pietro_C Source: brajeshwar Source: pyersinia
  29. 29. #5 Set the scene <ul><li>Inferencing – “It involved the ability to see connections, relationships, and patterns between various details and parts of a single text,” ( Wilhelm, Pg. 129). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Settings , situations , and events , and ideas are used by authors to advance their message, ” (Wilhelm, Pg. 144) . Students must be able to infer in order to pick up on these from the reading. </li></ul>
  30. 30. #5 Set the scene <ul><li>Activities to Build Character Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Body Bios </li></ul><ul><li>Name Tags </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Portraits </li></ul><ul><li>Picture Talk </li></ul><ul><li>Postcards </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrated Character Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Character Fashion Show </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 133-144) </li></ul></ul>Source: pietro_C
  31. 31. #5 Set the scene <ul><li>Activities to Build Understanding of Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Tableaux </li></ul><ul><li>Flow Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Roll Movies </li></ul><ul><li>Detective Sketches </li></ul><ul><li>Photo Scavenger Hunt </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Mandalas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Wilhelm, Pg. 144-159) </li></ul></ul>Source: pyersinia
  32. 32. Thoughts to Ponder Source: moriza
  33. 33. Thoughts to Ponder <ul><li>“ When I walk into a classroom and see a lectern in front and all the desks in rows, I see a theory expressed. </li></ul><ul><li>What is revealed is a teacher-centered content- oriented view that the teacher has the information…” (Wilhelm, Pg. 20). </li></ul>SourceCaitlyn Willows
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>Students are just as good about figuring out your teaching theories by looking at your room. When you walk into your room, put yourself in your kid’s shoes. What does your room say to students about what you value as important when it comes to learning. I know for me, the first thing anyone sees are the hundreds of books I have in my room. I know the next thing they see is that I have tables and not desks. I would hope, and I believe to be true, that students understand that in my room reading and talking with one another is important. </li></ul></ul>Thoughts to ponder
  35. 35. Thoughts to Ponder <ul><li>“ In inquiry frameworks for curriculum, students can progress from their own current abilities and interests, do different kids of work, and still contribute to the common learning project of the classroom,” (Wilhelm, Pg. 13). </li></ul><ul><li>Although many are hesitant about allowing students the freedom to explore. Implementing an inquiry framework truly allows all students to draw from their background knowledge to add to the work of the group. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Thoughts to Ponder <ul><ul><li>Scenes from our reading can be emblazoned in our memories for a lifetime,” (Wilhelm, Pg. 9). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My concern is students who do not have many of these emblazoned images in their memories. Even for me, one who hated school and reading as a kid, I can vividly remember scenes from so many of the books that I was required to read in school. I believe that even though I hated to read it was these vivid images that made these reading experiences come alive and they in turn are what drove me back to reading later in my life. </li></ul></ul>Source: Brenda-Starr
  37. 37. Thoughts to Ponder <ul><li>Readers must be able to create visual images that bring the story to life. For those who cannot, it is imperative that teachers provide explicit instruction and support so they may develop this skill. </li></ul>SourceCaitlyn WillFrederic della Faille “… being able to create images, story worlds, and mental models while one reads is an essential element of reading comprehension, engagement, and reflection, (Wilhelm, 1997),” (Wilhelm, Pg. 9).
  38. 38. Thoughts to Ponder <ul><li>Reading must go beyond merely decoding words. Students who are unable to visually create what they read is unable to truly make sense of what they read. Their thoughts lie in disarray in their imagination as they are unable to make sense of what they read. </li></ul>“ Eliot Eisner posits that “those who cannot imagine, cannot read.” (Wilhelm, Pg. 14) Source: Timm Suess
  39. 39. Recommendations Source: Dean Ayres
  40. 40. Teacher Recommendation <ul><li>I love the work of Jeffrey Wilhelm and I find the way he explains challenging philosophical ideas about education quite easy to understand. I believe teachers could get a lot just from reading this book because he is able to clearly articulate why helping students visually has far reaching effects on reading comprehension. I would have to caution that at times the book seems mush from one idea to the next, but I am certain that any teacher would find his suggested activities quite beneficial for any classroom. </li></ul>Source: http://www.careerealism.com
  41. 41. <ul><li>I do believe that this book has a lot of great ideas for teachers. I think any pre-service teacher to gain from reading this book, but I think it might be more useful for a student teacher who is has had at least a little bit of experience in the classroom. </li></ul>Future Teacher - Recommendation Source: http://www.careerealism.com
  42. 42. <ul><li>I do not believe I would recommend this book for parents and other stakeholders. While it is an excellent read it has a bit of theory and it is clear that the intended audience are teachers. I do think however that there are a lot of important ideas suggested in this book that would be wonderful for teachers to share with parents and other stakeholders. </li></ul>Parents and Stakeholders – Recommendation Source: http://www.careerealism.com
  43. 43. Webliography <ul><li>Useful websites to check out </li></ul>
  44. 44. Webliography - Bie <ul><li>Project Based Learning (PBL) is a learner- centered approach to teaching. The process centers around a carefully crafted driving question and inquiry project. Through diving deeply into a given project, students are able to demonstrate profound learning and further develop 21 st century skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Buck Institute for Education. (n.d.). Buck Institute for Education . Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http://www.bie.org </li></ul>Source: bie.org Source: bie.org
  45. 45. Webliography - Wonderopolis <ul><li>Through the power of creativity and imagination Wonderopolis is a place for kids to learn and explore their own world. Ever have students stump you with one of life’s perplexing questions: “Why is the sky blue?” Wonderopolis is just for them. With high quality videos and visuals it would be an excellent way for teachers to load prior knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Wonderopolis . (n.d.). Wonderopolis . Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http://wonderopolis.org/ </li></ul>Source: Wonderopolis Source: Wonderopolis
  46. 46. Webliography – Go! Animate <ul><li>Have students make their reading come to life by creating an animated video. This simple service allows you to create characters and tell a story. This would be an excellent opportunity for students to visually represent what they are reading from the text. </li></ul>Source: Goanimate.com GoAnimate (n.d.). GoAnimate - Make your own animated videos. It's easy and fun.. Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http:// goanimate.com
  47. 47. Webliography – Go Comics <ul><li>Wilhelm mentions that teachers should be using literacies students are already exposed to daily. No better way to do that than through a comic strip. This website has a wealth of comic strips with an easily searchable database. </li></ul><ul><li>Watterson, B. (n.d.). GoComics.com. GoComics.com . Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http://www.gocomics.com/ </li></ul>Source: progressiveboink.com
  48. 48. Webliography - Fakebook <ul><li>Another activity Wilhelm suggests is to dive deeply in investigating the characteristics of a character from the book. Fakebook is a great way for students to create fake profile pages for anyone. By creating a fakebook, students have to critically think about a character in order to construct a profile for that character. </li></ul><ul><li>Fakebook: Fakebook. Create educational games and quizzes at classtools.net. (n.d.). ClassTools.net: Create interactive flash tools / games for education . Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http://classtools.net/fb/home/page </li></ul>Source: Classtools.net
  49. 49. Bibliography
  50. 50. Bibliography <ul><li>Rader, L. A. (2010). Teaching Students to Visualize: Nine Key Questions for Success. Preventing School Failure , 54 (2), 126-132. </li></ul><ul><li>This report examines a two year pilot program which the author implemented as a way to determine if providing students who have speech delays special opportunities to think about and reflect on reading and language in order to visualize words thought to be important. His specific focus were those students who may be struggling in school because they lack critical experiences with literacy. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Bibliography <ul><li>Miller, S. R., & Hopper, P. F. (2010). Supporting Reading Goals through the Visual Arts. Reading Improvement , 47 (1), 3-6. </li></ul><ul><li>This article focuses on the increased pressures put on school districts to preform well on standardized testing and the subsequent de-emphasis on non-core classes by the schools. The article helps identify ways that reading goals can be further supported through visual arts. </li></ul>
  52. 52. bibliography <ul><li>Crick, R., & McCombs, B. L. (2006). The Assessment of Learner-Centered Practices surveys: An English case study. Educational Research & Evaluation , 12 (5), 423-444. doi:10.1080/13803610600697021 </li></ul><ul><li>This article is regarding a case study conducted to determine the effectiveness and document the implementation of the Assessment of Learner-Centered Practices. While the surveys have been proven to be effective in the United States this report focuses on the implementation of the surveys in the United Kingdom. The survey further notes important cross-cultural findings between the United Kingdom and in the United States in evaluating the effectiveness of assessment measures for learner-centered practices. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Presentation bibliography <ul><li>Dr. Jeff Wilhelm. (n.d.). Dr. Jeff Wilhelm . Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://jeffreywilhelm.com/default.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>Flickr: Groups - Creative Commons - Free Photos . (n.d.). Welcome to Flickr - Photo Sharing . Retrieved November 24, 2011, from http://www.flickr.com/groups/ </li></ul><ul><li>Scholastic Professional | Meet Our Authors | A-Z | Author-Access pages | Wilhelm. (n.d.). Scholastic | Children's Books and Book Club | Scholastic.com . Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/scholasticprofessional/authors/wilhelm.htm </li></ul>

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