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Programming Personal
Training with Clients
Level 3 Certificate in
Personal Training
© Central YMCA Qualifications (CYQ), 2...
Unit Aims
The learner will:
• Understand how to prepare PT programmes
• Understand the importance of long term behaviour
c...
Unit Aims
The learner will:
• Understand how to adapt a PT programme
with clients
• Be able to collect information about c...
How the Unit is Assessed
Case Study and Viva:
Using a real, apparently healthy individual (e.g.
a peer, family member, fri...
How the Unit is Assessed
Client Profile:
• Client’s personal details
• Description of lifestyle
• Medical screening (PARQ)...
How the Unit is Assessed
Client Profile:
• Description of client’s attitude to physical
activity
• Stage of readiness to p...
How the Unit is Assessed
Detailed 4 Week Programme:
The 4 week plan should contain a minimum of 4
session plans (1 per wee...
How the Unit is Assessed
Session Plans:
The session plans with the 4 week plan must
also contain:
• Appropriate warm up ac...
How the Unit is Assessed
Session Plans:
• A minimum of 4 resistance approaches using
RT machines, FW or alternative method...
How the Unit is Assessed
Session Plans:
• 1 core stability exercise
• 1 PNF stretch
• Appropriate cool down activities
How the Unit is Assessed
Session Plans:
• Content may be spread across all 4 sessions and
do not have to be in each sessio...
How the Unit is Assessed
12 Week PT Overview:
The 12 week programme should relate to
and build on the 4 week programme and...
How the Unit is Assessed
Viva:
The viva will ensure that you have sufficient
knowledge and understanding of the PT
program...
How to Prepare PT Programmes
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Describe the range of resources required
to ...
Resources
Environment for the session:
• Inside areas (e.g. gym, studio, sports hall,
home/office)
• Outside areas (e.g. p...
Resources
Portable equipment:
• Benches
• Free weights
• Bands
• Steps
• Swiss balls
• Medicine balls
• Dumbbells
Resources
Fixed equipment:
• Fixed resistance machines
• Cable machines
• CV machines (e.g. Upright/recumbent
cycle, tread...
Environment
Consider the following:
•Health and safety considerations relating to
different environments, to include:
– En...
Environment
Consider the following:
• Personal safety issues
• Weather conditions
• First aid equipment
• Knowledge of loc...
Environment
Consider the following:
• Public liability insurance
• Risk assessment
• Available space
• Any additional plan...
Portable Equipment
• Hand weights/dumbbells
• Resistance bands
• Focus pads
• Medicine balls
• Stability balls
• Skipping ...
Portable Equipment
• Step
• Benches
• Trees
• TRX
• Bosu
Long Term Behaviour Change for
PT
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Explain why it is important for clients...
Advantages of Personal Training
• Regular 1:1 contact with instructor to aid
motivation
• Increased motivation and adheren...
Advantages of Personal Training
• Individualised programmes for the
participant – more personal
• Programmes designed to a...
Goals and Objectives
• To ensure programmes truly address
client’s specific needs
• Client is paying for the service, ther...
Strategies for Managing Change
• Behaviour
– Substituting alternatives
– Rewards
– Social support
– Commitment
Strategies for Managing Change
• Cognitive
– Increasing knowledge of benefits
– Risks
– Consequences
– Understanding belie...
Strategies for Managing Change
• Humanistic
– Relationship between client and instructor
How to Use Strategies
• Decision balance sheet to identify barriers
• Problem solving strategies for overcoming
barriers
•...
Approaches to Long Term
Behaviour Change
Consider the following:
• How to plan an intervention to increase
likelihood of p...
Social Support
• Friends
• Family
• Other service users
• Buddy systems and training partners
• Group exercise
Teaching Approach
Consider the following:
•Learning styles (visual, aural, kinaesthetic)
•Verbal and non-verbal communicat...
Goal Setting
Agree SMART goals (short, medium and
long term)
Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Time-framed
Principles of Progression
Apply the principles of progression, to include:
• Specificity
• Progressive overload
• Reversib...
Client Commitment
To ensure client commitment, also consider the
benefits of:
•A reward system
•Self belief and visualisat...
Collecting Information
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Explain the principles of informed consent
• Expla...
Informed Consent
Consider the following:
• Adhere to the Code of Ethical Practice
• Identify health and safety considerati...
Client Information
Collect the following information:
• Personal goals
–Future goals and aspirations
–Expectations
Client Information
Collect the following information:
• Lifestyle information:
– Work patterns
– Eating patterns
– Relevan...
Client Information
Collect the following information:
• Medical history
– Health history (health questionnaire)
– Current ...
Client Information
Collect the following information:
• Physical activity history
– Past and current
• Physical activity l...
Client Information
Collect the following information:
• Motivation and barriers to participation
– Attitude
– Perceived ba...
Client Information
Collect the following information:
• Current fitness level
– Evaluation of current levels of all compon...
Client Information
Assess components of fitness by taking
physical measurements as appropriate for the
clients:
•Blood pre...
Client Information
Assess components of fitness by taking
physical measurements as appropriate for the
clients:
•Range of ...
Client Information
Collect the following information:
• Stage of readiness
– Stated future goals and aspirations
– Exercis...
How to Screen Clients
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Explain how to interpret information collected from...
Information Gathering
• Select and record client information
correctly
• Obtain consent to exercise
• Identify contraindic...
Information Gathering
• Consider methods for collecting objective
information
• Consider methods for collecting subjective...
Analyse Client Response to
PARQ
Consider the following:
• Any ‘yes’ responses
• Client concerns regarding readiness
• Inst...
Analyse Client Response to
PARQ
Consider the following:
• High heart rate reading (tachycardia ›100 bpm)
• Low heart rate ...
Medical Conditions
The following types of medical conditions will
prevent PTs from working with clients (unless
they have ...
Medical Conditions
The following types of medical conditions will
prevent PTs from working with clients (unless
they have ...
Referral
Consider the limits of your own expertise and
competence in prescribing a progressive
exercise programme. Refer w...
How to Identify PT Goals with
Clients
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Explain how to identify client’s sh...
Goal Setting
Identify short, medium and long term goals
for the following:
•General health and fitness
•Physiological
•Psy...
Goal Setting
• Short term goal: weekly (mini process goals)
• Medium term goal: 1 – 3 months (process goals)
• Long term g...
Goal Setting
Consider involving others where appropriate:
• Positive ParQ – referral/deferral
• Family and friends for ext...
Goal Setting
Use SMART goals to:
• Break down a long term goal into more
achievable sub-goals and to enhance
sense of prog...
How to Plan a PT Programme
with Clients
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Identify credible sources of guid...
Sources of Information
• ACSM guidelines
• Reputable internet sources
• British Heart Foundation (BHF) guidelines
• Reputa...
Principles of Programme Design
Apply the principles of FITT:
Frequency
Intensity
Time
Type
Principles of Programme Design
Consider ACSM guidelines:
CV fitness
• High intensity, low duration, or moderate to vigorou...
Principles of Programme Design
Consider ACSM guidelines:
Muscular fitness
• F – 2-3 times a week
• I – 8-10 exercises (1 p...
Principles of Programme Design
Consider ACSM guidelines:
Flexibility
• F – ideally 5-7 times per week
• I – to the end of ...
Principles of Programme Design
Consider the following:
• Overload
• Adaptation
• Specificity
• Reversibility
• Progression...
Principles of Programme Design
Apply the principles of periodisation:
• Macrocycles: long term (outcome) goal
• Mesocycles...
Principles of Programme Design
Consider the order and relevance of fitness
components for each session:
•Warm up
•Flexibil...
Principles of Programme Design
CV Fitness
Consider the advantages and
disadvantages of each training system:
• Interval
• ...
Principles of Programme Design
Muscular Fitness
Apply the following (as appropriate):
• Strength
• Endurance
• Power
Using...
Principles of Programme Design
RT machines:
Principles of Programme Design
Exercise bands:
Principles of Programme Design
Free weights:
Principles of Programme Design
Cables:
Principles of Programme Design
Flexibility:
•Static flexibility exercises
•Dynamic flexibility exercises
•PNF – assisted f...
Principles of Programme Design
Motor Skills
• Balance and coordination exercises
• Exercises that challenge proprioception...
Principles of Programme Design
Core Stability
• Stabilisation core exercises for the spine
• Mobilisation core exercises f...
Principles of Programme Design
Core stability exercises:
• Drawing-in manoeuvre (stabilisation)
• Superman (stabilisation)...
Principles of Programme Design
Aim to include physical activities as part of the client’s
lifestyle to compliment exercise...
How to Adapt a PT Programme
with Clients
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Explain how the principles of tr...
CV Training Systems
Consider the advantages and
disadvantages of each of these training
systems:
•Interval
•Fartlek
•Conti...
CV Physiological Adaptations
RT Systems
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each
of these training systems:
•Pyramid systems
•Super setting (a...
RT
Anatomical and
Physiological
Adaptations
RT Variables
Apply the variables to RT to programme design:
• Progressive overload
• Exercise choice
• Exercise sequence
•...
RT Mesocycles
• Hypertrophy
• Strength phase
• Power phase
• Peaking phase
• Active recovery phase
Biomechanics
Apply the principles of biomechanics, to
include:
• Centre of gravity
• Momentum
• Posture and alignment
• Le...
Flexibility Systems
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each
of these training methods:
•CRAC (contract, relax, a...
Record Keeping
Maintain accurate records of changes, in relation to:
•Client’s short term and long term SMART goals
•Corre...
Collecting Information about Clients
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Establish rapport with the client
• ...
Establishing Rapport
Consider the following:
• The importance of empathy, warmth, honesty
and genuineness
• Identifying po...
PT Role and Responsibilities
Consider the following:
• The Code of Ethical Practice
• REPs registration
• Client/trainer c...
Recording of Information
Record information using appropriate
formats, to include:
•Medical questionnaires, psychological
...
Agreeing Goals with Clients
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Work with clients to agree short term,
medium...
Agreeing Goals
Work with clients to agree short, medium and long term
goals appropriate to their needs:
•Client to agree a...
Planning a PT Programme
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Plan specific outcome measures, stages of
achieve...
Planning a PT Programme
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Identify the resources needed for the
programme, ...
Planning a PT Programme
Agree a timetable of sessions with clients:
• Short term plan (weekly session plan)
• Medium term ...
Managing a PT Programme
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Ensure effective integration of all programme
exe...
Reviewing Progress with Clients
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Explain to clients the purpose of review
...
Evaluation
Review the following:
• Session aims
• SMART goals
• Activities
• Client performance
• Own performance (prepara...
Adapting PT Programmes with
Clients
By the end of the session you will be able to:
• Identify goals and exercises/physical...
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Programming Gym-based sessions L3

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Programming Gym-based sessions L3

  1. 1. Programming Personal Training with Clients Level 3 Certificate in Personal Training © Central YMCA Qualifications (CYQ), 2010 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, reproduction of this resource for assisting course delivery is permissible for approved CYQ training providers for INTERNAL USE only.
  2. 2. Unit Aims The learner will: • Understand how to prepare PT programmes • Understand the importance of long term behaviour change for PT • Understand the principles of collecting information to plan a PT programme • Understand how to screen clients prior to a PT programme • Understand how to identify PT goals with clients • Understand how to plan a PT programme with clients
  3. 3. Unit Aims The learner will: • Understand how to adapt a PT programme with clients • Be able to collect information about clients • Be able to agree goals with clients • Be able to plan a PT programme with clients • Be able to manage a PT programme • Be able to review progress with clients • Be able to adapt a PT programme with clients
  4. 4. How the Unit is Assessed Case Study and Viva: Using a real, apparently healthy individual (e.g. a peer, family member, friend or partner) who does not require medical intervention, learners are required to produce and implement a case study that contains: • Client profile • Detailed 4 week PT programme • 12 week PT overview
  5. 5. How the Unit is Assessed Client Profile: • Client’s personal details • Description of lifestyle • Medical screening (PARQ) • Postural screening • Past and present physical activity • Exercise preferences
  6. 6. How the Unit is Assessed Client Profile: • Description of client’s attitude to physical activity • Stage of readiness to participate • SMART goals (short, medium and long term) • Barriers to achieving goals • Proposed strategies to overcome barriers
  7. 7. How the Unit is Assessed Detailed 4 Week Programme: The 4 week plan should contain a minimum of 4 session plans (1 per week) and the sessions should be between 30 and 60 minutes duration. For each session there should be: • Detailed session plan/programme card • Session evaluations (with records of adjustments made) • Evidence of adjustments made to 4 week plan • Client evaluations
  8. 8. How the Unit is Assessed Session Plans: The session plans with the 4 week plan must also contain: • Appropriate warm up activities • A minimum of 2 of the following cardiovascular approaches to training (on CV machines or other CV modes): – Interval – Fartlek – Continuous
  9. 9. How the Unit is Assessed Session Plans: • A minimum of 4 resistance approaches using RT machines, FW or alternative methods (e.g. body weight): – Pyramid sets – Super-setting – Giant sets – Tri sets – Forced reps – Pre/post exhaust – Negative/eccentric training
  10. 10. How the Unit is Assessed Session Plans: • 1 core stability exercise • 1 PNF stretch • Appropriate cool down activities
  11. 11. How the Unit is Assessed Session Plans: • Content may be spread across all 4 sessions and do not have to be in each session • 1 session plan must contain information regarding environments not designed specifically for exercise (e.g. outdoor, office, home) • The programme should specify the acute variables to be applied (sets, reps, intensity, time, rest) • The programme should meet the client’s goals and should adhere to sound principles of programming
  12. 12. How the Unit is Assessed 12 Week PT Overview: The 12 week programme should relate to and build on the 4 week programme and should show projected logical progression from the 4 week programme at weeks 6 and 12.
  13. 13. How the Unit is Assessed Viva: The viva will ensure that you have sufficient knowledge and understanding of the PT programme they have devised. Your ability to progress or regress activities according to the client’s goals, wants and needs will also be assessed during the viva.
  14. 14. How to Prepare PT Programmes By the end of the session you will be able to: • Describe the range of resources required to deliver a PT programme • Explain how to work in environments that are not specifically designed for exercise/physical activity
  15. 15. Resources Environment for the session: • Inside areas (e.g. gym, studio, sports hall, home/office) • Outside areas (e.g. parks)
  16. 16. Resources Portable equipment: • Benches • Free weights • Bands • Steps • Swiss balls • Medicine balls • Dumbbells
  17. 17. Resources Fixed equipment: • Fixed resistance machines • Cable machines • CV machines (e.g. Upright/recumbent cycle, treadmill, stepper, rowing machine, elliptical trainer and cross trainer) • Vibration plates
  18. 18. Environment Consider the following: •Health and safety considerations relating to different environments, to include: – Environment – Equipment – Clothing – Support from others – Others users of the environment
  19. 19. Environment Consider the following: • Personal safety issues • Weather conditions • First aid equipment • Knowledge of location and of facilities (e.g. Toilets, drinking water, route planning) • Possible hazards
  20. 20. Environment Consider the following: • Public liability insurance • Risk assessment • Available space • Any additional planning requirements • Body weight exercises
  21. 21. Portable Equipment • Hand weights/dumbbells • Resistance bands • Focus pads • Medicine balls • Stability balls • Skipping ropes
  22. 22. Portable Equipment • Step • Benches • Trees • TRX • Bosu
  23. 23. Long Term Behaviour Change for PT By the end of the session you will be able to: • Explain why it is important for clients to understand the advantages of PT • Explain why it is important for a PT to work together with clients to agree goals, objectives, programmes and adaptations • Explain the importance of long term behaviour change in developing client fitness • Explain how to ensure clients commit themselves to long term change
  24. 24. Advantages of Personal Training • Regular 1:1 contact with instructor to aid motivation • Increased motivation and adherence • More frequent programme reviews • Formal reviews as scheduled and agreed with client • Informal reviews, ongoing observation and assessment at every session • Programmes updated and progressed more regularly
  25. 25. Advantages of Personal Training • Individualised programmes for the participant – more personal • Programmes designed to address functional capability including core stability, postural deviations as well as client goals • Reduced risk of injury whilst training • Continuous feedback on technique • Goals achieved by the client more quickly
  26. 26. Goals and Objectives • To ensure programmes truly address client’s specific needs • Client is paying for the service, therefore expects goals to be achieved • Discuss the benefits of progressive exercise programmes • Change programmes immediately if a client’s circumstances change
  27. 27. Strategies for Managing Change • Behaviour – Substituting alternatives – Rewards – Social support – Commitment
  28. 28. Strategies for Managing Change • Cognitive – Increasing knowledge of benefits – Risks – Consequences – Understanding beliefs – Identifying healthier choices
  29. 29. Strategies for Managing Change • Humanistic – Relationship between client and instructor
  30. 30. How to Use Strategies • Decision balance sheet to identify barriers • Problem solving strategies for overcoming barriers • Increase confidence • Goal setting • Action planning • Promoting autonomy and interdependence (relational skills)
  31. 31. Approaches to Long Term Behaviour Change Consider the following: • How to plan an intervention to increase likelihood of participation • How to integrate various methods of behaviour change in the development of an exercise programme
  32. 32. Social Support • Friends • Family • Other service users • Buddy systems and training partners • Group exercise
  33. 33. Teaching Approach Consider the following: •Learning styles (visual, aural, kinaesthetic) •Verbal and non-verbal communication •Equal opportunities (e.g. age, gender, race, disability)
  34. 34. Goal Setting Agree SMART goals (short, medium and long term) Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time-framed
  35. 35. Principles of Progression Apply the principles of progression, to include: • Specificity • Progressive overload • Reversibility • Adaptability • Individuality • Recovery time
  36. 36. Client Commitment To ensure client commitment, also consider the benefits of: •A reward system •Self belief and visualisation techniques •Relapse strategies •Having a network of support And consider the risks of overtraining and its impact on long term behaviour change
  37. 37. Collecting Information By the end of the session you will be able to: • Explain the principles of informed consent • Explain why informed consent should be obtained • Summarise the client information that should be collected
  38. 38. Informed Consent Consider the following: • Adhere to the Code of Ethical Practice • Identify health and safety considerations • Refer to a GP or other medical professional where required • Take into account data protection requirements
  39. 39. Client Information Collect the following information: • Personal goals –Future goals and aspirations –Expectations
  40. 40. Client Information Collect the following information: • Lifestyle information: – Work patterns – Eating patterns – Relevant personal circumstances – Stress levels – Hobbies/regular activities – Time available to exercise – Family/friends support
  41. 41. Client Information Collect the following information: • Medical history – Health history (health questionnaire) – Current health status (PARQ or alternative) – Risk factors – Identification of medical conditions requiring medical clearance – Past and present injuries and disabilities – Postural analysis – Any musculoskeletal discomfort
  42. 42. Client Information Collect the following information: • Physical activity history – Past and current • Physical activity likes and dislikes – Past and current
  43. 43. Client Information Collect the following information: • Motivation and barriers to participation – Attitude – Perceived barriers – Actual barriers – Intrinsic barriers (e.g. fear, embarrassment) – Extrinsic barriers (e.g. time, cost, family commitments)
  44. 44. Client Information Collect the following information: • Current fitness level – Evaluation of current levels of all components of fitness, to include: • Muscular strength • Muscular endurance • Cardio respiratory fitness • Flexibility • Motor skills • Core stability • Functional ability
  45. 45. Client Information Assess components of fitness by taking physical measurements as appropriate for the clients: •Blood pressure (manual and digital) •Anthropometrics (height and weight, waist circumference or waist to hips ratio) •Body Mass Index •CV fitness (e.g. Astrand bike test, Rockport walking test, step test, Cooper 12 minute walk/run)
  46. 46. Client Information Assess components of fitness by taking physical measurements as appropriate for the clients: •Range of motion (e.g. Sit and reach test, visual assessments during stretch positions) •Muscular fitness (e.g. Abdominal curl/sit up test, press up test) •Postural assessments (e.g. Squat technique, walking gait)
  47. 47. Client Information Collect the following information: • Stage of readiness – Stated future goals and aspirations – Exercise readiness questionnaire • Posture and alignment – Upper and lower body – Repetitive movement patterns that may cause issues • Functional ability – Ability to carry out everyday tasks easily and pain free – Using an ADL questionnaire
  48. 48. How to Screen Clients By the end of the session you will be able to: • Explain how to interpret information collected from the client in order to identify client needs and goals • Explain how to analyse client responses to the PARQ • Describe types of medical conditions that will prevent PTs from working with a client (unless they have specialist training/qualifications) • Explain how and when PTs should refer clients to another professional
  49. 49. Information Gathering • Select and record client information correctly • Obtain consent to exercise • Identify contraindications to exercise • Recognise and defer clients where applicable
  50. 50. Information Gathering • Consider methods for collecting objective information • Consider methods for collecting subjective information • Use additional questioning where required • Check client’s understanding of the information collected
  51. 51. Analyse Client Response to PARQ Consider the following: • Any ‘yes’ responses • Client concerns regarding readiness • Instructor concerns regarding readiness • How to interpret client’s body language • High blood pressure reading
  52. 52. Analyse Client Response to PARQ Consider the following: • High heart rate reading (tachycardia ›100 bpm) • Low heart rate reading (bradycardia ‹60bpm) • Whether any additional questioning is required
  53. 53. Medical Conditions The following types of medical conditions will prevent PTs from working with clients (unless they have specialist training/qualifications): •CHD •Pre and post natal •Diabetes •Disability •Cancer •Stroke
  54. 54. Medical Conditions The following types of medical conditions will prevent PTs from working with clients (unless they have specialist training/qualifications): •Severe musculoskeletal issues/injuries •Ageing (when resulting in age-related issues) •Exercise referral (specific controlled medical conditions) •Obesity •Rehabilitation patients
  55. 55. Referral Consider the limits of your own expertise and competence in prescribing a progressive exercise programme. Refer where required to: •GP •Physiotherapist •Other health professionals/consultants •Senior colleague (if appropriately qualified)
  56. 56. How to Identify PT Goals with Clients By the end of the session you will be able to: • Explain how to identify client’s short, medium and long term goals • Identify when PTs should involve others, apart from their clients, in goal setting • Explain how to use SMART objectives in a PT programme
  57. 57. Goal Setting Identify short, medium and long term goals for the following: •General health and fitness •Physiological •Psychological •Lifestyle •Social •Functional ability
  58. 58. Goal Setting • Short term goal: weekly (mini process goals) • Medium term goal: 1 – 3 months (process goals) • Long term goal: 3 – 6, 6 – 12 months (outcome goals)
  59. 59. Goal Setting Consider involving others where appropriate: • Positive ParQ – referral/deferral • Family and friends for external support and encouragement • GP or other health professional for medical reasons
  60. 60. Goal Setting Use SMART goals to: • Break down a long term goal into more achievable sub-goals and to enhance sense of progression/success • Demonstrate progress against baseline measures • Structure a PT programme
  61. 61. How to Plan a PT Programme with Clients By the end of the session you will be able to: • Identify credible sources of guidelines on programme design and safe exercise • Summarise the key principles of designing programmes to achieve short, medium and long term goals, including the order and structure of sessions • Describe a range of safe and effective exercises/physical activities to develop all components of fitness • Explain how to include physical activities as part of the client’s lifestyle to compliment exercise sessions • Explain how to design programmes that can be run in environments not designed specifically for exercise • Identify when it might be appropriate to share the programme with other professionals
  62. 62. Sources of Information • ACSM guidelines • Reputable internet sources • British Heart Foundation (BHF) guidelines • Reputable journals (e.g. BHF, REPs etc)
  63. 63. Principles of Programme Design Apply the principles of FITT: Frequency Intensity Time Type
  64. 64. Principles of Programme Design Consider ACSM guidelines: CV fitness • High intensity, low duration, or moderate to vigorous exercise with longer duration • 64% and 70 – 94% of MHR • Those already physically active (in aerobic activity) require intensities at high end of continuum • For most individuals intensities within a range of 77% to 90% of MHR are sufficient to achieve improvements in CV fitness
  65. 65. Principles of Programme Design Consider ACSM guidelines: Muscular fitness • F – 2-3 times a week • I – 8-10 exercises (1 per main muscle group), 1 set of 8-12 reps on each exercise, resistance 75% 1RM • T – 20 minutes • T – resistance machines/free weights
  66. 66. Principles of Programme Design Consider ACSM guidelines: Flexibility • F – ideally 5-7 times per week • I – to the end of ROM at point of tightness • T – 15-30 seconds for each stretch • T – static stretches
  67. 67. Principles of Programme Design Consider the following: • Overload • Adaptation • Specificity • Reversibility • Progression • Regression • Rest and recovery (during and between sessions)
  68. 68. Principles of Programme Design Apply the principles of periodisation: • Macrocycles: long term (outcome) goal • Mesocycles: medium term (process) goals • Microcycles: short term (process) goals, where the detail of each training session is applied
  69. 69. Principles of Programme Design Consider the order and relevance of fitness components for each session: •Warm up •Flexibility (as part of warm up) •Balance, motor skills training, proprioception training •Core stability •Cardiovascular workout •Muscular conditioning •Cool down, including flexibility
  70. 70. Principles of Programme Design CV Fitness Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each training system: • Interval • Fartlek • Continuous/constant pace training
  71. 71. Principles of Programme Design Muscular Fitness Apply the following (as appropriate): • Strength • Endurance • Power Using a range of: • Resistance machines • Free weights • Cables • Body weight exercises
  72. 72. Principles of Programme Design RT machines:
  73. 73. Principles of Programme Design Exercise bands:
  74. 74. Principles of Programme Design Free weights:
  75. 75. Principles of Programme Design Cables:
  76. 76. Principles of Programme Design Flexibility: •Static flexibility exercises •Dynamic flexibility exercises •PNF – assisted flexibility exercises •Self myofascial release – foam rolling
  77. 77. Principles of Programme Design Motor Skills • Balance and coordination exercises • Exercises that challenge proprioception/ spacial awareness
  78. 78. Principles of Programme Design Core Stability • Stabilisation core exercises for the spine • Mobilisation core exercises for the spine
  79. 79. Principles of Programme Design Core stability exercises: • Drawing-in manoeuvre (stabilisation) • Superman (stabilisation) • Floor bridge (stabilisation) • Plank (stabilisation) • Abdominal crunch (movement) • Reverse crunch (movement) • Cable rotation (movement)
  80. 80. Principles of Programme Design Aim to include physical activities as part of the client’s lifestyle to compliment exercise sessions, to include: •Activities of daily living (e.g. gardening, housework, shopping, walking) •Benefits of using pedometers – walking •Leisure activities (e.g. sports, hobbies) •Family activities (e.g. family activity) •Variety to aid motivation and adherence •Cumulative effect of being more active on a daily basis Include on programme card as agreed with client
  81. 81. How to Adapt a PT Programme with Clients By the end of the session you will be able to: • Explain how the principles of training can be used to adapt the programme where required • Describe the different training systems and their use in providing variety and in ensuring programmes remain effective • Explain why it is important to keep accurate records of changes and the reasons for change
  82. 82. CV Training Systems Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each of these training systems: •Interval •Fartlek •Continuous/constant pace training •Circuit training •Random
  83. 83. CV Physiological Adaptations
  84. 84. RT Systems Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each of these training systems: •Pyramid systems •Super setting (agonist/antagonist; agonist/agonist) •Giant sets •Tri sets •Forced repetitions •Pre/post exhaust •Negative/eccentric training •Stripping method •Cheating method
  85. 85. RT Anatomical and Physiological Adaptations
  86. 86. RT Variables Apply the variables to RT to programme design: • Progressive overload • Exercise choice • Exercise sequence • Equipment • Environment • Split routines • Type of muscle contraction • Individuality (workout time; recovery time)
  87. 87. RT Mesocycles • Hypertrophy • Strength phase • Power phase • Peaking phase • Active recovery phase
  88. 88. Biomechanics Apply the principles of biomechanics, to include: • Centre of gravity • Momentum • Posture and alignment • Levers • Stability
  89. 89. Flexibility Systems Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each of these training methods: •CRAC (contract, relax, agonist, contract) •PNF (Proprioception Neuromuscular Facilitation) •Self myofascial release •Static •Ballistic •Dynamic •Partner stretching
  90. 90. Record Keeping Maintain accurate records of changes, in relation to: •Client’s short term and long term SMART goals •Correct intensity •Different exercise choices •Adaptations and modifications •Long term behaviour change Using an appropriate programme card
  91. 91. Collecting Information about Clients By the end of the session you will be able to: • Establish rapport with the client • Explain own role and responsibilities to clients • Collect the information needed to plan a programme using appropriate methods • Show sensitivity and empathy to clients and the information they provide • Record the information using appropriate formats in a way that will aid analysis • Treat confidential information correctly
  92. 92. Establishing Rapport Consider the following: • The importance of empathy, warmth, honesty and genuineness • Identifying potential barriers to instructor/client interaction • The use of effective questioning techniques • The importance of active listening skills • Understanding the significance of non-verbal communication • The need to maintain client confidentiality
  93. 93. PT Role and Responsibilities Consider the following: • The Code of Ethical Practice • REPs registration • Client/trainer contract outlining role and responsibilities • Positive communication • Clear instructions and arrangements • Sources of help/contact • Professionalism
  94. 94. Recording of Information Record information using appropriate formats, to include: •Medical questionnaires, psychological questionnaires, lifestyle questionnaires •Fitness assessment portfolio/records (CV fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition, neuromuscular efficiency, posture, BP)
  95. 95. Agreeing Goals with Clients By the end of the session you will be able to: • Work with clients to agree short term, medium term and long term goals appropriate to their needs • Ensure the goals are SMART • Agree with clients their needs and readiness to participate
  96. 96. Agreeing Goals Work with clients to agree short, medium and long term goals appropriate to their needs: •Client to agree and set a goal contract •Identify and agree appropriate goal evaluation procedures •Review process agreed with the client •Adopt a flexible approach according to the client’s needs and abilities •Ensure goals are SMART •Conduct a readiness to exercise questionnaire
  97. 97. Planning a PT Programme By the end of the session you will be able to: • Plan specific outcome measures, stages of achievement and exercise/physical activities • Ensure the components of fitness are built into the programme • Apply the principles of training to help clients achieve goals • Agree the demands of the programme with clients • Agree a timetable of sessions with clients • Agree appropriate evaluation methods and review dates
  98. 98. Planning a PT Programme By the end of the session you will be able to: • Identify the resources needed for the programme, including the use of environments not designed for exercise • Record plans in a format that will help clients and others involved to implement the programme • Agree how to maintain contact with the client between sessions
  99. 99. Planning a PT Programme Agree a timetable of sessions with clients: • Short term plan (weekly session plan) • Medium term plan (e.g. 3 month plan) • Long term plan (e.g. 6 month or 12 month plan) Carry out regular reviews of: • Short term process goals • Medium term process goals • Long term outcome goals
  100. 100. Managing a PT Programme By the end of the session you will be able to: • Ensure effective integration of all programme exercises/physical activities and sessions • Provide alternatives to the programmed exercises/physical activities if clients cannot take part as planned • Monitor clients’ progress using appropriate methods
  101. 101. Reviewing Progress with Clients By the end of the session you will be able to: • Explain to clients the purpose of review • Review short, medium and long term goals with clients at agreed points in the programme, taking into account any changes in circumstances • Encourage clients to give their own views on progress • Use agreed evaluation guidelines • Give feedback to clients during their review that is likely to strengthen their motivation and adherence • Agree review outcomes with clients • Keep an accurate record of reviews and their outcome
  102. 102. Evaluation Review the following: • Session aims • SMART goals • Activities • Client performance • Own performance (preparation and delivery) • Health and safety
  103. 103. Adapting PT Programmes with Clients By the end of the session you will be able to: • Identify goals and exercises/physical activities that need to be redefined or adapted • Agree adaptations, progressions and regressions to meet clients’ needs to optimise achievement

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