Group 5 Reflection 3


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Group 5 Reflection 3

  1. 1. Group 5 Reflection #3: Examining Learning Theories Eric, Rea, & Heather - P540 Learning and Cognition Fall 2007
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Learning theories attempt to address the following questions: </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Upon completion of this presentation, the learner will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define, compare, and contrast different learning theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recollection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Group’s 5 learning theory </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Rationale <ul><li>There is no single “best” learning theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Each theory illuminates a different aspect of the teaching/learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories are influenced by worldviews. </li></ul>We need a strong understanding because…
  5. 5. Learning Theory <ul><li>According to Wikipedia, a learning theory is an attempt to describe how people learn. </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation will cover four different types of learning theories: </li></ul><ul><li>Recollection </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitivism </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul>Cognitive Behavior Construct Information Performance Knowledge Environment Social Development Recollection Innate Learning Theories Memory Thinking Thoughts
  6. 6. Learning Theory Timeline 900 B.C Socrates – Recollection 1889 Pavlov – Classic Conditioning 1938 Skinner Operant Conditioning 1966 Bruner Discovery Learning 1971 DeBono Lateral Thinking 1972 Craik/Lockhart Thinking Levels 1978 Vygotsky Social Development 1985 Gagne Conditions of Learning 1991 Paivio Dual Coding Theory 1993 Gardner Multiple Intelligence 1903 Thorndike The Law of Effect 1929 Piaget Genetic Epistomology 1913 Watson Behaviorism 1978 Vygotsky Zone of Proximal 1963 Piaget Developmental Psychology 1968 Atkinson/Shiffrin Information Processing
  7. 7. Learning Theories: <ul><li>A Closer Look </li></ul>
  8. 8. Recollection
  9. 9. Important Figures <ul><li>Socrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Informal” Teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best sources of info come from Plato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought “genuine knowledge” by discovering universal definitions of the key concepts governing human life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentenced to death for his teachings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Committed suicide by drinking Hemlock </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Pythagoras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pythagorean Brotherhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmony of the Spheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice is four, marriage is five </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>∏ and the importance of secrecy </li></ul></ul>Pre-Socratic Philosophy
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Sophists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herodotus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>History & Cultural Relativism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protagorus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Man is the measure of all things” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy for hire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Post-Modernism? </li></ul></ul>Pre-Socratic Philosophy
  12. 12. <ul><li>Socrates </li></ul><ul><li>Sophists </li></ul>Socrates vs. The Sophists
  13. 13. <ul><li>Socratic Method </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Moral Character </li></ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Soul </li></ul><ul><li>Reincarnation </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine Knowledge </li></ul>Socratic Terminology
  14. 14. <ul><li>Critical Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Dialectical Method </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophical Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Inquiry </li></ul>Mechanisms
  15. 15. Learning Curve Graph Knowledge Birth Time
  16. 16. <ul><li>Socrates' challenge to reflect on the soul initiated the tradition of freedom in education that led to… </li></ul><ul><li>Education for development of the human mind or 'soul' which led to… </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Rationality or “Creative Intelligence” (i.e. the “Socratic tradition”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to cultivate intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The spirit of inquiry runs through the entire history of philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It shaped many of the modern notions of science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic Education, Freedom of Thought… </li></ul></ul>Implications for Education
  17. 17. Behaviorism
  18. 18. Important Figures <ul><li>John B. Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced the notion of behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Leading proponent of Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Used classical conditioning to demonstrate respondent behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Thorndike </li></ul><ul><li>Used his Law of Effect to demonstrate reinforcements. </li></ul>Thorndike Skinner Pavlov Watson
  19. 19. <ul><li>Respondent Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcements </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus, operant response, contingent stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Behaviorism </li></ul>Terminology
  20. 20. Terminology
  21. 21. <ul><li>Gaining knowledge begins with the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning occurs by reacting to a stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>People react to satisfying and aversive stimuli allowing them to affect our thinking and future decisions. </li></ul>Mechanisms
  22. 22. Learning Curve Graph Knowledge Birth Time
  23. 23. <ul><li>Minds can be shaped through careful planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Continually moving toward a desired target incorporating reinforces should result in the desired outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Management carries most importance. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative reinforcements applied to student behavior will lead to on-task behavior and discourage disruptive behaviors. </li></ul>Implications for Education
  24. 24. Cognitive Information Processing (CIP)
  25. 25. What is the CIP Theory? <ul><li>Cognitive Information Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Started in the 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>The basic idea was that the human mental function can be understood </li></ul><ul><li>The process of placing information into long-term memory. (Brunner 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding: Storage and Retrieval of Information, similar to how computers process information (input/output) </li></ul>Information Long-term Memory
  26. 26. Important Figures <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Development </li></ul><ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Social Development Theory </li></ul><ul><li>John Dewey </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Principles in Education  </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational Learning/ Hands-on </li></ul>Jean Piaget Vygotsky Dewey
  27. 27. CIP Terminology <ul><li>Knowledge Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Declarative Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Conditional Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborative Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Mnemonics </li></ul><ul><li>Schema Activation </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Peer Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of Processing </li></ul>Encoding Simple Information Encoding Complex Information Metacognitive Skills
  28. 28. CIP Mechanisms <ul><li>Knowledge is “constructed” by learners as they attempt to make sense of their experiences. In the CIP theory, learners are active, seeking meaning, and not empty vessels. Brunner 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>The CIP model below, represents the how information is placed into long-term memory, also referred to as “Encoding”. </li></ul>Stimuli Transfer Retrieval Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory (Working memory) Long-Term Memory Storage Information from the Environment Elaboration and Encoding Forgotten Repetition
  29. 29. Learning Curve Graph Knowledge Birth Time
  30. 30. Implications for Education <ul><li>Teachers must create learning environments conducive to helping and allowing students to apply previous knowledge to current situations.  </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Match encoding strategies with materials to be learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage students to engage in deeper processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use instructional strategies that promote elaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help students become metacognitive aware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make strategy instruction a priority, such as practice and feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help students transfer strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage reflection on strategy use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brunner (2005) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Constructivism
  32. 32. What is the Constructivism Theory? <ul><li>Constructivism is a paradigm that believes learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is the constructor of their own knowledge. This theory believes that people actively construct or create their own objective reality. All new information is linked to prior knowledge. Learning 2007 </li></ul>Genetic epistemology is linked to constructivism. It is the method in which knowledge is obtained/created. Wikipedia 2007
  33. 33. Constructivism Model Driscoll (2005) p. 84 Constructivism Assumes Knowledge is constructed Learning Goals Conditions for Instruction Methods for Instruction <ul><li>Complex and relevant learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Social negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple perspectives and multiple modes of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness of knowledge construction </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding and use of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Mindful reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Microworlds and hypermedia designs </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning and problem scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-based scenarios and problem-based learning </li></ul><ul><li>Open software and course management tools </li></ul>
  34. 34. Important Figures <ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist Theory  </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey </li></ul><ul><li>Student-based Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Bruner </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Note: The Constructivist Theory is made up of many theories in the field of education and psychology. </li></ul>Vygotsky Dewey Piaget Bruner
  35. 35. Terminology <ul><li>Complex and relevant learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulated (autonomy) </li></ul><ul><li>Three kinds of learning outcomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rote learning (memory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivist Learning (retention and transfer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOI model (Selection, Organization, Integration) </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and relativity </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered learning </li></ul>
  36. 36. Mechanisms <ul><li>Knowledge is acquired or “constructed” when learners actively create their own knowledge by trying to make sense out of new information that is presented to them and build upon previous learnings. (Perkins, 1991). </li></ul>
  37. 37. Learning Curve Graph Knowledge Birth Time
  38. 38. Implications for Education <ul><li>Teachers must provide engaging opportunities for students to make sense of the information via hands-on activities and discussions.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embed learning in complex, realistic, and relevant learning environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for social negotiation as an integral part of learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support multiple perspectives and use multiple modes of representation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage ownership in learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurture self-awareness of the knowledge construction process Driscoll, 2005 </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Analyze, Compare, Evaluate <ul><li>(ACE) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Comparison Learning Theory Socrates’ Recollection Behaviorism CIP Constructivism People Socrates, Plato  B.F. Skinner, Thorndike, Pavlov, John B. Watson Lev Vygotsky, Piaget, Dewey  Dewey, Goodman, Gibson, Piaget , and many other education and psychology researchers Terms Recollection, truths, soul  Radical behaviorism, SRS (discriminative stimulus –operant response, contingent stimulus), law of effect, reinforcements, respondent and operant behavior Sensory, short-term, and long-term memory, encoding, metacognition, storage, retrieval, maintenance rehearsal, imagery, keyword method, mnemonics, schema activation, guided questioning Complex and relevant learning environments, collaboration, autonomy, rote, memory, retention and transfer, SOI model: selection, organization, integration, culture, relativity Mechanism for Acquiring knowledge Knowledge exist before birth, therefore individuals learn by recalling prior knowledge from a previous life, then applying it to current life situations. Knowledge begins with the environment, therefore learning occurs when people react to satisfying and aversive stimuli allowing them to affect our thinking and future decisions. Knowledge is acquired when information is stored in memory (sensory, short-term, or long-term memory), then recalled, and applied into knowledge. Knowledge is acquired or “constructed” when learners actively create their own knowledge by trying to make sense out of new information that is presented to them and build upon previous learnings. Implication for Teachers Teachers must guide students to find answers within themselves. Teachers must apply positive and negative reinforcements to change student behavior and discourage disruptive behaviors. Teachers must create leaning environments conducive to helping and allowing students to apply previous knowledge to current situations.  Teachers must provide engaging opportunities for students to make sense of the information via hands-on activities and discussions. 
  41. 41. A Revised &quot;Learning Theory&quot; <ul><li>Group 5’s Opinion: </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>We believe that learning takes place in different ways & at different levels at different times in a person’s life. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, there are truths & benefits associated with all the Learning Theories we have discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>To that end, we would like to offer a Pedagological View of how these existing theories intertwine rather than a “new” Learning Theory. </li></ul>Our &quot;Learning Theory&quot;
  43. 43. <ul><li>Learning Theories are relevant at the Instructional Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How learning takes place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pedagological Views are relevant at the Curriculum Level, which affects us more directly on a daily basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is learned & Why </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our Pedagological View: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning processes must create interconnections for knowledge that is distributed over many actual and virtual locations. Maintaining these connections then becomes a learning skill that is essential for life-long learning. </li></ul></ul>Our Pedagological View
  44. 44. <ul><li>Cognitive Design Solutions found at On November 8 2007, Copyright © 2003 Cognitive Design Solutions, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Brunning, Roger (2004) , Chapter 4, Encoding Process </li></ul><ul><li>Driscoll, Marcy P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction , Chapter 3, Cognitive Information Processing , Boston: Allen and Bacon Longman </li></ul><ul><li>Driscoll, Marcy P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction , Chapter 11, Constructivism , Boston: Allen and Bacon Longman </li></ul><ul><li>Perkins, David, (1999) Many Faces of Constructivism , part of the Understandings of Consequence Project , which is supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. REC-9725502 </li></ul><ul><li>Gagne, R., Briggs, L. & Wager, W. (1992). Principles of Instructional Design (4th Ed.). Fort Worth, TX: HBJ College Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>All Photos : </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia found at on November 13 2007, Copyright © 2007 Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories found at on November 16, 2007 Copyright © 2007 Learning Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Study Guide and Strategies found at on November 16, 2007 Copyright © 2007 Study Guide and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Edutech wiki found at on November 16, 2007 Copyright © 2007 Edutech </li></ul>Resources