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1
Amity University , Dubai
Term Paper on
Tesla : Future Transportation
By
Kamal
B.com (Hons)
Semester – 2
At
Amity Univers...
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I acknowledge, with gratitude, my debts of thanks to Professor Priynka for her
valuable advice and encou...
3
ABSTRACT
Providecomplete information about customer’s privateconsumption on
automobiles. With growing giant’s automobile...
4
DECLARATION
Title of project report: Tesla: FutureTransportation
I declare,
a) That the work presented for assessmentin ...
5
I. Introduction Page 7
A. The Inefficiency of Cars Today
B. Thesis Objective

C.Thesis
II. Research and Resources Page 9...
6
VI. How It Works :
Page18
A. The Model S
VII. How Did They Do It? Page 19
A. Defining “It” 

B. Elon Musk’s Vision 

C. ...
7
“I invented nothing new. I simply assembled the discoveries of other men,
behind whom were centuries of work.”
–Henry Fo...
8
paper will give a brief (and ideally, fascinating) rundown on the building behind electric
autos; a superior comprehensi...
9
Researchand Resources
A. Research Framework
The ramifications of altering our principle type of transportation, national...
10
C. Resources and Data
An expansive assortment of assets were used to give the most comprehensive, adjusted photo
of the...
11
Tesla in Context
A. The Global AutoIndustry
The car world has many players however control stays gathered in the hands ...
12
B. Tesla:The InnovativeDisrupter
The EV business is more seasoned than a great many people acknowledge, more
establishe...
13
C. Sparking the Electric Revolution
Tesla Engines, established in 2003 by a syndicate of designers and business visiona...
14
The Man Behind the Machine
A. Elon Musk
Elon Musk: equivalent amounts of visionary and scientific genius, very rich per...
15
C. SpaceX
Space Investigation Innovations Organization, or SpaceX, is a space transport organization
that impacted the ...
16
Tesla Motors Overview
A. Company Offerings
Tesla could invade a thickly thought, very focused coliseum with a three-sta...
17
Model X:
The Model X was intended to join the best qualities of minivans and SUVs with the
execution and proficiency th...
18
How It Works:The ModelS
A. The Design
As Tesla's first unique configuration and standard offering, the Model S serves a...
19
How Did They Do It?
A. Defining “It” 

Before noting how Tesla did "it", one should first figure out what precisely "it...
20
by similarity, instead of by first standards, would have killed autos for stallions, which had
been the standard and we...
21
especially those offered by Mercedes, BMW, Audi, Lexus or Puma. "Is Tesla ensuring that
resale esteem, as well as Elon ...
22
whatever it takes to augment revenue. Boosting benefits from oil deals by is regularly
accomplished by "controlling gen...
23
Long-Term Ramifications
A. Scalabilityof Electric Technology
In the end, be that as it may, the electric transformation...
24
examination stage, Eberhard additionally said, "versatility is a component of the required
vitality stockpiling; a plan...
25
B. Risksto the Vision
There are a few variables that could represent a danger to Tesla's vision, either specifically to...
26
stretch dismiss shoppers who are discover solace in recognition; what's more, forceful
recovery regularly backs the aut...
27
Concluding Thoughts
A. Reclassifying Achievement
Tesla is just barely starting its stratospheric ascend as the organiza...
28
B. Transportation's Future
Another inquiry that should be addressed is, are autos truly what's to come? Notwithstanding...
29
Appendix
Figure 1:
Source: Tesla Motors, Model S Specs
Figure 2:
Source: Behrens, Carl and Carol Glover, U.S. Energy: O...
30
Figure 3:
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review
Figure 4:
Source: U.S. Energy Informatio...
31
Figure 5:
Source: Behrens, Carl and Carol Glover, U.S. Energy: Overview and Key
Statistics 46
32
REFERENCES
1. Automobile Magazine Q and A: Elon Musk, CEO, Tesla. 8/6/12.
http://www.automobilemag.com/features/news/12...
33
12.48
13.PBS. Timeline: History of the Electric Car. 10/30/2009
http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/223/electric-car-timeline....
34
never-crash-it- immune-weather-fast-about-1200-kmhr-solar-en 

23.Tesla Motors. Executives. http://www.teslamotors.com/...
35


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tesla future transportationTerm paper

  1. 1. 1 Amity University , Dubai Term Paper on Tesla : Future Transportation By Kamal B.com (Hons) Semester – 2 At Amity University , Dubai campus Under the guidance of , Miss Priyanka 2015-2018
  2. 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I acknowledge, with gratitude, my debts of thanks to Professor Priynka for her valuable advice and encouragementin preparing this term paper. At the time of preparing this term paper, I had gone through different websites and books which helped me to complete this term paper. There may be factual error, shortcoming, mistaken opinion which all are mine andI alone responsiblefor those but I will try to give a better volume in future. THANK YOU Kamal
  3. 3. 3 ABSTRACT Providecomplete information about customer’s privateconsumption on automobiles. With growing giant’s automobile sector have taken their services to a higher level with better decreased, value for money prices and changing products. You will find more information when you go through the reportof Tesla
  4. 4. 4 DECLARATION Title of project report: Tesla: FutureTransportation I declare, a) That the work presented for assessmentin this project reportis my own, that it has not previously been presented for another assessmentand that my debts havebeen appropriately acknowledged. b) That the work confirms to guidelines for presentation and style set out in the relevant documentation. Date: 14 May 2016 Kamal Bcom Honours
  5. 5. 5 I. Introduction Page 7 A. The Inefficiency of Cars Today B. Thesis Objective
 C.Thesis II. Research and Resources Page 9 A. Research Framework 
 B. Research Perspectives 
 C. Resources and Data 
 III. Tesla in Context Page 11 A. The Global Auto Industry 
 B. Tesla:The Innovative Disrupter 
 C. Sparking the Electric Revolution 
 IV. The Man Behind the Machine Page 14 A. Elon Musk 
 B. Entrepreneur from the Start 
 C. SpaceX 
 V. Tesla Motors Overview Page 16 A. Company Offerings 
 B. Phase I. Roadster 
 C. Phase II. Models S and X
  6. 6. 6 VI. How It Works : Page18 A. The Model S VII. How Did They Do It? Page 19 A. Defining “It” 
 B. Elon Musk’s Vision 
 C. Re-Imagining the ProductExperience
 VIII. Moving Away from the Oil Economy Page 21 A. The Oil Industry 
 B. The United States’ Thirst for Oil 
 C. FossilFuel Free Future 
 IX. Long-Term Ramifications Page 23 A. Scalability of Electric Technology 
 B. Risks to the Vision X. Concluding Thoughts Page 27 A. Reclassifying Achievement B. Transportation’s Future
  7. 7. 7 “I invented nothing new. I simply assembled the discoveries of other men, behind whom were centuries of work.”
–Henry Ford Introduction A. The Inefficiency of Cars Today Couple of developments have had as significant an impact on our general public as did the innovation of the vehicles. What started as a grown-up toy for the rich has reformed urban configuration, business designs, merchandise dissemination and financial and remote strategy. In spite of its indispensable part in our lives and tremendous steps in innovation, autos are still determined by the same inside burning motor spearheaded in 1879. "The interior burning motor is an unpredictable, astonishing machine. In impeccable show, valves open, sparkle plugs light, cylinders move, and the crankshaft turns". Lamentably, with this out of date and hugely wasteful innovation, most by far of vitality is lost to warm spillage so that exclusive around 20% of the force really achieves the wheels. There are more than one billion vehicles on the planet, and with a developing white collar class in creating countries, this number will just increment in years to come; some appraisals place more than two billion vehicles on the planet by 2050. Without an insurgency in the vehicle business, this implies billions of barrels of oil and incalculable huge amounts of hurtful outflows to be discharged. Be that as it may, without precedent for over a century, change is not too far off. Practically every automaker, from behemoths like Toyota and GM to new companies like Tesla and Fisker, is chipping away at electric vehicles. B. Thesis Objective The inquiry on each auto official, policymaker and shopper's brain is whether electric vehicles are a financially savvy substitution for fuel controlled vehicles; assuming this is the case, what will be the impacts on our general public? In any case, the change may have as of now started, paying little heed to our goals or potential consequences. The introduce base for autos turns over at regular intervals; some industry specialists trust that inside two decades the larger part of new vehicles fabricated will be electric and that by inside four decades, most vehicles out and about will be electric. Different specialists contend that the inside ignition motor is staying put. There is one organization specifically that is intensely driving the charge towards an electric future: Tesla Motors. Subsequently, the emphasis will be on battery electric vehicles, otherwise called every single electric vehicle, instead of half breed vehicles, which utilize both power and fuel. For specificity, the primary center will be the electric vehicle industry in the U.S., despite the fact that the worldwide effect will likewise explored. So as to better comprehend the quandary, the fuel controlled vehicle base will be painstakingly analyzed; for case, the expenses to buyers, makers and nature and additionally the advantages of customary autos are all basic in choosing the need for an option strategy for transportation. What's more, the
  8. 8. 8 paper will give a brief (and ideally, fascinating) rundown on the building behind electric autos; a superior comprehension of the specialized parts can give knowledge into the possibility to cost funds and dangers of the new innovation. C. Thesis There is an enormous measure of energy, and also trepidation, in the quality of the car world. We have achieved a point where we can conceivably change the world through a combination of innovation and advancement. We have to deliberately dissect the household, universal and ecological impacts of the move on the off chance that we are to improve the world. The main assurance is that, somehow, our choices today will shape the following hundred years of our future. Tesla Motors offers a remarkable vision; as the main open American auto organization since Ford, Tesla has driven the insurgency by mass creating the primary line of every electric vehicle. The organization has taken the thought of an electric future past hypothesis and in doing as such, has set without hesitation this present reality repercussions of on a very basic level adjusting a standout amongst the most basic parts of our general public. Tesla Motors will lead the worldwide electric transformation, one which will reshape our national foundation, the world economy and the advanced comprehension of transportation.
  9. 9. 9 Researchand Resources A. Research Framework The ramifications of altering our principle type of transportation, national base and vitality strategies are endless. One of the key examination issues will be the financial aspects of vitality. Notwithstanding investigating a fuel controlled vehicle base, the paper will likewise look at the practicality of options, for example, common gas and hydrogen fueled vehicles. All the more critically, be that as it may, is the power that self discipline these new vehicles. Do electric vehicles offer a reasonable, ecologically benevolent type of transport, or do they just move our reliance starting with one restricted asset then onto the next? Both the transient and long haul financial matters must be deliberately examined to choose if electric vehicles are truth be told "greener" than customary methods of transport. The movement to battery-power vehicles will likewise drastically impact the residential and outside arrangement of the United States. Locally, we could conceivably see a movement from corner stores to energizing stations, in both open spaces and the home. As the United States, the biggest buyer of oil on the planet (at 18.9 million barrels a day), moves far from fuel, the expense of oil would fall definitely; the size of the value reduction and its more extensive effect on the large scale economy will be a key part of the examination paper. At last, since transportation is one of the best givers of air contamination, the natural impacts and additionally the presumable change in government arrangement are both variables that will assume a part in evaluating the advantages of electric vehicles. B. Research Perspectives For any transformation to occur, the two sides of the condition must meet: purchaser and maker, design and capacity, fleeting and long haul. The paper will likewise give a two dimensional perspective to the microeconomics of electric vehicles. On the shopper side, there is an emphasis on general purchaser supposition towards battery-fueled autos; would they say they are simply a passing pattern, a toy for superstars and tycoons or would they say they are a token of a more mindful, greener future? From a quantitative point of view, the exploration will consider the load of Tesla Motors, a traded on an open market organization, to better think about the organization's quality from a financial specialist's viewpoint. From the generation viewpoint, the inquiry comes down to benefit. How has the expense of materials, mostly batteries, diminished after some time? Following one hundred years of utilizing the same innovation, by what method can the car business acknowledge economies of scale for these new vehicles?
  10. 10. 10 C. Resources and Data An expansive assortment of assets were used to give the most comprehensive, adjusted photo of the issue, for both the short and long haul. In dissecting the short-term, current U.S. approach will assume a crucial part, subsequent to numerous new businesses can't make due without government appropriations; charge credits additionally impact both shopper and maker choices. Information from makers, including get together costs, innovative work expenses and customer attributes, will give further understanding on the creation side; this data will outline any fleeting difficulties and long haul hindrances that may upset the multiplication of electric vehicles. Then, examine with respect to shopper conclusions contribute a subjective, ordinary perspective. At last, meets with industry specialists and the individuals who work at Tesla offer a savvy viewpoint as to assuming the part of business visionary in a segment overwhelmed by mechanical titans.
  11. 11. 11 Tesla in Context A. The Global AutoIndustry The car world has many players however control stays gathered in the hands of a chosen few mechanical titans; GM, Toyota and Volkswagen are the biggest three firms and control an unbalanced measure of force in the worth chain. In the conventional vehicle industry, purchaser force is moderately high, given generally low exchanging costs and an incomprehensible decision of moderately substitutable items. Then, the huge measure of capital and broad systems limit supplier power; numerous parts of the car can be sourced from various suppliers, which keeps up aggressive information estimating. The high hindrances to section, because of the capital-serious nature of advancement and assembling, anticipate new participants. Likewise, the dug in nature and commonality of inward ignition motors (ICEs) have killed any dangers of substitutes for over a century. The thick focus and high intra-industry competition has compelled the effectively contract edges of the customary vehicle industry. Be that as it may, the electric vehicle (EV) industry shows an alternate sort of element. Shopper force is average, because of somewhat higher exchanging costs (subsequent to various vehicles have diverse charging extras) and the restricted determination of mass delivered EVs presently accessible. Supplier force is marginally higher because of a predetermined number of battery makers yet is mostly helped by long haul contracts. The danger of new contestants is much more noteworthy since both customary automakers are entering the electric business sector, supplemented by a continually expanding number of new businesses. The danger of substitutes is additionally somewhat higher since there are various diverse options presently being developed; while electric vehicles have up to this point built up the best footing, hydrogen fueled vehicles and normal gas powertrains are likewise practical prospects in the long haul. Intra-industry contention stays awful, as automakers cut costs and put resources into R&D to gain a first-mover advantage and set up their name in the thriving division. Be that as it may, with the late downfall of Fisker, Tesla is the main player in the top of the line, extravagance EV market; as its innovation and accommodation streams down into its more reasonable vehicles, Tesla ought to keep up an agreeable upper hand.
  12. 12. 12 B. Tesla:The InnovativeDisrupter The EV business is more seasoned than a great many people acknowledge, more established even than the customary car industry. The primary simple electric vehicles developed in the 1830's, an entire forty years before their gas partners. Around 1890, the principal American electric auto, fueled by 24 batteries, had a scope of 50 miles and went up to 20 mph, twofold that of the Karl Benz's gas-controlled Patent-Motorwagen. Towards the start of the twentieth century, electric autos represented 33% of offers in the youngster U.S. car industry. In any case, in 1912, the EV business started its century-long decay; in that year, Cadillac presented "the auto that has no wrench" and electric autos lost their most convincing point of interest: comfort. By the 1920's high cost, constrained extent and modest oil added to a fast end for electric auto deals. The last nail in the electric vehicle box was pounded in 1940 when Detroit Electric, which had moved to business vehicles and outlived the greater part of its rivals, at long last left business. At that point, around 65 years after the fact and two thousand miles away, Tesla Engines was established.Tesla Engines resisted the verging on all inclusive pattern of being named after its originator; rather, it is named after one of the best, and maybe most undervalued, trend-setters of his time: Nikola Tesla. He, fittingly enough, was one of the key patrons to cutting edge exchanging current (air conditioning) power; the air conditioner instigation engine was initially licensed by Nikola Tesla in 1888. Instead of direct current power, which streams in stand out heading, air conditioning current intermittently exchanges the bearing of the electric charge. The principle advantage of the air conditioner engine is that it works a less difficult outline without rubbing, making it both solid and economical. Known for giving individuals a chance to utilize his licenses without installment and tearing up contracts for more prominent's benefit, Mr. Tesla should be associated with his expectations to improve the world a spot; having his name joined to a standout amongst the most goal-oriented manageability undertakings of our era is by all accounts a fitting approach to do as such.
  13. 13. 13 C. Sparking the Electric Revolution Tesla Engines, established in 2003 by a syndicate of designers and business visionaries, electrifies the vehicle business towards a more reasonable future, and all the while, tested each origination as to what an auto truly may be. Upon its Initial public offering in 2010, Tesla turned into the principal open American auto organization in more than fifty years, since Passage in 1956. Be that as it may, when contrasted with the Enormous Three American auto titans, GM, Chrysler and Portage, Tesla has demonstrated diverse all around possible. Past its conspicuous antipathy for conventional inside burning motors, Tesla picked to produce in California, a long way from the impacts of Detroit, home of the Huge Three. The organization base camp in Palo Alto catch Tesla's aversion for business as usual, and in addition the accentuation on bleeding edge innovation. Elon Musk, who likewise serves as Item Modeler, had no aims of building the world's best electric vehicle; he needed to outline the world's best vehicle, with neither trade off nor pardon. Be that as it may, there is a far bigger development in play; Tesla was established, in Musk's own words, "to quicken the coming of electric cars".Every model outlined, each vehicle made must be more than aggressive; it must be immaculate. A solitary deformity could set the electric development back decades, as it had been before.
  14. 14. 14 The Man Behind the Machine A. Elon Musk Elon Musk: equivalent amounts of visionary and scientific genius, very rich person and hippie, humanitarian and playboy and also the motivation for Tony Stark of Iron Man acclaim. Truly, not exactly yet an easily recognized name, but rather likely one that will stand out forever as one of his era's most prominent personalities. The individuals who know him regularly attract correlations with Howard Hughes, because of the sheer greatness of his vision and scorn for existing conditions; still others see indications of Thomas Edison in the assorted qualities of his interests or maybe Steve Occupations in his adoration for basic and exquisite outline. At that point there's the likelihood that Mr. Musk is another type of pioneer by and large... a business visionary who breathes life into his vision by adjusting the best possible scholarly and monetary capital, energizing their amalgamation with online networking and between industry collaboration. Ask an arbitrary individual in the city if the name "Elon Musk" implies anything to them and they may well disregard it; in any case, there's a decent risk one of his developments has effectively assumed a part in their lives and a close conviction that his vision will shape the future they live in. B. Businessperson from the Begin Brought up in South Africa, yet taught at the College of Pennsylvania in both financial matters and physical science, Elon Musk dropped out of Stanford College, forsaking a PhD in Connected Physical science and Materials Science, to begin his first wander. Achievement did not take long to discover; Zip2, an online substance distributed programming, was sold to Compaq in 1999 for around $300 million in real money. Soon thereafter, Musk made a site spend significant time in online money related administrations and email installments; he soon refocused the organization to have practical experience in a worldwide installment framework, one which he accepted to be both unavoidable and basic to understand the genuine capability of web based exchanges. By 2002, the organization known as PayPal, was gained by eBay for $1.5 billion. Musk, the organization's biggest shareholder, possessed 11.7% of PayPal's shares and left with over $100 million. By then, he could have effectively left and lived easily on the enthusiasm for whatever remains of his days, having officially settled his legacy with PayPal and its part in encouraging online business. Rather, be that as it may, he put each dollar he had into the most squeezing social issues he trusted the world confronts today. Musk looked to battle a worldwide temperature alteration by gave the underlying idea and serving as administrator for SolarCity, which represents considerable authority in outlining, financing and introducing sunlight based vitality frameworks. In any case, it is his double mission is to redo the automobile business with electric vehicles and to privatize space travel that will significantly, and irreversibly, modify the world we live in. Mr. Musk established Tesla Engines to battle the main issue and SpaceX for the second.
  15. 15. 15 C. SpaceX Space Investigation Innovations Organization, or SpaceX, is a space transport organization that impacted the world forever in 2012, an insignificant decade after its establishing, to end up the main privately owned business to dock with the Global Space Station. Under the suspicion that the world has a developing populace yet a limited number of assets, Elon Musk trusts that the interplanetary colonization is the following stride, and an inescapable one, for humankind. The principle issue is not setting up a nursery on another planet, for example, Mars, yet rather arriving; the issue is that rocket ships have generally been dealt with as "dispensable", prompting close restrictive expenses. So as to control quality and costs, SpaceX outlines, tests and creates the dominant part of its segments in-house. The Bird of prey dispatch vehicles, which convey the Winged serpent rocket, were composed from origination to in the end get to be reusable to make interplanetary travel moderate. SpaceX is accounted for to have about $2 billion in government and private contracts on the books and has an exhibited reputation of effective dispatches; with no lack of clients, a set number of contenders and showed competency in its center business, SpaceX is situated to flourish. Then, Tesla is tackling a full grown industry with numerous contenders and abundance limit in dubious financial times. The vehicles business requires colossal speculations on items that offer for moderately little edges.
  16. 16. 16 Tesla Motors Overview A. Company Offerings Tesla could invade a thickly thought, very focused coliseum with a three-stage stream down procedure. The initial step was the Roadster, a low-volume, high-value sports auto that collected much basic approval yet was known not few. The following stage was a few mid- range vehicles, one games car and one game utility vehicle; these vehicles would be basic in demonstrating Tesla's ability to mass deliver amazing EVs while keeping costs focused. Be that as it may, the most imperative stage, the one which will decide Tesla's legacy, is the third and last one. Inside codenamed Venture BlueStar, the low-value, mass-delivered vehicle will be created in the several thousands. In the event that effectively executed, Venture BlueStar could without any help change the car business. B. StageI. Roadster Five years after its foundation, the organization discharged the Tesla Roadster. The Roadster depended on the Lotus Elise, a customary English games auto, and changed to keep running on an all-electric drive framework. Approximately 2,300 vehicles were delivered, a drop in the sea contrasted with the one billion autos around the globe. However its extremely sharp taking care of, class-driving rate and shockingly quiet powertrain started a little yet furiously faithful gathering of devotees. The games auto was suspended in 2012 as the organization prepared for the following stride in its entrance procedure. While not as a matter of course progressive, the Roadster was instrumental in building up the Tesla mark and demonstrating, unequivocally, that electric vehicles were not naturally bargains. C. StageII. Models S and X The following stage was a couple of mid-volume, mid-value vehicles that could serve as a moderate, regular drivers with no bargains. The Model S is a seven-seat sports car that contended with Mercedes, Audi, and BMW in the $50,000 to $100,000 value range. The Model X is a SUV in light of the Model S stage that tried to profit by American buyers' proclivity towards substantial vehicles. Model S: As the world's first useful non-ignition vehicle, the Model S has earned a spot close by amusement changing vehicles like the 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen (perceived as the primary burning fueled car) and the 1908 Portage Model T (which set the standard for car producing for the following century). The Model S was the organization's first perfect sheet outline, composed and developed starting from the earliest stage by Tesla. Seemingly the most fundamentally commended vehicle of the year, the Model S won heap honors both inside and outside the car business, including the 2013 Car of the Year and Time's 25 Best Creations of 2012; specifically, when the Model S was chosen Engine Pattern's 2013 Auto of the Year by a consistent vote of each of the eleven judges, it was a triumph for Tesla as well as the Assembled States, as a "demonstration of development and enterprise, the very qualities that once made the American car industry the biggest, wealthiest and most capable on the planet".
  17. 17. 17 Model X: The Model X was intended to join the best qualities of minivans and SUVs with the execution and proficiency that lone an electric auto can give. Outfitted with all-wheel drive and offloading abilities, the Model X has enough separating highlights from the Model S to anticipate intracompany deals cannibalization. Additionally, especially like its car kin, the Model X was intended to look like nothing else as of now accessible. From its "hawk wing entryways", which open up and off the beaten path, to the utilization of cameras rather than side mirrors, the SUV proceeds with the Tesla convention of incorporating capacity and style. Be that as it may, maybe its most recognizing commitment is its dismissal of the norm: gas- guzzlers and SUVs need not be synonymous. StageIII. Venture BlueStar In actuality, the most basic vehicle in the Tesla armada, and the most baffling, is the yet-to- be-named Venture BlueStar. Planned utilizing the lessons gained from the past two eras, the high-volume, low-value section level vehicle is proposed to be Tesla's smash hit vehicle. At an expected base cost of $30,000 (the normal offering cost of another vehicle today), the EV will focus on the mass business sector from the BMW 3-Arrangement to the Toyota Prius; what it needs in brand acknowledgment, it will compensate for with better execution, more prominent mileage and extravagance arrangements found in no other auto, paying little mind to cost. While points of interest stay rare, the Era III EV will start generation in 2014 and in the end slope up creation to 400,000 vehicles a year by 2020.
  18. 18. 18 How It Works:The ModelS A. The Design As Tesla's first unique configuration and standard offering, the Model S serves as both the motivation and layout for the future; all the more imperatively, it transitioned Tesla from a corner item to one that contends on the world stage. As the brainchild of Elon Musk and the specialists at Tesla, and additionally the substance of the juvenile organization, the Model S was composed from the beginning. [See Figure 1] From its flush entryway handles (for both streamlined and style purposes) that pop out when the driver ways to deal with the suitably named "frunk" (the front trunk space as an aftereffect of no motor), nothing was underestimated. There is no ignition for the key coxcomb nor a catch to begin the vehicle; as the driver takes a seat, the auto detects the driver's weight and additionally the closeness of the key and just powers up; beginning the auto may appear like a little stride, however one which had become unnecessary and was speedily wiped out. The Model S can outrace a Porsche Carrera, coast smoother than a Rolls-Royce Ghost, hold more than a Chevrolet Equinox and is more proficient than a Toyota Prius; the streaming outside outline, frequently contrasted with Puma, likewise does not hurt. The most shocking centerpiece is its gigantic 17-inch touchscreen that controls everything from the suspension to the sunroof and takes out the requirement for any catches in the auto, put something aside for the danger lights and glovebox opener. Utilizing the great, responsive and natural screen regularly attracts correlations with the effect when the principal iPhone was discharged. Furthermore, the web associated Model S has been adequately future-sealed: more usefulness is just a product upgrade away. For example, in its first real redesign, Tesla included another "rest" state which shuts down the presentations and other unimportant hardware for a support in scope of around eight miles for every day. Tesla requests security and uprightness are given need; programming downloads take place over a VPN and the firmware pack is marked by Tesla while both private and open keys accept its legitimacy.
  19. 19. 19 How Did They Do It? A. Defining “It” 
 Before noting how Tesla did "it", one should first figure out what precisely "it" is. There are two viewpoints to what Tesla planned to do and both are nearly interwoven. The first was the formation of a superior auto, one which showed to faultfinders and buyers alike precisely how out of date our car innovation had gotten to be... also, the basic need to reignite development in the business. Maybe most amazingly, Tesla did as such in a strongly focused and low-edge part, surpassing global aggregates that had massive capital spending plans, broad systems and many years of experience. Which prompts the second 50% of the "it": without any help starting an upset inside the car business which will constrain built up names to reexamine themselves, while pushing the less versatile and adaptable organizations into the history books. In the more drawn out term, this movement expands past the business and could exceptionally well reshape the Assembled States' framework and conceivably move the worldwide economy. B. Elon Musk's Vision There is no Tesla without Elon Musk. His part as an ability magnet and his vision of a totally crisp purchaser experience empowered Tesla to end up what it is today and in addition what it will turn out to be tomorrow. Mr. Musk's notoriety for reexamining the present state of affairs has turned into a magnet generally advantageous and brightest personalities in the business; enlisting designers and trailblazers from both car stalwarts like GM and innovation firms like Apple alike, Tesla's ability securing procedure still all the more nearly looks like that of a little start-up instead of a multi-billion dollar venture. Simply, individuals need to work with him; they have faith in his vision and are propelled by his energy. In a meeting for this paper, a representative who chose to stay unknown guaranteed there is an adage at SpaceX "Regardless of how hard you work, another person is working harder"... one may envision who that another person is. Regardless of Musk's careful tender loving care, verging on over the top urgent, maybe best showed by his own investigation of every last Model S to move off the sequential construction system, his accentuation on steadfastness and diligent work permits a specific level of freedom for representatives. All things considered, given his 50/50 time split for every Tesla Engines and SpaceX, Musk needs to designate likewise expecting a specific level of trust for his group. Tesla additionally profit by its detachment from the business and the standards that have obstructed the headway of different vehicles; as a business person not sponsored into tight conventional business considering, Musk planned the Model S from a fresh start. Amid a meeting, Martin Eberhard, prime supporter and previous Chief of Tesla Engines, guaranteed the conventional automakers failure to make a superior auto was "a great instance of the 'Pioneer's Difficulty'; these organizations profit offering gas and diesel cars...thus, they see no fleeting advantage from introducing an auto that recommends that their fuel autos will maybe be out of date soon". The foolhardy method of reasoning and idle smugness lead to "a wide range of inward sensible oversights" that stayed unchecked for a considerable length of time, until one auto organization chose to scrutinize business as usual. A standout amongst the most critical parts of the Model S' improvement was the manner of thinking that created it: thinking by first standards. Thinking by first standards is a material science idea in which ideas are initially come down to their most basic truths and after that contemplated up from that point, a procedure which takes more mental vitality however takes into account far more noteworthy advancement. Thinking
  20. 20. 20 by similarity, instead of by first standards, would have killed autos for stallions, which had been the standard and were best upheld by the present framework... the same way existing conditions practically nearly wiped out electric autos. Rather than tolerating the tried and true way of thinking that batteries would dependably be costly, Musk separated them into their center parts (cobalt, nickel, aluminum, carbon and so forth.) and their costs to compute the expense per kWh and regarded them monetarily feasible. Thinking by first standards took into consideration a totally new customer experience and another level of cooperative energy between apparently disconnected commercial ventures. Mr. Musk connected his preparation as an architect and best practices from SpaceX to apply speculations of advanced science to the creation of autos. Tesla as of late requested laser alignment gadgets so the assembling division can truly adjust the measurements of the auto inside tenth of millimeters; if there are any blunders, they can follow the blunder to the point of source and alter it. While this might be great for the auto business, it's something that Elon Musk does each day at SpaceX. Musk likewise took into consideration between industry collaboration by utilizing his other organization, SolarCity to create, make and introduce the sunlight based cells that power Tesla's quick charge electric charging stations, called Superchargers. In this way, Tesla finished what no other organization in the business could do on the grounds that it was not restricted to the car part; rather it was a union of cooperative energy and development from the perfect tech, space investigation and assembling commercial enterprises. C.Re-Imaginingthe Product Experience For Tesla, a superior auto was only the starting; similarly imperative was the openness of the item and the retail encounter. Everything, from the buy of the auto to beginning it interestingly to sending it in for adjusting, must be outlined starting from the earliest stage. Tesla, much like Apple did with buyer tech, is rehashing the genuine retail experience of the vehicle business by bypassing the conventional merchant system; again instead of review the absence of a built up system as a drawback, Tesla saw it as a chance to reevaluate what the acquiring knowledge ought to feel like. The Tesla stores themselves were outlined by George Blankenship, "best known as the central strategist behind Apple's progressive retail locations, a standout amongst the best, mark supporting retail development arranges in history". At Tesla's, George will probably reconsider the way individuals purchase autos, swearing off the customary dealership model for polished, buyer centered showrooms. The main apprehension of customers is being duped by the merchant; by offering all items through exclusive stores and killing outsider sales people, Tesla could build up a no-deal valuing arrangement that implies all customers pay precisely the same for the same administration. One of the primary issues that must be fought with was cost; even without wheeling and dealing, numerous individuals view EVs to be more costly than their fuel partners, to a great extent because of the forthright expenses of a battery, notwithstanding the way that a hefty portion of those expenses are frequently recuperated in lower vitality utilization. Nonetheless, to alleviate the more prominent forthright costs, Tesla set up another financing choice that planned to consolidate the "best parts of auto renting and possession" and accordingly expand the moderateness of its items; in an official statement, Musk said he "expects around half of the Model S deals in the US to be this new rent like choice". Under the new evaluating structure, the 10% initial installment is secured by U.S. government and state charge credits beginning at $7,500. "While considering the investment funds from utilizing power rather than fuel, devaluation advantages and different variables, the genuine net out of pocket expense to claim a mid-range Model S drops to under $500 per month".Following 36 months, as an assurance of worth the organization will offer buyers the privilege, yet not the commitment, to offer the vehicle to Tesla at a leftover quality higher than that of any extravagance car,
  21. 21. 21 especially those offered by Mercedes, BMW, Audi, Lexus or Puma. "Is Tesla ensuring that resale esteem, as well as Elon Musk is specifically remaining behind that ensure to give clients supreme genuine feelings of serenity about the estimation of the benefit they are buying". Moving Away from the Oil Economy A. The Oil Business Tesla Engines has made a fantastic auto with the Model S and guarantees a considerably more great pipelines of items. However, the consequences of Tesla, and the transformation it is starting, stretch out a long ways past the car business alone. The vitality business is maybe the one that will be affected most significantly, with the oil area specifically confronting a quickly evolving future. The multi-billion dollar oil industry all starts with marine plants and creatures, which lived a great many years back, that have been secured by layers of sediment; "warmth and weight from these layers helped the remaining parts transform into unrefined petroleum; consequently, "petroleum" signifies 'rock oil' or 'oil from the earth'". In the wake of being gathered, the unrefined petroleum is sent to a refinery, by either ship or pipeline, to be produced. At a refinery, distinctive parts of the raw petroleum are isolated into useable petroleum items. "Refineries in the Assembled States produce around 19 gallons of gas from each 42-gallon barrel of raw petroleum that is refined... whatever remains of the barrel gets transformed into other petroleum items like diesel fuel, warming oil, plane fuel, and propane". [See Figure 3] B. The United States’ Thirst for Oil 
 At present "around 40% of the vitality expended in the Unified States is supplied by petroleum, and that extent has remained roughly the same since 1950... additionally unaltered is the verging on aggregate reliance of the transportation part on petroleum, for the most part gasoline".[See Figure 4] To really comprehend the extent of petroleum's part in vitality generation from both a residential and global point of view, the Unified States is the world's biggest oil buyer utilizing around 18.9 million barrels of oil for every day, twofold that of the following most power hungry country, China, which has a day by day utilization of 8.9 million barrels. [See Figure 5] Pundits of this thirst regularly call attention to that the U.S. "devours 20% of the world's oil however possesses just 2% of worldwide stores", prompting a reliance on remote oil that demonstrated impeding for the economy and risky to national security.In 2011, "the US devoured 97 quads (1 quad = quadrillion btu) of vitality, yet delivered just 78 quads; fossil powers made up more than 80% of the aggregate vitality utilization", with oil alone speaking to more than 33% of aggregate vitality consumption. The deficiency must be crossed over with "the imports of oil to make up the setback of vitality generation... this is not a sensible vitality technique for the nation since oil is a costly asset with an extremely cloudy long haul supply outlook". The late surge in U.S. generation of oil appears to have turned the tables, motivating any desire for falling gas costs. All things considered, essential financial aspects stipulates that as supply rises, given a consistent interest, costs must fall. Sadly, "when considering 'huge oil', most Americans consider first multinational companies, for example, BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell, or Aggregate. In any case, the 13 biggest oil organizations on the planet, measured by their stores, are claimed and worked by governments". As these state-possessed ventures "possess the world's biggest oil organizations and control seventy five percent of the world's vitality saves", they will do
  22. 22. 22 whatever it takes to augment revenue. Boosting benefits from oil deals by is regularly accomplished by "controlling generation and propping up costs; Saudi Arabia, for instance, can frequently benefit more by creating less oil... since oil is exchanged comprehensively, costs at last rely on upon what amount is created in the whole world, not simply in the U.S.".In this way, with the Assembled States controlling an immaterial measure of the world's oil generation and the administrations forcing limitations to boost benefits, the supply will probably not rise significantly sooner rather than later. In any case, given a regularly expanding populace and developing working classes driving autos in creating nations, it is sheltered to say that interest for vitality will just ever go up. Once more, essential financial aspects stipulates that, given a consistent supply and expanding request, costs must ascent. Lamentably, the monetary and political examination neglects to completely consolidate the additional weight of negative externalities powered by oil utilization. "In 2011, U.S. nursery gas emanations totaled 6,702 million metric tons", speaking to an expense far more noteworthy than the billions of dollars America spends every year on petroleum imports. Unless move is made, the earth future eras acquire will be unrecognizable from our own. C. A Fossil Fuel Free Future However what's to come is still in our grasp. On the off chance that Tesla picks up footing and the organization's vision is understood, the universe of tomorrow might be brighter than the one we have today. Elon Musk has anticipated "that more than half of new autos produced will be completely electric in 20 years... a wager he will put cash on". For the record, the last time Musk made a wager, it was with The Divider Road Diary essayist Dan Neil that the Model S would be discharged on time; obviously, Mr. Musk won. On the off chance that he is right, and if Tesla succeeds, the Assembled States will move far from oil, prompting what could be an overall development towards renewable vitality set up of fossil powers. As a consequence of falling interest from America, and given an enduring worldwide supply, as "costs 30 Joined States Ecological Assurance Organization, National Nursery Gas Outflows Information 31 Zachary Shanan, Tesla's Elon Musk Predicts half of New Autos EVs in 20 Years are slanted to fall, some oil-trading nations will prop them up by curtailing their own supplies". This "vital participation" will prompt a diminishing in supply and higher costs, which might be gainful for oil makers in the transient however will just quicken the movement towards elective vitality, which will prompt an idealistic cycle: more interest in renewables, prompting falling vitality costs, prompting expanded utilization of option energies which circles back to more prominent interest in them and the cycle rehashes. As of now, in the previous a quarter century has been an exponential increment in wind power yield which starting 2011, produces about 125 billion kilowatt-hours of vitality. [See Figure 6] If this be the future we pick, the consequences will be tremendous, influencing the car and vitality commercial ventures as well as whole national bases and the cutting edge comprehension of transportation.
  23. 23. 23 Long-Term Ramifications A. Scalabilityof Electric Technology In the end, be that as it may, the electric transformation must augment past autos alone. Elon Musk has hinted the attainability of electric trucks later on. Be that as it may, both light and business trucks would require an altogether new stage to be composed without any preparation; while the mechanics what's more, powertrain Tesla at present uses could be promptly adjusted, the unibody that the Model S rides on won't bolster an overwhelming obligation vehicle. Also, notwithstanding the exploration to assemble another stage, Tesla would likely need to put resources into another processing plant with various hardware, a capital consumption that is not exceptionally doable for the organization starting right at this point. In Eberhard's perspective, "trucks split into two classes: short-pull trucks and conveyance trucks are great possibility for zap, particularly genuine trucks with unsurprising courses". Be that as it may, not at all like his successor Elon Musk, Eberhard trusts, given the present innovation "whole deal trucks utilize a great deal of vitality... thus the batteries are not yet commonsense." Whether this issue could be settled with the advancement of the Supercharger system, Mr. Eberhard did not remark. Past street going vehicles, there are three different methods of transportation: boats, trains and planes. Mr. Eberhard who once asserted on the Tesla Authors Blog that "without module ability, a crossover is only a fuel controlled auto with some extravagant equipment" trusts that versatility is progressively "a political issue more than anything" yet remains a vital part of advancing towards a supportable future. In spite of the way that a significant number of these transportation commercial ventures depend on assets other than fuel, including diesel, regular gas or coal, there are two key issues that remain. To start with, the vitality source is as a general rule a limited asset that has an unequivocally negative impact on our surroundings; second, the change procedure from fuel to development is still regularly wasteful because of the vitality lost in warm spillage. The vast majority of these transportation techniques would profit by the expanded profitability of an electric powertrain, and the expanded assortment of supportable vitality assets. "Trains are, obviously, effectively electric in a significant part of the world. This is not an innovative issue... it's a political one", proceeded with Eberhard. While trains are among the most effective methods of transportation, particularly when electric, they are regularly constrained regarding adaptability and can't adjust to changing conveyance designs the way autos or planes can. Moreover, they require high capital uses to introduce and may in intrude on current urban base. In this manner, the genuine development of an electric world will be set apart by the day bigger, longer-extend vehicles, for example, trucks or streams, keep running on electric powertrains as opposed to fossil powers. In a meeting amid the
  24. 24. 24 examination stage, Eberhard additionally said, "versatility is a component of the required vitality stockpiling; a plane, for instance, devours a great deal of vitality - more than is doable to store in batteries within a reasonable time-frame." Be that as it may, the 'not so distant' might arrive somewhat sooner than Mr. Eberhard may have at first expected. Mr. Carlsson, the man responsible for battery sourcing at Tesla, said that limit enhances around 7% to 8% consistently; exacerbated yearly, batteries ought to twofold limit around at regular intervals. Musk has as of now remarked that a "500-mile battery — almost twice on a par with as well as can be expected offer today — could be accessible at about the 4-5 year point in the life of Model S", around 2016. In any case, these estimations work under the supposition of current innovative limits. Phinergy, an Israeli tech firm has "built up an electric vehicle that can travel 1,000 miles on a solitary charge"; like the Model S, the vehicle utilizes a "conventional lithium-particle battery additionally utilizes as an aluminum-air vitality framework that uses the vitality discharged by the response of aluminum with oxygen to create power". Tesla has been chipping away at comparable 'metal-air' batteries and has recorded eight patent applications since 2012, utilizing this double source system. An immediate extract from the documenting subtle elements "improving the operation of the force wellspring of an electric vehicle... where the force source is included a first battery pack (a non-metal-air battery pack) and a second battery pack (a metal-air battery pack)". At any rate, the patent exhibits that Tesla is not laying on its shrubs at the apex of the EV business and is enhancing in ways couple of different organizations on the planet are prepared to do. All the more significantly, the filings show the instantaneousness with battery innovation is progressing with, much more quickly than even the most idealistic presumptions. Advancements like a metal-air battery, alongside "the new small scale battery as of late created at the College of Illinois [which] is basically a millimeter-sized battery... that can contract battery sizes around 30 times while permitting electric vehicles to charge 1,000 times quicker than what's accessible today" demonstrate a completely new sort of electric power. Given the restrictions of today's innovation, an electric plane is just not plausible. In ten years, be that as it may, the thought scarcely appears like any stretch of the creative ability. Also, that is the manner by which Tesla considers, not in quarters or years, but rather in decades.
  25. 25. 25 B. Risksto the Vision There are a few variables that could represent a danger to Tesla's vision, either specifically to the organization itself or to the development of electric vehicles. To begin with, it is important the quickly advancing and strongly focused industry that Tesla contends inside; while the conventional car area remains to a great degree immersed, with a large portion of the volume and benefit heading off to a modest bunch of assembling behemoths, the general focused element for the EV division has yet to be resolved. Be that as it may, it would not be a stretch to imagine an EV segment as forcefully relentless as its interior ignition partner. Customary makers, as they discover on to the blossoming development, can influence their ability and scale to offer focused items at or beneath Tesla's expense.To further exacerbate the opposition, new companies will proceed to attempt and enter the commercial center while the EV pattern is still in its initial stages; Fisker Car's late fizzled endeavor to mass deliver its leader vehicle will probably be the first of numerous endeavors, from both residential and universal contenders. There are gossipy tidbits about China's own particular BYD Auto entering the U.S. while Detroit Electric, an organization that stopped operations in 1939, was as of late restored; the recently revived Detroit Electric will start creation in 2014, beginning with a games auto worked of a Lotus Elise... the definite stage Tesla's Roadster was based upon. Detroit Electric is additionally joining forces with Chinese automaker Geely Vehicles bunch, flagging an altogether new element inside the EV circle, one which rises above innovative boundaries as well as national ones as well. As these organizations and endeavors pick up footing far and wide, rivalry will strengthen, edges will slender and Tesla may lose the upper hand that had impelled it to the zenith of the car world. Obviously, the more serious danger is that the EV development neglects to pick up energy inside and out, in which case Tesla won't confront decreasing benefits yet supreme misfortunes. One of the principle hazard elements is the practicality of conventional and option vitality sources; given the boundless acknowledgment of fuel and commonality of Frosts, a diminishing in oil costs, could moderate the selection of electric innovation. Hazard opposed buyers will dependably pick the more secure, less expensive course even in face of a superior innovation. At that point there is the subject of other option vitality powertrains; normal gas is as of now one of the greatest dangers to EVs yet regular gas powertrains are just possibly more successful than their fuel partners. While the asset might be more promptly accessible than oil, the motor itself still has all the more moving parts, and in this manner warm spillage, than electric powertrains. Organizations, for example, BMW and Aston Martin are likewise exploring different avenues regarding hydrogen fueled vehicles, which deliver almost zero ecological effect however have yet to be actualized on a large scale manufacturing scale. There are sure troubles in adjusting to another powertrain; not just is the change from a fuel pump to charging station a somewhat jolting move yet the driving background additionally requires alteration. The absence of a begin catch for example, while little, can without much of a
  26. 26. 26 stretch dismiss shoppers who are discover solace in recognition; what's more, forceful recovery regularly backs the auto off, hence requiring a consistent weight on the quickening agent prompting an alternate driving style. The complete quiet of an electric powertrain, contrasted with the instinctive thunder of a burning motor, has effectively drawn more than what's coming to its of anger from car fans. At last, there is the danger that the early achievement of Tesla, and to a less degree Nissan and GM, was because of the oddity component; as this curiosity blurs with time, interest may diminish relatively, making EVs a less beneficial speculation; normally, diminished enthusiasm from shoppers would disincentivize automakers from seeking after EV extends, an endless loop that had everything except killed the electric auto previously. While these components stay pertinent in the investigation without bounds of the car business, the juncture of ecological variables, financial arrangement, political connections and buyer patterns point towards a future lead by the electric vehicle.
  27. 27. 27 Concluding Thoughts A. Reclassifying Achievement Tesla is just barely starting its stratospheric ascend as the organization changes everything that is underestimated in the car division and tech world. Its inventive vehicles, incline operations and steady quest for a brighter future will keep on redefining models crosswise over commercial ventures. The main question that remaining parts, when or maybe how, will Tesla recognize achievement? There are two viewpoints to consider in evaluating achievement; the first is from the point of view of the organization's proprietors: shareholders. From the speculators' point of view measuring achievement is entirely simple. Any individual who purchased Tesla's stock at its Initial public offering at $17 in July of 2010 would have more than quintupled their cash as of May 2013, when the stock exchanged at $87. Indeed, even the individuals who claimed Tesla toward the start of 2013 would have seen their cash twofold in a matter of five months. Obviously, from a monetary point of view, in light of the organization's beneficial operations regardless of substantial spending on Research and development and the Supercharger foundation, Tesla has succeeded. Nonetheless, Tesla Engines was established for a more prominent reason that reporting a positive income. Once more, in the expressions of Elon Musk, Tesla was established to "quicken the appearance of electric vehicles". So when can Tesla formally pronounce the rise of EVs a win? Sitting tight for the complete vanishing of Frosts is doubtful, basically on the grounds that the wind down and consequent annihilation will take decades, if at any point, to satisfy. A more sensible benchmark will be the 'tipping point', the minute when the volume of electric vehicles created is more prominent than the quantity of gas autos fabricated. Elon Musk predicts this point of reference inside a quarter century, 2032. The possibility of completely turning over the introduce base of vehicles inside two decades, particularly given less than 1% of autos delivered are EVs, may at first appear to be abnormal; in any case, in light of unavoidably rising fuel costs, stricter natural control and exponentially more effective batteries, 2032 may appear to be a somewhat preservation gauge. One thing stays sure: until, and even after, the move is proficient Tesla will keep on innovating with tenacious drive.
  28. 28. 28 B. Transportation's Future Another inquiry that should be addressed is, are autos truly what's to come? Notwithstanding their powertrain, remembering the rising blockage and expanded vitality needs that emerges with a quickly expanding populace, autos may not be the most proficient method of transportation. In a move that may actually drive his own organization into outdated nature, Elon Musk proposed a fifth method of transportation, called the 'hyperloop'. As a progressive transport framework, the hyperloop is invulnerable to climate delays, never crashes, keeps running off sun based power and can transport individuals from Los Angeles to San Francisco in thirty minutes, under ten percent of the six hour drive as of now required. Most astonishingly, it can be built for $6bn, one tenth the cost of the proposed electric train California has proposed. Things being what they are, is the hyperloop the genuine face of transportation's future? Perhaps one day, however not yet. An official configuration has not yet been proposed and considering the years it would take to execute, the car business is in no peril. Moreover, to actualize the nation over would take decades, so it is more than likely that autos are setting down deep roots. Past their reasonable employments of getting individuals from Point A to Point B, autos today fill various different needs; they are design proclamations and materialistic trifles, a type of self-expression. They are wellsprings of happiness, for both observers and devotees alike. What's more, they are nothing not as much as workmanship, model relics of the period in which they were made; from the famous 1964 Aston Martin DB5 to the cutting edge great 2008 Morgan Air SuperSports, these vehicles are the emergence of a dream that characterized their era. The genuine inquiry is not whether autos will exist one quite a while from now; it is, the thing that will the autos feel like one a long time from now? Furthermore, for an answer, one needs to look no more remote than their nearby Tesla store. “Life shouldn’t just be about solving problems... It should be exciting and inspiring.” –Elon Musk
  29. 29. 29 Appendix Figure 1: Source: Tesla Motors, Model S Specs Figure 2: Source: Behrens, Carl and Carol Glover, U.S. Energy: Overview and Key Statistics
  30. 30. 30 Figure 3: Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review Figure 4: Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Countries’ Oil Consumption
  31. 31. 31 Figure 5: Source: Behrens, Carl and Carol Glover, U.S. Energy: Overview and Key Statistics 46
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