THE EFFECTS OF ISCHEMIA    ON THE ESTIMATION ACCURACY OF A REDUCED                  LEAD SYSTEM               D Güldenring...
ARE 10 ELECTRODES TOO MUCH?   The 12 lead ECG format is familiar to medical personal    throughout disciplines (Fischer e...
COMMERCIAL REDUCED LEAD SYSTEMSBASIS LEADS        EASI                 TruST                 12RL                         ...
LEAD TRANSFORMATIONS   A non recorded lead (target lead) is    typically estimated (derived) by a    weighted sum of all ...
AIM   Higher estimation accuracy has been reported for PS weights (Nelwan et    al. 2000)   Negative impact of ischemia ...
ECGSIM MODEL    Geometry of torso model is             Geometry of cardiac model is       defined by 300 nodes            ...
ISCHEMIC EVENTS                                                              Ischemic        Ventricular                  ...
WAVEFORM SIMILARITY ASSESSMENT                                              PS derived                 basis leads        ...
RESULTS -WAVEFORM SIMILARITYRMSE of PS derived V3                  RMSE of GN derived V3   Simulated ischemic events incr...
DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION                                              PS derived     PS derived                basis lead...
RESULTS –DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION                     Ischemic events identified by AHA                      criteria fo...
EXAMPLE OF MISSED ISCHEMIC EVENT #1  simulated lead (no ischemia present)  simulated lead (ischemia present)  derived lead...
EXAMPLE OF MISSED ISCHEMIC EVENT #1    simulated lead (no ischemia present)    simulated lead (ischemia present)    derive...
CONCLUSION   Our simulations indicate     • In absence of ischemic events PS derived leads are superior to GN        deri...
REFERENCES S. D. Fisher, A. K. Loeffler, C. L. Green, N. M. Wildermann, J. E. Pope and M. W. Krucoff, "Device implementati...
QUESTIONS?             16
WEIGHTS   A non recorded lead (target lead) is typically estimated (derived) by a   weighted sum of all recorded leads (ba...
EXAMPLE OF MISSED ISCHEMIC EVENT #6  simulated lead (no ischemia present)  simulated lead (ischemia present)  derived lead...
LIMITATIONS   Findings solely based on simulations      • Further research on real patient data is required   Simulation...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Effects Of Ischemia On The Estimation Accuracy Of A Reduced Lead System - Daniel Guldenring

771 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
771
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Effects Of Ischemia On The Estimation Accuracy Of A Reduced Lead System - Daniel Guldenring

  1. 1. THE EFFECTS OF ISCHEMIA ON THE ESTIMATION ACCURACY OF A REDUCED LEAD SYSTEM D Güldenring1, DD Finlay1, CD Nugent1, MP Donnelly11 1 University of Ulster, Belfast, United Kingdom
  2. 2. ARE 10 ELECTRODES TOO MUCH? The 12 lead ECG format is familiar to medical personal throughout disciplines (Fischer et al. 1998; Lin Haiping et al. 2008) The 12 lead ECG provides a detailed picture of the heart´s electrical activityThe 12 lead ECG requires the attachment of 10 Electrodes There is a demand for electrocardiographic systems with less and/or different recording sites  Access to the precordium (defibrillation, resuscitation, echocardiography) (Feild et al. 2008; Nelwan et al. 2000)  Easy identifiable electrode locations (Feldman et al. 1997)  Reduction in costs for consumables (electrodes) (Feild et al. 2008)  Simplified maintenance for continuous monitoring (Drew et al. 2004) Reduced lead systems aim to address this demand 2
  3. 3. COMMERCIAL REDUCED LEAD SYSTEMSBASIS LEADS EASI TruST 12RL #Philips Medical Systems Dräger Medical GE Medical Systems Information Technologies 3
  4. 4. LEAD TRANSFORMATIONS A non recorded lead (target lead) is typically estimated (derived) by a weighted sum of all recorded leads (basis leads) (Feild et al. 2008) dV3(t)= a1 * I(t) + a2 * II(t) +a3 * V1(t) + a4 * V5(t) Two different concepts for optimisation of weights a1 to a4 exist • Optimised for one specific patient (patient specific weights) (Nelwan et al. 2004) • Optimised over several patients of a cohort (generalised weights) (Nelwan et al. 2004) 4
  5. 5. AIM Higher estimation accuracy has been reported for PS weights (Nelwan et al. 2000) Negative impact of ischemia on the estimation accuracy of RLS has previously been identified (Feild et al. 2008; Nelwan et al. 2008) However, no detailed assessment of the location of the ischemic event and its impact on the estimation accuracy of PS derived target leads has been reported.  In this study, we assesses how different ischemic events impact on the  similarity between derived and recorded STT segments  diagnostic classification 5
  6. 6. ECGSIM MODEL Geometry of torso model is Geometry of cardiac model is defined by 300 nodes defined by 257 nodesIschemic events were simulated by • delay of depolarisation time by 15ms • reduction of action potential duration to 80% of normal value • reduction of transmembrane amplitude to 80% of normal value 6
  7. 7. ISCHEMIC EVENTS Ischemic Ventricular Event # segments 1 1 2 10 3 1&2&10 1&2&1010 left ventricular segments are after Galeotti et al. [11] 4 1&2&3&4&10 5 1&2&3&4 6 1&3&4&10 1&3&4&10 … 25 9&10&11&12&14&1 5&17 7
  8. 8. WAVEFORM SIMILARITY ASSESSMENT PS derived basis leads target leads PS weights PS RMSE target leads GN GN weights RMSE basis leads GN derived ECGSIM target leads Assessment of waveform similarity • by RMSE between derived and actual target leads • for 25 simulated ischemic events • over STT segment 8
  9. 9. RESULTS -WAVEFORM SIMILARITYRMSE of PS derived V3 RMSE of GN derived V3 Simulated ischemic events increase RMSE of PS derived target to a level that is comparable to that obtained by GN derived target leads. RMSE values for target leads V2, V4 and V6 show similar overall profile. However, the order of the ischemic events on 9 the x-axis and their corresponding RMSE values does differ.
  10. 10. DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION PS derived PS derived basis leads target leads 12-lead ECG PS weights AHA criteria 12-lead ECG AHA criteria AHA criteria GN weights GN derived GN derived basis leads ECGSIM target leads 12-lead ECG Diagnostic classification • of (PS / GN) derived and actual 12-lead ECG • based on AHA criteria for acute myocardial ischemia (Thygesen et al. 2007) • search for ischemic events  detected on actual 12-lead ECG and  missed on (PS/GN) derived 12-lead ECG 10
  11. 11. RESULTS –DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION  Ischemic events identified by AHA criteria for acute myocardial ischemia (Thygesen et al. 2007) • identified by recorded 12 lead ECGs • missed by derived (PS & GN) 12 lead ECGs  Derived ECGs missed the AHA criteria only marginally short • would be obvious human observer • may be not detected by computerised algorithm 11
  12. 12. EXAMPLE OF MISSED ISCHEMIC EVENT #1 simulated lead (no ischemia present) simulated lead (ischemia present) derived lead (ischemia present) 12 GN derived
  13. 13. EXAMPLE OF MISSED ISCHEMIC EVENT #1 simulated lead (no ischemia present) simulated lead (ischemia present) derived lead (ischemia present) 25mm/s; 10mm/mV 13
  14. 14. CONCLUSION Our simulations indicate • In absence of ischemic events PS derived leads are superior to GN derived ones • Superiority of PS approach is largely compromised in the presence of ischemic events Findings raise questions about the superiority of PS approach used for continuous monitoring Findings indicate the importance of evaluation of such systems on data that reflects pathological changes Follow-up research based on real patient data is currently under way 14
  15. 15. REFERENCES S. D. Fisher, A. K. Loeffler, C. L. Green, N. M. Wildermann, J. E. Pope and M. W. Krucoff, "Device implementation, validation, and application assessment of two continuous 12-lead ECG monitors during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: Description of the validation method and implications for clinical trials," J. Electrocardiol., vol. 30, pp. 149-154, 1998. Lin Haiping and Xiang Kui, "T-Wave Alternans Analysis in Portable ECG Monitor," Computational Intelligence and Industrial Application 2008, 2008, pp. 710-713. D. Q. Feild, S. H. Zhou, E. D. Helfenbein, R. E. Gregg and J. M. Lindauer, "Technical challenges and future directions in lead reconstruction for reduced-lead systems," J. Electrocardiol., vol. 41, pp. 466-473, 12, 2008. S. P. Nelwan, J. A. Kors and S. H. Meij, "Minimal lead sets for reconstruction of 12-lead electrocardiograms," J. Electrocardiol., vol. 33, pp. 163-166, 2000. C. L. Feldman, G. MacCallum and L. H. Hartley, "Comparison of the standard ECG with the EASIcardiogram for ischemia detection during exercise monitoring," in Computers in Cardiology 1997, 1997, pp. 343-345. B. J. Drew, R. M. Califf, M. Funk, E. S. Kaufman, M. W. Krucoff, M. M. Laks, P. W. Macfarlane, C. Sommargren, S. Swiryn, G. F. Van Hare, American Heart Association and Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Clinical Cardiology,and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, "Practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Clinical Cardiology, and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses " Circulation, vol. 110, pp. 2721-2746, Oct 26, 2004. S. P. Nelwan, S. W. Crater, C. L. Green, “Assessment of derived 12-lead electrocardiograms using general and patient-specific reconstruction strategies at rest and during transient myocardial ischemia,“ Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 94, pp. 1529-1533, 2004. S. P. Nelwan , J. A. Kors, S. W. Crater, S. H. Meij, T. B. van Dam, M. L. Simoons, et al. “Simultaneous comparison of 3 derived 12-lead electrocardiograms with standard electrocardiogram at rest and during percutaneous coronary occlusion,” J. Electrocardiol., vol. 41, pp.230-237, 2008. A. van Oosterom ,T. F. Oostendrop, “ECGSIM: an interactive tool for studying the genesis of QRST waveforms,” Heart, vol. 90, pp. 165- 168, 2004. S. P. Nelwan, “Evaluation of 12-Lead Electrocardiogram Reconstruction Methods for Patient Monitoring,” Ph.D. dissertation, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2005. L. Galeotti, D. G. Strauss, J. F. Ubachs, O. Pahlm, E. Heiberg, “Development of an automated method for display of ischemic myocardium from simulated electrocardiograms,” J. Electrocardiol., vol. 42, pp. 204-212, 2009. K. Thygesen, J. S. Alpert, H. D. White, “Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Redefinition of Myocardial Infarction,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 28, pp. 2525-2538, 2007. 15
  16. 16. QUESTIONS? 16
  17. 17. WEIGHTS A non recorded lead (target lead) is typically estimated (derived) by a weighted sum of all recorded leads (basis leads) (Feild et al. 2008) dV3(t)= a1 * I(t) + a2 * II(t) +a3 * V2(t) + a4 * V5(t) normal 12 lead ECG 12 lead ECG OLS OLS regression regression PS GN weights weights (Nelwan 2005) ECGSIM 1242 subjects(van Oosterom et al. 2004) 17
  18. 18. EXAMPLE OF MISSED ISCHEMIC EVENT #6 simulated lead (no ischemia present) simulated lead (ischemia present) derived lead (ischemia present) 18 GN derived
  19. 19. LIMITATIONS Findings solely based on simulations • Further research on real patient data is required Simulations are limited in that • Only 25 ischemic events have been simulated • Only one torso and heart geometry was used • Severity of simulated ischemia was not varied 19

×