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Fabian Kiss
                       Sep 2011
Scrum User Group Lake Constance
DO AGILISTES NEED DOCUMENTATION?
THE MANIFESTO ON DOCUMENTATION


     Manifesto for Agile Software Development


           We are uncovering better ways of developing
           software by doing it and helping others do it.
            Through this work we have come to value:

     Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
     Working software over comprehensive documentation
       Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
         Responding to change over following a plan
            That is, while there is value in the items on
           the right, we value the items on the left more.
THE MANIFESTO ON DOCUMENTATION


     Manifesto for Agile Software Development


           We are uncovering better ways of developing
           software by doing it and helping others do it.
            Through this work we have come to value:

     Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
     Working software over comprehensive documentation
       Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
         Responding to change over following a plan
            That is, while there is value in the items on
           the right, we value the items on the left more.
LET'S HAVE A CLOSER
LOOK AT SOME DEFINITIONS
AGILE PROCESS



   Definition by values and practices (Manifesto & beyond)
AGILE PROCESS




        Agile Software Development Poster by VersionOne, Inc., 2011, licensed under the CC BY-SA 3.0
AGILE PROCESS



   Definition by values and practices (Manifesto & beyond)
   Definition by “SDLC coverage”
AGILE PROCESS




  From Agile Software Development Methods: Review and Analysis by Abrahamsson, P., Salo, O., Ronkainen, J., & Warsta, J., 2002, licensed under the CC BY-SA 3.0
AGILE PROCESS



   Definition by values and practices (Manifesto & beyond)
   Definition by “SDLC coverage”
   Definition by ...

         There is a common understanding of what an agile software
         development process is
DOCUMENTATION

Virtually no definition of documentation
(in respect of software development)
DOCUMENTATION

Virtually no definition of documentation
(in respect of software development)

   From the developer's perspective: source code documentation
   From the project stakeholder's perspective: system documentation
DOCUMENTATION

Virtually no definition of documentation
(in respect of software development)

   From the developer's perspective: source code documentation
   From the project stakeholder's perspective: system documentation
   More general: software documentation
       Umbrella term for any documentation related to a software product
DOCUMENTATION

Virtually no definition of documentation
(in respect of software development)

   From the developer's perspective: source code documentation
   From the project stakeholder's perspective: system documentation
   More general: software documentation
       Umbrella term for any documentation related to a software product


          People think of different things when referring to documentation
DOCUMENTATION




Proposal for an initial classification:

Documentation dealing with properties of a software product ...
   ... during its development
   ... after its completion
BOOKS ABOUT AGILE DOCUMENTATION




Picture by Jeremy Nelson, licensed under the CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING'


Scott W. Ambler

Agile Modeling: Effective Practices for
eXtreme Programming and the Unified Process

Wiley
2002
S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING'




Chapter about agile documentation
(www.agilemodeling.com holds a more recent version of it)

Values, principles and practices for Agile Modeling adopted from
XP/Agile values, principles and practices
S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING'




One of his values in the context of documentation:

“The fundamental issue is communication, not documentation.”
From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler, http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#CriticalPoints
S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING'




One of his principles in the context of documentation:

“Travel Light. Every artifact that you create, and then decide to keep, will
need to be maintained over time.”
From Agile Modeling (AM) Principles v2 by Scott W. Ambler, http://www.agilemodeling.com/principles.htm#TravelLight
S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING'


Two of his practices in the context of documentation:

“Executable specifications, for example [...] a developer test-suite [...].
Because these artifacts add value there is a significantly greater chance
that developers will keep them up-to-date.”
From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler,
http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#IssuesWithDocumentation
S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING'


Two of his practices in the context of documentation:

“Executable specifications, for example [...] a developer test-suite [...].
Because these artifacts add value there is a significantly greater chance
that developers will keep them up-to-date.”
From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler,
http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#IssuesWithDocumentation




"Document stable concepts, not speculative concepts, and thereby document
as late as possible in the life cycle."
From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler,
http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#WhenToCreateDocumentation
S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING'


Two of his practices in the context of documentation:

“Executable specifications, for example [...] a developer test-suite [...].
Because these artifacts add value there is a significantly greater chance
that developers will keep them up-to-date.”
From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler,
http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#IssuesWithDocumentation




"Document stable concepts, not speculative concepts, and thereby document
as late as possible in the life cycle."                                                                      t
From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler,
                                                                                             whe n to documen
http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#WhenToCreateDocumentation
THE DOWNSIDE...
S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING'




Strongly influenced by Agile Modeling (the author's major interest)
   AM as a certain agile methodology
   AMDD as a certain software development approach
S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING'




Strongly influenced by Agile Modeling (the author's major interest)
   AM as a certain agile methodology
   AMDD as a certain software development approach

          Limits generality
A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION'


Andreas Rüping

Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing
Lightweight Documents for Software Projects

Wiley
2003
                      (It's
                            a
                     app comple
                           a
                  can rently tely dif
                       not           t          f
                 fr o n      affo he pub erent b
                                  rd d        l
                        t co
                             v er       esig isher s ook,
                                  fo r      ning        imp
                                       each         a un l y
                                            of i t       ique
                                                   s bo
                                                        oks)
A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION'




Patterns as descriptions of solutions to certain documentation issues in
agile software projects, divided into five categories:

1. Finding the Right Topics
2. Structuring Individual Documents
3. Layout and Typography
4. Infrastructure and Technical Organisation
5. Management and Quality Assurance
A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION'

Examples (“Pattern Thumbnails”):




             From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 198
A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION'

Examples (“Pattern Thumbnails”):




             From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 198




             From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 201
A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION'




Furthermore...

“Different people grasp information at different speeds. […] Documents
[…] allow people to read at their own pace.”
From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 20
A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION'




Furthermore...

“Different people grasp information at different speeds. […] Documents
[…] allow people to read at their own pace.”
From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 20




                                                                                 agile principle
                                                                                                 s'                     relation to ind
                                                                                                                                       ividuals
AGAIN, A
DOWN-
SIDE...
A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION'




Obviously the patterns are more or less specific to agile software
development
A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION'




Obviously the patterns are more or less specific to agile software
development

       Some problems unique for documentation in agile software
       development might not be addressed at all
Picture by César Astudillo, licensed under the CC BY-NC 2.0
Documentation itself is simply a too broad topic ...
Documentation itself is simply a too broad topic ...




                         … even agile documentation is still something
                         very unspecific
SOME OPTIMISM PLEASE!




Picture by LawPrieR, licensed under the CC BY-NC 2.0
Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms
of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope!
Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms
of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope!
Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms
of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope!




               Documentation for during/after development
Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms
of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope!




            ✔   Documentation for during/after development
               Who documents for whom?
Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms
of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope!




            ✔   Documentation for during/after development
               Who documents for whom?
               Documenting for what specific purpose?
Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms
of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope!




            ✔   Documentation for during/after development
               Who documents for whom?
               Documenting for what specific purpose?
               ...

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Documentation in the agile software development process

  • 1. Fabian Kiss Sep 2011 Scrum User Group Lake Constance
  • 2. DO AGILISTES NEED DOCUMENTATION?
  • 3. THE MANIFESTO ON DOCUMENTATION Manifesto for Agile Software Development We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
  • 4. THE MANIFESTO ON DOCUMENTATION Manifesto for Agile Software Development We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
  • 5. LET'S HAVE A CLOSER LOOK AT SOME DEFINITIONS
  • 6. AGILE PROCESS  Definition by values and practices (Manifesto & beyond)
  • 7. AGILE PROCESS Agile Software Development Poster by VersionOne, Inc., 2011, licensed under the CC BY-SA 3.0
  • 8. AGILE PROCESS  Definition by values and practices (Manifesto & beyond)  Definition by “SDLC coverage”
  • 9. AGILE PROCESS From Agile Software Development Methods: Review and Analysis by Abrahamsson, P., Salo, O., Ronkainen, J., & Warsta, J., 2002, licensed under the CC BY-SA 3.0
  • 10. AGILE PROCESS  Definition by values and practices (Manifesto & beyond)  Definition by “SDLC coverage”  Definition by ... There is a common understanding of what an agile software development process is
  • 11. DOCUMENTATION Virtually no definition of documentation (in respect of software development)
  • 12. DOCUMENTATION Virtually no definition of documentation (in respect of software development)  From the developer's perspective: source code documentation  From the project stakeholder's perspective: system documentation
  • 13. DOCUMENTATION Virtually no definition of documentation (in respect of software development)  From the developer's perspective: source code documentation  From the project stakeholder's perspective: system documentation  More general: software documentation  Umbrella term for any documentation related to a software product
  • 14. DOCUMENTATION Virtually no definition of documentation (in respect of software development)  From the developer's perspective: source code documentation  From the project stakeholder's perspective: system documentation  More general: software documentation  Umbrella term for any documentation related to a software product People think of different things when referring to documentation
  • 15.
  • 16. DOCUMENTATION Proposal for an initial classification: Documentation dealing with properties of a software product ...  ... during its development  ... after its completion
  • 17. BOOKS ABOUT AGILE DOCUMENTATION Picture by Jeremy Nelson, licensed under the CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  • 18. S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING' Scott W. Ambler Agile Modeling: Effective Practices for eXtreme Programming and the Unified Process Wiley 2002
  • 19. S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING' Chapter about agile documentation (www.agilemodeling.com holds a more recent version of it) Values, principles and practices for Agile Modeling adopted from XP/Agile values, principles and practices
  • 20. S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING' One of his values in the context of documentation: “The fundamental issue is communication, not documentation.” From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler, http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#CriticalPoints
  • 21. S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING' One of his principles in the context of documentation: “Travel Light. Every artifact that you create, and then decide to keep, will need to be maintained over time.” From Agile Modeling (AM) Principles v2 by Scott W. Ambler, http://www.agilemodeling.com/principles.htm#TravelLight
  • 22. S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING' Two of his practices in the context of documentation: “Executable specifications, for example [...] a developer test-suite [...]. Because these artifacts add value there is a significantly greater chance that developers will keep them up-to-date.” From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler, http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#IssuesWithDocumentation
  • 23. S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING' Two of his practices in the context of documentation: “Executable specifications, for example [...] a developer test-suite [...]. Because these artifacts add value there is a significantly greater chance that developers will keep them up-to-date.” From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler, http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#IssuesWithDocumentation "Document stable concepts, not speculative concepts, and thereby document as late as possible in the life cycle." From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler, http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#WhenToCreateDocumentation
  • 24. S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING' Two of his practices in the context of documentation: “Executable specifications, for example [...] a developer test-suite [...]. Because these artifacts add value there is a significantly greater chance that developers will keep them up-to-date.” From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler, http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#IssuesWithDocumentation "Document stable concepts, not speculative concepts, and thereby document as late as possible in the life cycle." t From Agile/Lean Documentation: Strategies for Agile Software Development by Scott W. Ambler, whe n to documen http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileDocumentation.htm#WhenToCreateDocumentation
  • 26. S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING' Strongly influenced by Agile Modeling (the author's major interest)  AM as a certain agile methodology  AMDD as a certain software development approach
  • 27. S.W. AMBLER: 'AGILE MODELING' Strongly influenced by Agile Modeling (the author's major interest)  AM as a certain agile methodology  AMDD as a certain software development approach Limits generality
  • 28. A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION' Andreas Rüping Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects Wiley 2003 (It's a app comple a can rently tely dif not t f fr o n affo he pub erent b rd d l t co v er esig isher s ook, fo r ning imp each a un l y of i t ique s bo oks)
  • 29. A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION' Patterns as descriptions of solutions to certain documentation issues in agile software projects, divided into five categories: 1. Finding the Right Topics 2. Structuring Individual Documents 3. Layout and Typography 4. Infrastructure and Technical Organisation 5. Management and Quality Assurance
  • 30. A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION' Examples (“Pattern Thumbnails”): From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 198
  • 31. A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION' Examples (“Pattern Thumbnails”): From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 198 From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 201
  • 32. A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION' Furthermore... “Different people grasp information at different speeds. […] Documents […] allow people to read at their own pace.” From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 20
  • 33. A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION' Furthermore... “Different people grasp information at different speeds. […] Documents […] allow people to read at their own pace.” From Agile Documentation: A Pattern Guide to Producing Lightweight Documents for Software Projects by Andreas Rüping, 2003, Wiley, p. 20 agile principle s' relation to ind ividuals
  • 35. A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION' Obviously the patterns are more or less specific to agile software development
  • 36. A. RÜPING: 'AGILE DOCUMENTATION' Obviously the patterns are more or less specific to agile software development Some problems unique for documentation in agile software development might not be addressed at all
  • 37. Picture by César Astudillo, licensed under the CC BY-NC 2.0
  • 38. Documentation itself is simply a too broad topic ...
  • 39. Documentation itself is simply a too broad topic ... … even agile documentation is still something very unspecific
  • 40. SOME OPTIMISM PLEASE! Picture by LawPrieR, licensed under the CC BY-NC 2.0
  • 41. Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope!
  • 42. Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope!
  • 43. Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope!  Documentation for during/after development
  • 44. Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope! ✔ Documentation for during/after development  Who documents for whom?
  • 45. Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope! ✔ Documentation for during/after development  Who documents for whom?  Documenting for what specific purpose?
  • 46. Before considering (or developing) any practices, patterns or other forms of advice for agile documentation, we should further delimit the scope! ✔ Documentation for during/after development  Who documents for whom?  Documenting for what specific purpose?  ...