What is Culture?The set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, andideals that are characteristics of a particular society orpopulation ( Ember,1999).The learnednorms, values, knowledge, artifacts, language, and symbolsthat are constantly communicated among people who share acommon way of life (Calhoun et.al., 1994).
The sum total of symbols, ideas, forms of expressions andmaterial products associated with a collective way of lifereflected in such things asbeliefs, values, music, literature, art, dance, science, religiousritual and technology(Johnson, 1996).The complex whole which includesknowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, custom, and any othercapabilities and habits acquired by man as a member ofsociety (Panopio, 1992).
Characteristics of Culture1. Culture is learned.2. Culture is shared by a group of people.3. Culture is cumulative.4. Cultures change.
5. Culture is dynamic.6. Culture is ideational.7. Culture is diverse.8. Culture gives us a range of permissible behaviour.
Components of CultureCommunication Cognitive Behavioral Material
Components of Culture A. Communication ComponentA. 1. Language It defines what it means to be human. It forms the core of all culture. They share a condensed, very flexible set of symbols and meanings. 2. Symbols It forms their backbone of symbolic interaction. Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture. Serve as the basis for everyday reality.
B. Cognitive Component1. Ideas/ Knowledge/Beliefs Ideas are mental representations ( concepts, categories, metaphor) used to organize stimulus; they are the basic units out of which knowledge is constructed an a world emerges. Knowledge the storehouse where we accumulate representations, information, facts, assumptions, etc. Beliefs accept a proposition, statement, description of fact, etc. as true.
2. Values- Defined standards ofdesirability, goodness and beauty, which serve as broadguidelines for social living. They support beliefs, orspecific statements that people hold to be true.3. Accounts- How people use that commonlanguage to explain, justify, rationalize, excuse, orlegitimize behavior to themselves and others.
C. Behavioral Component ( how we act)1. Norms Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members. Standards that define the obligatory and expected behaviors of people in various situations
Types of NormsMores They are customary behaviour patterns of folkways which have taken on a moralistic value.Laws Laws constitute the most formal and important norms. The more deemed so vital to dominant interests that they become translated into legal formalizations that even non-members of society are required to obey.
Folkways These are behaviour patterns of society which are organized and repetitive. There is no strong feeling of right or wrong attached to them. They are simply the way the people usually do things. Commonly known as customsRituals These are highly scripted ceremonies or strips of interaction that follow a specific sequence of actions. They occur at predetermined times or triggered by specific cues.
D. Material Component The form and function of objects is an expression of culture and culturally-defined behaviour.
The Organization of Culture Cultural TraitsMaterial culture refers to the physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture. These include homes, neighborhoods, cities, schools, churches,temples,to ols, means of production, goods and products, stores, and so forth.Non-material culture refers to the nonphysical ideas that people have about their culture, including beliefs, values, rules, norms, morals, language, organizatio ns, and institutions.
How is Culture Transmitted?1. Enculturation It is the process of learning culture of one’s own group.2. Acculturation It is the process of learning some new traits from another culture.3. Assimilation The process in which an individual entirely loses any awareness of hi/her previous group identity and takes on the culture and attitudes of another group.
Importance and Functions of Culture1. Helps the individual fulfil his potential as a human being.2. Through the development of culture man can overcome his physical disadvantages and allows him to provide himself with fire, clothing, food and shelter.3. Provides rules of proper conduct for living in a society.4. Provides the individual his concepts of family, nation and class.