Kcs overview for detroit 2010


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  • There are two categories of incidents that occur in support environments. The first are those that occur once or periodically, which we will call “infrequent”. The second are those that we call “repeatable” or “frequent”. In most support environments there is a general rule of thumb that 80% of all incidents are generated by 20% of all problems. It is these 80% where knowledge management can have a big impact.When a new change is implemented into the environment, such as a product release, we can predict that the support center will see an increase in incidents for a period of time. This is generally 30 to 60 days. The Support Demand Curve has two axis: demand – the number of incidents received in a given period of time, and time. When the support center receives a repeatable incident for the first time, we start the curve. We then begin to see this incident more frequently for a number of days and then the frequency or demand will begin to reduce. Ultimately if the problem is not removed from the environment, we will continue to see it reported to the support center but on a less frequent period of time. If we map the demand for support for this problem over time we end up with a curve that looks like the bell curve.
  • Let’s look at the impact knowledge management has as incidents are reported to the support center. The When the first incident is reported it is an unknown problem. The analyst must do work to solve the problem. They are then expected to capture the knowledge and report it to the Knowledge Engineering team. The new knowledge is submitted to the knowledge engineering queue. The Knowledge Engineers have the responsibility to validate and verify that the problem has been properly documented and the resolution is correct. Once they have completed their task, they publish the knowledge to the knowledge base for reuse.In most environments the time it takes for new knowledge to be processed and then published is measured in days or even weeks. By the time the knowledge is published, the demand curve will have been missed. Consider this from business view point. The knowledge engineering process is an investment that the company is making. The return is then collected through the reuse of that knowledge after it is published. So what is happening while the knowledge is in the queue? When the next incident is reported to the support center, an analyst will search the knowledge base and not find it because it has not been published yet. While this is a now a known problem to the organization, the analyst assumes that it is an unknown problem and must do work to solve the problem. This is actually rework which as a cost to the organization. Once the analyst solves the problem, he or she submits the knowledge to the knowledge engineering queue. Unknowing to the analyst, this problem was already submitted and they just submitted a redundant solution. This process continues until the knowledge engineers publish the known problem in the knowledge base. During this time, the knowledge queue is getting longer with work that the knowledge engineers should not be doing, only adding to the delay in publishing new knowledge.Because this model has the delay in publishing new knowledge, the organization is working inefficiently and the return on investment for knowledge is low.
  • Now let’s look at the same scenario following the Knowledge-Centered Support methodology.After the first incident is reported the analyst contributes the new knowledge directly to the knowledge base for reuse by other analysts. This makes the known problem visible so that other analysts do not do rework. However, this knowledge has not been validated or verified. So the trust level is low. We will mark this knowledge as “Draft”As additional analysts interact with the Draft knowledge, they are responsible for ensuring that the resolution is correct before providing it to the customer. If they identify any errors or omissions in the knowledge, they are responsible to correct it before giving it to the customer and for correcting it in the knowledge base. In this methodology, we are letting the customer demand drive the need to review the knowledge just-in-time instead of the just-in-case model of knowledge engineering. And most importantly, we have eliminated the rework for resolving the same problem.Once we have evidence of demand, such as 3 or 4 reuses of the same knowledge, we can then elect to submit the knowledge to a compliance process for review. Since we are allowing demand to drive the items that are sent to the compliance process, only those problems that are repeatable are receiving the additional investment. This means that 80% of the problems are not being reviewed because the demand is not there and therefore the return will not be there as well. We have just reduced the workload in the compliance process by 80%. In addition, we have also removed the redundancy from this workload for an additional savings. Furthermore, the validation of the resolution will have already been completed by the 3 or 4 analysts that reused the solution before it was sent to the compliance process. Once the solution or knowledge goes through thru the compliance process, the knowledge will be marked as either Approved or Published. Both imply that the company trusts the knowledge to be correct. The knowledge would be marked Approved if it is for internal use. This lets the analyst know that the customer cannot see the knowledge via a self-service portal and that they can trust it. The knowledge would be marked “Published” if the knowledge is now available for customer self-service as well as analyst use.
  • Kcs overview for detroit 2010

    1. 1. Knowledge Management in Service Management:A KCSSM Overview<br />KCS is a service mark of the Consortium for Service Innovation<br />
    2. 2. Do you successfully leverage knowledge?<br />Share the following information:<br />What percentage of incidents reported are actually logged in your service management system?<br />What percentage of incidents engaged a knowledge base?<br />What is the percentage of success when searching knowledge?<br />
    3. 3. Knowledge Management Best Practices<br />The old way:<br /><ul><li>Dedicated knowledge management team
    4. 4. Content created in preparation of demand
    5. 5. Knowledge is verified, validated, and published
    6. 6. Knowledge is an optional resource
    7. 7. Knowledge is someone else’s responsibility</li></ul>Known as Knowledge Engineering<br /><ul><li>Follows a manufacturing process</li></li></ul><li>The Support Demand Curve<br />Demand<br />Time<br />
    8. 8. Knowledge Engineering<br />Demand<br />Knowledge is Published<br />Redundancy<br />X –Incident Z<br />$ Rework<br />X –Incident Y<br />$ Return<br />Time<br />X – First Incident<br />Knowledge Engineering Queue<br />$ Investment<br />
    9. 9. Dynamic Knowledge Management<br />Demand<br />Knowledge is Trusted<br />1. Knowledge immediately available for reuse.<br />$ Return<br />Rework and redundancy eliminated<br />3<br />2<br />1 – First Incident<br />2. Validation based on demand<br />Time<br />3. Compliance review based on demand<br />$ Investment<br />
    10. 10. Knowledge Management Best Practices<br />The new way:<br /><ul><li>Create content as a by-product of solving problems
    11. 11. Evolve content based on demand and usage
    12. 12. Develop a KB of our collective experience to-date
    13. 13. Reward learning, collaboration, sharing and improving</li></ul>Known as Knowledge-Centered Support (KCS)<br /><ul><li>Developed by the Consortium for Service Innovation
    14. 14. Research began in 1992
    15. 15. Promoted by HDI in 2003
    16. 16. Compliments and enhances ITIL</li></ul>Simple premise: To capture, structure, and re-use support knowledge<br />KCS is a service mark of the Consortium for Service Innovation<br />
    17. 17. The Concepts of KCS<br />KCS is a methodology <br />and a set of practices and processes <br />that focuses on knowledge as a key asset <br />of the support organization.<br />KCS is not something we do <br />in addition to solving problems…<br />KCS becomes the way we solve problems<br />
    18. 18. Top Ten Reasons you Need KCS<br />10. Need to respond and resolve problems faster<br /> 9. Problems becoming more complex<br /> 8. Giving different answers to the same question<br /> 7. Support analysts suffering from burnout<br /> 6. Little time for training <br /> 5. Answering the same questions over and over<br /> 4. Opportunity to learn from customers’ experience<br /> 3. Need to improve first contact resolution<br /> 2. Enable web based self-help<br /> 1. You must lower your support costs!<br />
    19. 19. Tangible Benefits<br />Operational efficiency<br /><ul><li>Improved time to resolve 30% - 60%
    20. 20. Increased support capacity 22% - >100%
    21. 21. Improved time to proficiency months to weeks
    22. 22. Efficient creation of content to enable web self-help
    23. 23. Identification/elimination of root causes </li></ul>Increased job satisfaction<br /><ul><li>Less redundant work
    24. 24. More confidence
    25. 25. Reduced training time</li></ul>Increased customer satisfaction<br />
    26. 26. Who Has Invested in KCS?<br /><ul><li>Lucent
    27. 27. Nortel Networks
    28. 28. Motorola
    29. 29. 3Com
    30. 30. Unisys
    31. 31. Peregrine Systems
    32. 32. Intel
    33. 33. Network App.
    34. 34. BMC Software
    35. 35. QAD
    36. 36. SGI
    37. 37. Texas Instruments
    38. 38. Abbot Labs
    39. 39. JP Morgan Chase
    40. 40. Sanofi-Aventis
    41. 41. VeriSign
    42. 42. Pepsi Co.
    43. 43. Bingham Young University
    44. 44. Microsoft
    45. 45. EMC
    46. 46. Mosaix
    47. 47. Compaq
    48. 48. Novell
    49. 49. HP
    50. 50. Oracle
    51. 51. Legato
    52. 52. Lexmark </li></ul>Partial list<br />
    53. 53. Solve<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />Vitality<br />Knowledge<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br />KCS Processes<br />
    54. 54. The KCS Solution Concept<br />Customers<br />Integrating the experience of the three stakeholders<br />Company<br />Analysts<br />
    55. 55. Knowledge<br />KCS Processes<br />Solve<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />vitality<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br /><ul><li>Capture in the customer’s context
    56. 56. Capture information about the environment
    57. 57. Tacit becomes explicit
    58. 58. Search early, search often</li></li></ul><li>Solution (reusable)<br />An Operational View<br />Admin<br />Account<br />Info.<br />Incident History<br />Resolution<br />Environment<br />Problem<br />Incident (a snapshot in time)<br />
    59. 59. Knowledge<br />KCS Processes<br />Solve<br />StructureFor reuse<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />vitality<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br /><ul><li>Provides context for content
    60. 60. Improves readability of the solutions
    61. 61. Promotes consistency</li></li></ul><li>KCS Structure – Technical Service<br />Incident<br />Customer called about a problem installing a NIC. Cannot get the system to recognize the NIC after reboot. Did not order the card from us, it is a 3Com NIC. Reviewed network settings and could not find anything wrong. Customer has meeting and would like a call back tomorrow am. <br />Talked to Bob about NIC card problem, he is running Win 98 on a Cpaq-P and he needs the latest driver from 3com for Win 98. Bob asked to leave the call open until he downloads driver. <br />Solution<br />Problem:<br /><ul><li> Install network card
    62. 62. Network card not recognized</li></ul>Environment:<br /><ul><li>3Com network card, model 300X
    63. 63. Windows 98
    64. 64. Compaq Presario</li></ul>Resolution:<br />1. Download latest driver for Network Card 300X from 3Com<br />www.3com.com/drvrs/NIC<br />2. Follow the installation instruction on the 3Com site. <br />
    65. 65. Problem<br />Question<br />Error Message<br />Symptoms<br />Keywords<br />Environment<br />Application<br />Hardware<br />Cause<br />Resolution<br />Resolution Detail<br />Links to Related Info<br />ID Number<br />Title<br />Abstract / Summary<br />Meta Data<br />Audience<br />Categorization<br />Create Date/Time<br />Modified Date/Time<br />Author / Modified By<br />Source<br />History Information<br />Structured Knowledge<br />
    66. 66. Knowledge<br />KCS Processes<br />Solve<br />SearchingIs creating<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />vitality<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br /><ul><li>If a solution is not found, save the problem
    67. 67. The description of a problem is valuable
    68. 68. Add resolution when it is found</li></li></ul><li>Knowledge<br />KCS Processes<br />Solve<br />Just-in-timeSolution Quality<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />vitality<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br /><ul><li>Demand driven solution review
    69. 69. Modify solutions based on usage
    70. 70. Flag It or Fix It
    71. 71. Migrate solutions to new audiences based on demand</li></li></ul><li>What are all of the names of three-lettered creatures you can think of? <br />Record your answers. <br />Creatures Exercise<br />
    72. 72. Creatures<br /><ul><li>KOI (Fish)
    73. 73. MAN
    74. 74. OWL
    75. 75. PIG
    76. 76. RAT
    77. 77. RAY (Fish)
    78. 78. ROO
    79. 79. YAK
    80. 80. ZHO (cross between a Yak & Cow)</li></ul>ANT<br />APE<br />AUK (Bird)<br />BAT<br />BOA<br />BOY<br />BUG<br />CAT<br />COD (Fish)<br />COW<br />DOG<br />DOE<br />EEL<br />ELK<br />EWE<br />FLY<br />HEN<br />HOG<br />SNAKE<br />JAY (Bird)<br />KID<br />
    81. 81. Knowledge<br />KCS Processes<br />Solve<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />Workflow<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />vitality<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br /><ul><li>Structured Problem Solving (SPS)seeks to understand before seeking to solve
    82. 82. Interaction with the knowledgebase and solution creation is integrated into the problem solving process</li></li></ul><li>Incident Workflow<br />Create Incident<br />Solution Found?<br />No<br />Research or<br />Escalate<br />Search KB<br />Yes<br />Solution Correct?<br />Yes<br />Solve It<br />No<br />USE IT<br />FLAG IT / FIX IT<br />ADD IT<br />Close Incident<br />
    83. 83. Knowledge<br />KCS Processes<br />Solve<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />Content<br />Vitality<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />vitality<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br /><ul><li>Content standard – the format
    84. 84. Migration of content
    85. 85. Random sampling and scoring of solutions in the knowledgebase</li></li></ul><li>Solution Life Cycle<br />Basic flow<br />Draft<br />Approved<br />Published<br />Optional:<br />Technical Review<br />Rework<br />Obsolete<br />
    86. 86. Knowledge<br />KCS Processes<br />Solve<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />PerformanceAssessment<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />vitality<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br /><ul><li>KCS competency program
    87. 87. Feedback system
    88. 88. Integration of subjective measure with objective measures
    89. 89. Outcomes/results are distinct from leading indicators/activities
    90. 90. Team measurements and recognition</li></li></ul><li>KCS User Development <br />KCS Coaches<br />KCS I<br />(framers, readers)<br />KCS II<br />(finishers, developers)<br />KCS III<br />(publisher)<br />Knowledge<br />Domain<br />Experts<br />KCS knowledge, competency<br />defines system rights and privileges<br />Some in the organization will stay as readers/framers while others evolve<br />
    91. 91. Knowledge<br />KCS Processes<br />Solve<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />Leadership<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />vitality<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br /><ul><li>Develop and execute the communications plan
    92. 92. Define the organizational purpose and objectives
    93. 93. Support and encourage good performance and deal with inadequate performance
    94. 94. Engage the people doing the work to figure out how best to get it done</li></li></ul><li>KCS Roles<br />Sponsor – provides vision, objectives, and resources<br />KCS Coordinator / Manager – coordinates and oversees <br />KCS Program Team – designs the implementation<br />Management – motivates and supports<br />KCS Pilot Team – pilots and evangelizes<br />KCS I – uses and contributes<br />KCS II – uses, contributes, and enhances<br />KCS III – uses, contributes, enhances, and publishes<br />KCS Coach – monitors & mentors process & people<br />Knowledge Domain Expert – monitors & enhances KB<br />KCS Council – assumes ongoing management<br />
    95. 95. Solve<br />Capture in<br />The workflow<br />Leadership<br />Structure <br />For reuse<br />Performance<br />Assessment<br />Searching<br />Is creating<br />Content<br />Vitality<br />Knowledge<br />Just-in-time<br />Solution Quality<br />Workflow<br />Evolve<br />KCS Processes<br />
    96. 96. How does KCS Align with ITIL?<br />
    97. 97. KCS and ITIL<br />KCS<br />ITIL<br />Developed by the Consortium for Service Innovation, a non-profit member based organization in the United States in 1992<br />Designed to improve support operations of member companies<br />Contributed to by senior support practitioners from global corporations<br />Developed by the United Kingdom’s Office of Government Commerce (OCG) in the 1980’s<br />Intended to improve management of IT services in the UK Central Government<br />Contributed to by expert IT practitioners around the world<br />1-23<br />
    98. 98. KCS and ITIL Similarities<br />KCS and ITIL are similar in that both:<br />Were developed to improve service management effectiveness and efficiencies<br />Are based on process and not technology<br />Claim that knowledge management is a required process within service management<br />Continue to evolve and mature<br />Are acknowledged as best practices <br />1-23<br />
    99. 99. KCS and ITIL Differences<br />1-23<br />
    100. 100. ITIL Service Knowledge Management System<br />Presentation Layer<br />Knowledge Processing Layer<br />Service Knowledge Management Base<br />Information Integration<br />Layer<br />Data and Information Sources and Tools<br />Source: Service Transition, Pg. 151<br />
    101. 101. More about ITIL v3.0 and KCS<br /><ul><li>Makes KM a requirement
    102. 102. Created an all encompassing Service Knowledge Management System
    103. 103. Promotes the benefits of KM
    104. 104. Defines knowledge inconsistently and terminology is not aligned
    105. 105. Provides some high level requirements
    106. 106. Lacks a strategy for integrating KM
    107. 107. Requires metrics be defined and monitored
    108. 108. Does not define metrics or how to evaluate them
    109. 109. Defines the purpose for KM
    110. 110. Lacks how to guidance for KM
    111. 111. KCS proven to compliment and enhance ITIL</li></li></ul><li>KCS Integrates with ITIL Process<br />Incident Management<br />As well as Request, Access, and Event<br />Problem Management<br />Change Management<br />Release Management<br />Service Level Management<br />Impact on SLAs and OLAs<br />
    112. 112. Forget the business goals and only focus on KM<br />Too many states in the workflow<br />Converting legacy data<br />Selecting versus inviting<br />Focusing on laggards<br />Communications plan is too short<br />Pilot team not broad enough<br />Setting goals on activities<br />Over engineering<br />Recognize the Ditches<br />Expanding to fast<br />Content standard too complex<br />Random scoring too rigid<br />Picking the wrong coach<br />Lack of coaching support<br />Inconsistent coaching practices<br />Lack of reports<br />Not adjusting Performance Assessment<br />Managers telling instead of motivating<br />
    113. 113. DISCUSSION<br />We don’t have a KM system, how can you get started now?<br />We have a KM system, what should we do now?<br />
    114. 114. Where to learn more…<br />HDI’s Knowledge Management Foundations: KCS Principles workshop<br />HDI’s Knowledge-Centered Support Fundamentals <br />HDI Webinar Archives<br />HDI Focus Book: Knowledge Management Maturity Model<br />www.serviceinnovations.org<br />
    115. 115. Knowledge Management in IT Service Management:A KCSSM OverviewRick JoslinExecutive Director, Certification & Trainingrjoslin@thinkhdi.com<br />KCS is a service mark of the Consortium for Service Innovation<br />