Chapter 6 ancient china


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Chapter 6 ancient china

  1. 1. Chapter 6
  2. 2. Geography of China• China is a land of over four 1)million square miles.• It is home to: ▫ 2)The Gobi Desert ▫ 3)Plateau of Tibet ▫ 4)Huang He River ▫ 5)Yangzi River ▫ 6)Qinling Shandi
  3. 3. The Gobi Desert • It’s the 7)fifth largest desert in the 8)world • It’s the largest 9)arid region on the Asian continent. • The desert spans 10)two countries. ▫ 11)China (north/northwest) ▫ 12)Mongolia (south)
  4. 4. The Gobi Desert• Gobi means “13)Waterless Place”• The climate is very 14)cold• It rarely 15)snows• It is located 16)above sea level• 17)Rainfall is up to 7.6 inches per year.
  5. 5. The Gobi Desert • Its a rain 18)shadow desert • It 19)suffers from having most of its rain blocked by the 20)Himalayas.
  6. 6. Mind Map• Your Topic is Gobi Desert• Use all the bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture
  7. 7. Plateau of Tibet• Located in the 21)southwest of China.• It has several mountain 22)peaks that reach more than 23)26,000 feet.
  8. 8. Plateau of Tibet • Sometimes called "the 24)roof of the world" • It is the 25)highest and biggest 26)plateau in the world.
  9. 9. Huang He River• Also known as the 27)Yellow River• Its the second-longest river in 28)China• The sixth-longest in the 29)world• It flows through nine provinces of China and empties into the 30)Bohai Sea.
  10. 10. Huang He River • The Yellow River is called "the 31)cradle of Chinese civilization" • The name Huang He means “32)river" • It originates from the 33)Kunlun Mountains and flows into the Yellow 34)Sea
  11. 11. Mind Map• Your Topic is Huang He River• Use four bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture
  12. 12. Yangzi River• The longest river in 35)Asia• The 36)third-longest in the world.• It flows for 37)3,988 miles• It starts at the 38)Tibetan Plateau and empties into the 39)East China Sea• Its river basin is 40)home to one-third of Chinas 41)population.
  13. 13. Mind Map• Your Topic is Yangzi River• Use four bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture
  14. 14. Qinling Shandi • This is a 42)mountain range in the 43)western part of China. • It separates 44)northern China from 45)South China.
  15. 15. Growth of Farming• Farming began on the two main rivers: ▫ 46)Huang He ▫ 47)Yangzi• The major groups include: ▫ 48)Rice ▫ 49)Wheat ▫ 50)Millet
  16. 16. Development of Other food Sources • The 51)Chinese people developed several other forms of capturing and 52)collecting food: ▫ 53)Fishing (bow and arrow) ▫ 54)Domesticated Pigs and Sheep • These help to 55)advance and grow the countries 56)population
  17. 17. Xia the First Dynasty• Around 57)2200 BC battles were frequent between the 58)Xia tribe and 59)Chi Yous tribe.• The Xia 60)won these battles.• 61)Yu the Great was the first ruler and founder of the Xia 62)Dynasty.
  18. 18. Xia the First Dynasty • He is best 63)remembered for teaching the people 64)flood control techniques to tame Chinas rivers and 65)lakes.
  19. 19. Xia Dynasty Achievements• The dynasty was the first to: ▫ 66)Irrigate ▫ 67)Cast bronze ▫ 68)Strong army ▫ 69)Created a calendar
  20. 20. Xia Dynasty Achievements • There were 13 70)generations and 16 71)kings in Xia dynasty • Xia 72)declined over many years and was replaced by 73)Shang dynasty • It existed for 74)400 years
  21. 21. Mind Map• Your Topic is Xia Dynasty• Use four bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture
  22. 22. Shang Dynasty• Following the 75)Xia Dynasty the Shang Dynasty became the second dynasty in 76)Chinese history• From King 77)Tang to King 78)Zhou, the Shang Dynasty lasted: ▫ 79)600 years ▫ 80)30 emperors
  23. 23. Shang Dynasty • The main crops of the dynasty included: ▫ 81)Millet ▫ 82)Wheat ▫ 83)Rice ▫ 84)Mulberry
  24. 24. Shang Dynasty• Industry included: ▫ 85)Bronze making ▫ 86)Large-scale works ▫ 87)Invented porcelain ▫ Improved 88)pottery and 89)jade making techniques
  25. 25. Shang Dynasty • 90)Social order become more organized under this dynasty. • China’s first 91)writing system • Created Jade items: ▫ 92)Axes ▫ 93)Knives • They developed: ▫ 94)Bronze body armor ▫ 95)War Chariots ▫ 96)Calendar based on cycles of the moon
  26. 26. Mind Map• Your Topic is Shang Dynasty• Use four bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture
  27. 27. The New Ideas of the Zhou• A people named the 97)Zhou came to power in 98)1050 BC• This dynasty became known as the Zhou 99)Dynasty• It lasted until 100)400 BC• It’s the 101)longest dynasty in Chinese history.
  28. 28. The New Ideas of the Zhou • The kings of the empire claimed that 102)heaven gave them their power • They established a new 103)political order: ▫ 104)Kings ▫ 105)Lords and Warriors ▫ 106)Peasants
  29. 29. The New Ideas of the Zhou• The system allowed 107)China to be under control• The 108)Lords would help keep the far reaching 109)areas under the dynasty
  30. 30. Three parts of Zhou • The Dynasty is divided into three periods: ▫ 110)Western Zhou ▫ 111)Eastern Zhou ▫ 112)Late Zhou
  31. 31. Western Zhou• The period was the 113)first half of the Zhou Dynasty• It began when King 114)Wu of Zhou overthrew the 115)Shang Dynasty• The dynasty was successful for about 116)seventy-five years and then slowly lost 117)power
  32. 32. Western Zhou • King Wu 118)died two or three years after the 119)conquest. • His son, King 120)Cheng was young • King Wu’s 121)brother assisted the young and 122)inexperienced king as 123)regent.
  33. 33. Western Zhou• The young kings 124)brothers concerned about the growing 125)power of the uncle formed an 126)alliance with other regional rulers and remnants in a 127)rebellion
  34. 34. Confucius • Born in 128)551 BC • The most 129)influential teacher is Chinese history • The 130)philosophy of Confucius emphasized: ▫ Personal and governmental 131)morality ▫ 132)Correctness of social relationships ▫ 133)Justice ▫ 134)Sincerity
  35. 35. Confucianism• His ideas become known as 135)Confucianism• He wanted 136)China to return to ideas and practices when people knew their 137)roles in society• He 138)traveled China teaching his ideas to the 139)people
  36. 36. Confucianism • A 140)book was written by his followers named the 141)Analects sharing his beliefs • His 142)students would use this book to teach others about his 143)philosophy
  37. 37. Daoism• The term Daoism means “144)the way”• It is also spelled 145)Taoism• 146)Laozi was the most famous Daoist 147)teacher
  38. 38. Daoism • This 148)belief stressed living in harmony with the 149)universe • They believed that 150)people should avoid interfering with 151)nature
  39. 39. Daoism• They taught that the world is a 152)balance of opposites: ▫ 153)Female vs Male ▫ 154)Light vs Dark ▫ 155)Low vs High• They both have to work together to stay in 156)harmony with the world
  40. 40. Legalism • This is a Chinese 157)philosophy that emphasizes the need for order above all other 158)human concerns • Legalists believed that 159)government could only work if rulers were not deceived by 160)impossible ideals such as: ▫ 161)Tradition ▫ 162)Humanity
  41. 41. Legalism• They 163)believe that attempts to improve the human 164)situation by education and morals were 165)useless.• Instead 166)people needed a strong 167)government• A carefully devised code of 168)law• A 169)police force that would stringently and 170)impartially enforce these rules and 171)punish harshly even the most 172)minor infractions
  42. 42. Qin Dynasty (221BC-206BC) • Several 173)states battled for control of the country during a period called 174)Warring States • The state of 175)Qin defeated all of its 176)enemies • The Qin united the 177)country under one 178)government
  43. 43. Qin Dynasty (221BC-206BC)• The King was 179)Ying Zheng• He changed his name to 180)Shi Huangdi which means “First Emperor”• He was a 181)legalist• His government was strong with 182)strict laws and harsh 183)punishments
  44. 44. Qin Dynasty (221BC-206BC) • He ordered 184)burning of all writing that did not agree with 185)Legalism • He took away the power of the 186)lords • He required them to move to the 187)capital city • He used 188)force labor on the citizens to get 189)projects done
  45. 45. Qin Dynasty (221BC-206BC)• The 190)country was divided into 191)districts• Each one had a 192)governor• The districts were divided into 193)counties• Each one was ran by a appointed 194)official• This was used to enforce 195)taxes and keep a tight 196)control of the districts
  46. 46. Qin Achievements • Roads that 197)connected the capital to every part of the 198)country • Advanced 199)Canal System • Advanced 200)Irrigation System • Worked on the 201)Great Wall
  47. 47. End of the Qin• Shi Huangdi 202)died in 210 BC• Within a few years the country 203)fell into a civil war ending the first dynasty of 204)China• His tomb was recovered in 205)1974
  48. 48. End of the Qin • It was filled with an 206)army of soldiers made of 207)terra- cotta • They found over 208)6,000 life size soldiers and another 1,400 figures of 209)cavalry and 210)chariots
  49. 49. Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD)• 211)Liu Bang a peasant from birth• Takes over after the 212)collapse of the Qin’s in 207 BC• He will the first of 213)emperor of the dynasty• This dynasty will last for over 214)400 years
  50. 50. Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD) • Liu Bang freed people from the 215)legalism of the past • He lowered 216)taxes and lessened 217)punishments for crimes • He relied on 218)education officials to help 219)rule the region
  51. 51. Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD)• He died in 220)195BC from natural causes• Liu Bang was 221)immortalized as Emperor 222)Gao-Di.
  52. 52. Rise of Wudi • 223)Wudi was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty • He 224)ruled from 141 to 87 BC • Wudi inherited 225)imperial power when he was 226)15
  53. 53. Rule of Wudi• Under Wudi 227)Confucianism became an official government 228)philosophy• He started a Confucian 229)Academy
  54. 54. Rule of Wudi • Those who 230)passed a test about Confucian political philosophy were 231)guaranteed a job in government • This test was 232)corrupt and only the rich and 233)powerful were allowed to even take the 234)exam
  55. 55. Mind Map• Your Topic is Wudi• Use all of the bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture
  56. 56. Han Social Classes• Under the Confucian system people were divided into four groups: ▫ Shi – 235)Gentry Scholars ▫ Nong – 236)Peasant Farmers ▫ Gong – 237)Artisans and Craftsmen ▫ Shang – 238)Merchants and Traders
  57. 57. Shi-Gentry Scholars • This class was made of 239)aristocratic scholars • They studied in order to 240)occupy positions of rank • Scholars were never very 241)rich, but they were respected because of their 242)knowledge
  58. 58. Nong – Peasant Farmers• Farmers were 243)second only to gentry scholars• They were 244)landholders• 245)Agriculture long played a key role in the rise of Chinese 246)civilization
  59. 59. Nong – Peasant Farmers • They paid land 247)tax, which was a source of state 248)revenue for the ruling dynasties • Farmers were therefore 249)valuable members of society even though they weren’t 250)shi
  60. 60. Mind Map• Your Topic is Nong• Use all of the bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture
  61. 61. Gong – Artisans and Craftsmen• This class had 251)skills to make useful objects• Most of them did not have 252)land of their own and so did not generate the 253)revenue
  62. 62. Gong – Artisans and Craftsmen • They 254)commanded more respect than merchants because the skills they had were handed 255)down from father to 256)son
  63. 63. Gong – Artisans and Craftsmen • They could be 257)government employed or 258)self employed • Those that were most 259)successful could become wealthy enough to hire 260)apprentices or laborers • The artisans formed their own 261)guilds
  64. 64. Mind Map• Your Topic is Gong• Use all of the bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture
  65. 65. Shang – Merchants and Traders• Transported and 262)traded goods made by others• Sometimes 263)merchants bought land in order to be considered 264)farmers and therefore command more 265)respect in society
  66. 66. Shang – Merchants and Traders • Some would buy a good 266)education for their children so that they could attain the status of 267)scholars • This class was the 268)lowest class in the society • People believed they were 269)greedy and 270)immoral
  67. 67. Mind Map• Your Topic is Shang• Use all of the bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture
  68. 68. Han Achievements• Many works of art were produced ▫ 271)Figure painting ▫ 272)Portraits ▫ 273)Nature scenes• Han Literature included: ▫ 274)Poetry ▫ 275)Historical writings
  69. 69. Han Achievements • Inventions of the dynasty included: ▫ 276)Modern Paper ▫ 277)Books • Innovations of the dynasty included: ▫ 278)Sundial ▫ 279)Seismograph ▫ 280)Acupuncture
  70. 70. Mind Map• Your Topic is Han Achievements• Use four bubbles• Make sure to use 4 or less words or a picture