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NEW TESTAMENT   TEXTUAL  CRITICISM  SINCE 1881 Graduate Research Lectures Heritage Christian University        Doug Burleson
GOALS OF NT TEXTUAL          CRITICISM• Establish the original text.• Secondary goals: –Trace the history of the  transmis...
WITNESSES TO THE       GNT• Papyri (127 total)• Uncials (majuscules)• Cursives (minuscules)• Lectionaries• Versions• Churc...
WITNESSES TO THE       GNT• DIVERGENCE of the text  (time of writing – AD 325) – make  note of diverse copying styles• CON...
ERASMUS’ EDITIONS• Published four editions of Greek NT  from 1515-27.• Based on a total of SIX Greek  manuscriptsfrom 11-1...
AFTER ERASMUS• Stephanus (Stephen Estienne) publishes Greek  NT• Theodore de Beza prints a text that becomes  standard for...
LEADING UP TO 1881•   John Mill (1645-1707)•   Johann Bengel (1687-1752)•   Johann Wettstein (1693-1754)•   Johann Greisba...
FOUR MAJOR FIGURES• Lobegott Friedrich Constantin von  Tischendorf (1815-1874)• Samuel PrideauxTregelles (1813-  1875)• Br...
WESTCOTT-HORT (1881)• The New Testament in the Original  Greek (2 volumes)• W-H map out textual groups (depending  on “Neu...
SINCE 1881?• Some developments, but also could be  described as an “interlude”    “All of these exemplary advances in accu...
SPECIFIC    DEVELOPMENTS?• GATHERING AND COLLATING (TEXT THEORIES)  – Majority Text Theory – Belief in statistical    prob...
SPECIFIC    DEVELOPMENTS?• NEW DISCOVERIES  – It was around 15 years after W-H that the    Oxyrynchus Papyri began to be d...
SPECIFIC   DEVELOPMENTS?• METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS – Test Readings – Claremont Profile Method – Genealogical Relationships...
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New Testament Textual Criticism Since 1881

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New Testament Textual Criticism Since 1881

  1. 1. NEW TESTAMENT TEXTUAL CRITICISM SINCE 1881 Graduate Research Lectures Heritage Christian University Doug Burleson
  2. 2. GOALS OF NT TEXTUAL CRITICISM• Establish the original text.• Secondary goals: –Trace the history of the transmission of the text. –Look for insights into the history of the church. Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  3. 3. WITNESSES TO THE GNT• Papyri (127 total)• Uncials (majuscules)• Cursives (minuscules)• Lectionaries• Versions• Church fathers Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  4. 4. WITNESSES TO THE GNT• DIVERGENCE of the text (time of writing – AD 325) – make note of diverse copying styles• CONVERGENCE of the text (AD 325 – 700).• STANDARDIZATION of the text (AD 700-1500). Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  5. 5. ERASMUS’ EDITIONS• Published four editions of Greek NT from 1515-27.• Based on a total of SIX Greek manuscriptsfrom 11-15 centuries.• His third edition becomes the basis of the textusreceptus(“received text”) that dominates the next 350 years of NT textual study. Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  6. 6. AFTER ERASMUS• Stephanus (Stephen Estienne) publishes Greek NT• Theodore de Beza prints a text that becomes standard for Reformation groups• Elzevirmade 7 editions of Greek NT in 2nd edition (1633) says “here you have the text, not received by all, in which we give nothing altered or corrupted.”• This is this general presumption in textual studies until 1881. Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  7. 7. LEADING UP TO 1881• John Mill (1645-1707)• Johann Bengel (1687-1752)• Johann Wettstein (1693-1754)• Johann Greisbach (1745-1812) is a major turning point because he continues to develop principles of TC that Westcott-Hort build on. Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  8. 8. FOUR MAJOR FIGURES• Lobegott Friedrich Constantin von Tischendorf (1815-1874)• Samuel PrideauxTregelles (1813- 1875)• Brooke Foss Westcott (1812-1901) and Fenton John Anthony Hort (1828-1892) Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  9. 9. WESTCOTT-HORT (1881)• The New Testament in the Original Greek (2 volumes)• W-H map out textual groups (depending on “Neutral text” – Vaticanus) and develop methodology for evaluating scribal variants that is still very influential.• Their NT included NO apparatus! Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  10. 10. SINCE 1881?• Some developments, but also could be described as an “interlude” “All of these exemplary advances in accumulated materials, in the tools of research, and in our control of the data have NOT yet resulted, it seems to me indecisive progress in certain critical areas of NT textualcriticism, namely in the textual character of the critical editions of the twentieth century; in the theory andhistory of the earliest NT text; and in the evaluation of readings.” (Eldon J. Epp, HTR, 1980) Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  11. 11. SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENTS?• GATHERING AND COLLATING (TEXT THEORIES) – Majority Text Theory – Belief in statistical probability,all early Byzantine’s must have worn out (“vanishing hypothesis”), and that internal arguments are irrelevant. – Von Soden(and others) desired to collect and collate and publish all known Greek manuscripts – Rise of critical editions: 1898 TheNovumTestamentumGraece- edited by Eberhard Nestle (1883-1972) Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  12. 12. SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENTS?• NEW DISCOVERIES – It was around 15 years after W-H that the Oxyrynchus Papyri began to be discovered (1896f). Then the Chester Beatty papyri (1930- 1931) and the Bodmer Papyri (1956-1957). – We now have at least 80 more papyri, more than 200 additional uncials, at least 2600 additional miniscules, and perhaps 2000 additional lectionaries that either were unavailable to or not utilized by W-H. Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University
  13. 13. SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENTS?• METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS – Test Readings – Claremont Profile Method – Genealogical Relationships of MS Stemma – Frustration with volume of materials yet to be analyzed has also led to these developments. Computer technology is helping in the collection/evaluation too. Graduate Research Lectures 2011, Heritage Christian University

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