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  1. 1. Spanish 2 Grammar Concepts<br />Heli Martin <br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Ser<br />Estar<br />Verbs like Gustar<br />Hacer Expressions<br />El Pretérito and Trigger Words<br />Car, Gar, y Zar<br />Spock <br />Cucaracha <br />Snake<br />Snakeys<br />Affirmative Commands<br />Negetive and Irregular Commands<br />DOPs<br />IOPs <br />Se Impersonal<br />16. Past Participles as Adjectives<br />17. El Futuro<br />18. Imperfect Tense<br />19. Demonstrative Adjectives<br />20. Demonstrative Pronouns<br />21. Los MandatosFormales<br />22. Mandatosinformales<br />23. Modal Verbs<br />24. Reflexives<br />25. Saber vs. Conocer<br />
  3. 3. 1. Ser<br />D.O.C.T.O.R.P.E.D<br />Description<br />Origin<br />Characteristics<br />Time<br />Occupation<br />Relationship<br />Possession<br />Event<br />Date<br />
  4. 4. Health<br />2. Estar<br />Emotions<br />Location<br />Present Condition<br />Present Participles.<br />Rules:<br /><ul><li>-ar to –ando
  5. 5. -er and –ir to –iendo or -yendo</li></li></ul><li>3. Verbs Like Gustar<br />These verbs follow the same conjugation as gustar with doler having an “e” stem changer.<br />Faltar- to lack<br />Doler- to hurt<br />Fascinar- to fascinate<br />Molestar- to bother<br /> Examples: Te faltapelo. <br />Nosgustan los libros.<br />
  6. 6. 4. Hacer Time Expressions<br />Preterite Tense is ago. Example: Haceunasemanaquedesapareció.<br />Present Tense is since and for. Example: Hacetresdiasque no tengoproblemas con Pablo.<br />
  7. 7. 5. El Pretérito y Trigger Words <br />It is a definite time in the past, and has a beginning or an ending.<br />Trigger words that you could assume may deal with this are:<br /><ul><li>Ayer
  8. 8. Anoche
  9. 9. El añopasado
  10. 10. La semanapasada
  11. 11. Ante ayer</li></li></ul><li>Pretérito<br />ER / IR<br />AR<br />
  12. 12. El Pretérito Irregulars<br />There are 3 main types of Irregular Pretérito verbs we have learned about. They are:<br /><ul><li>Car, Gar, y Zar
  13. 13. Cucaracha
  14. 14. Spock</li></li></ul><li>6. Car, Gar, y Zar Irregulars<br />
  15. 15. 7. Spock Irregulars!<br />3 different groupings.<br />The words in each grouping are conjugated the same way.<br />The groupings are:<br />IR y SER<br />DAR y VER<br />HACER<br />
  16. 16. DAR<br />SER<br />VER<br />IR<br />HACER<br />7. SPOCK<br />
  17. 17. 8. Cucaracha <br />Endings for all are the same:<br />
  18. 18. Andar- aduv<br />Estar- estuv<br />Poder- pud<br />Poner- pus<br />Querer- quis<br />Saber- sup<br />Tener- tuv<br />Venir- vin<br />Conducir- conduj<br />Producir- produj<br />Traducir- traduj<br />Decir- dij<br />Traer- traj<br />8. Cucaracha Verbs<br />
  19. 19. 9. Snake<br />In the 3rd person, the stem change occurs.<br />The stem change is to opposite vowel with the first vowel.<br />
  20. 20. 10. Snakeys<br />Follows same concept as SNAKE, but is more specific.<br />In the 3rd person the stem change is the vowel “I” to the vowel “y”.<br />Leer<br />
  21. 21. 11. Affirmative Commands <br />Steps:<br />Put verb in ‘yo’ form<br />Change to opposite vowel.<br /> Ar to e er/ir to a<br />3. If plural add a ‘n’<br />4. Then, add DOP to end ONLY IF POSITIVE<br />Example: Comalo! <br />
  22. 22. 12. Negative Commands<br /><ul><li> Steps are same as affirmative except you may not add the DOP to the end of the verb. It must go before it.
  23. 23. Example: Lo coma!</li></li></ul><li>12. Irregular Commands<br />TVDISHES=<br />Tenga VERB IS TENER<br />VengaVERB IS VENIR<br />De VERB IS DAR<br />I- VayaVERB IS IR<br />Sea VERB IS SER<br />HagaVERB IS HACER<br />Este VERB IS ESTAR<br />SepaVERB IS SABER<br />
  24. 24. 13. DOPs<br /><ul><li>Answers the question of what is receiving the direct action of the verb.
  25. 25. DOPs : lo, la, los, las, me, te, nos, se
  26. 26. You MUST have a DOP in order to have an IOP; however, in a sentence you ALWAYS put the IOP behind the DOP.</li></li></ul><li>14. IOPs<br />Answers the question: to whom? or for whom?<br />IOPs are: me, te, le, nos, os, les.<br />You can’t have two “l” IOP/DOP le and les is changed to “se”.<br />Example: I gave it to her. Se lo di.<br />Gaveverbdi<br />itDOPlo<br />herIOP le but is changed to se<br />
  27. 27. 15. Se Impersonal<br /> f<br />Se vendefruta.<br />Aqui se hablaespanol.<br />Se hizo mucho.<br />Se hara mucho.<br />Se habia mucho.<br />
  28. 28. 16. Past Participles as Adjectives<br />Add –ado for –ar verbs<br />Add –ido for –ir/ –er verbs<br />Has to agree with nouns they modify in gender and number<br />
  29. 29. Irregular Past Participles<br />Abrir  abierto<br />Cubrir  cubierto<br />Decir  dicho<br />Escribir  escrito<br />Hacer  hecho<br />Morir  muerto<br />Poner  puesto<br />Resolver  resuelto<br />Romper  roto<br />Ver  visto<br />Volver  vuelto<br />Ir  ido <br />
  30. 30. 17. Futuro<br />I, you, he, she, we, you, they will<br />
  31. 31. Irregular Futuros<br />Decir  Dir-<br />Hacer  Har-<br />Poner  Pondr- <br />Salir  Saldr-<br />Tener  Tendr-<br />Valer  Valdr-<br />Venir  Vendr-<br />Poder  Podr-<br />Querer  Querr-<br />Sabrir  Sabr-<br />Caber  Cabr-<br />Salir  Saldr-<br />Habrir  Habr-<br />
  32. 32. Ir + a + infinitive<br />Use this when you are going to do something<br />Ex: Voy a viajar a Nicaragua.<br />
  33. 33. 18. Imperfect Tense<br />Used to describe past activities in a different way<br />No stem changes in the imperfect<br />Incomplete or continuing actions<br />Used to describe:<br />Habitual actions or repeated actions<br />Events of actions that were in progress<br />Physical characteristics<br />Mental or emotional states<br />Time-telling<br />Age<br />-ar<br />-er/-ir<br />
  34. 34. Imperfect Irregulars<br />IR<br />SER<br />VER<br />
  35. 35. 19. Demonstrative Adjectives<br />Has to agree in number and gender<br />Place in front of the noun it modifies<br />
  36. 36. 20. Demonstrative Pronouns<br />Serve basically the same purpose as the demonstrative adjectives, except they stand for nouns rather than modify nouns<br />Singular masculine<br />éste (this) <br />ése (that) <br />aquél (that)<br />Plural masculine <br />éstos (these) <br />ésos (those) <br />aquéllos (those)<br />Singular feminine <br />ésta (this) <br />ésa (that) <br />aquélla (that)<br />Plural feminine <br />éstas (these) <br />ésas (those) <br />aquéllas (those)<br />
  37. 37. 21. Los MandatosFormales<br />For –ar verbs : <br /> conjugate to yo form<br /> drop –o and add –e <br />For –er/ -ir verbs :<br /> conjugate to yo form<br /> drop the –o and add –a <br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. 23. Modal Verbs<br />Used with other verbs to help them change their meaning<br />Pair up with infinitivesmodal verb+infinitive<br />Modal verbs: Poder, querer, deber, tenerque, ir a<br />
  40. 40. 24. Reflexives<br />Reflects action of verb back to subject<br />Reflexive pronouns: me, te, se, nos, os, se<br />Put pronoun in front of verb after you conjugate the verb<br />Ex: he sees himself  se ve<br />When the verb is not conjugated, place after or before the verb<br />Ex: he is going to see himself  va a verse o se va a ver<br />Reflexive verbs: acostarse, afeitarse, bañarse, cepillarse, ducharse, llamarse, ponerse, vestirse<br />
  41. 41. 25. Conocer vs. Saber<br />Saber is used to express knowledge of information<br />Ex: we know how to cook sabemoscocinar<br />Conocer is used to express knowledge of a person, place, thing, etc.<br />Ex: we know Ben conocemos Ben<br />