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Security Framework for
Connected
devices
Abstract
Abbreviations
Market Trends and Challenges
Security Goals
Our Solution
Core Functions
Interactive Interface
Threa...
Connectivity is a double edged sword, on one hand it gives a user an opportunity to stay connected and get
data anywhere a...
Today there are some 6 billion subscriptions to mobile networks, mostly people, but the next 6 billion users
will mainly b...
Security Goals
Connected devices poses a severe security threat. There is an urgent need for a Security Framework that
use...
With the security goals identified and considering the embedded nature of the device there is a need to find
the optimal s...
Interactive Interface
Block Diagram of FEDS is shown in the figure 2. The main components of the FEDS architecture are
Use...
This component is the repository of libraries implementing security protocols and optional modules like
access control mod...
FEDS Use Case
The framework performs a list of sequential operations to evaluate the Security Requirements of an
Embedded ...
Identify the security requirement of the device using questionnaire for device assessment. User inputs for this
sensor dev...
Solution Benefits
Framework identifies the real security risk to device by correlating the device threats and
vulnerabilit...
Best Practices
Security processes as part of SDLC Including security planning in the life cycle management of device is
cr...
Conclusion
Reference
Security attacks underline the need for stronger protective measures in critical embedded systems.
Em...
[8] S. Zhang, X. Ou, and J. Homer. “Effective network vulnerability assessment through model abstraction. In
Proceedings o...
ABOUT HCL
Our propositions include:
• Global deployment
• Instance consolidation
• Fundamental cost reduction
• Target ope...
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Security framework for connected devices

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With the advent of IoT and connected devices, there is an urgent need for a security framework that addresses major security goals of embedded devices. Security has to be an exercise built into the product development process instead of adding as an add-on feature.

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Security framework for connected devices

  1. 1. Security Framework for Connected devices
  2. 2. Abstract Abbreviations Market Trends and Challenges Security Goals Our Solution Core Functions Interactive Interface Threat Detection Module Security Goal Identifier Security Profile Generator Security Engine Security API Abstraction Layer FEDS Use Case Solution Benefits Best Practices Conclusion Reference Author Info Table of Contents
  3. 3. Connectivity is a double edged sword, on one hand it gives a user an opportunity to stay connected and get data anywhere anytime; on the other hand it opens up a gateway for hackers. The hackers can, not only hack the data but they can further use the device as a bot to attack another device. Year 2014 has witnessed many such incidents. Earlier the main focus of embedded systems designer was to minimize the energy consumption while also ensuring maximum output in real time. Security was not a consideration then. With the advent of IoT and connected Devices, security is becoming more and more important. This paper presents a framework that can be used to identify the security requirements of Embedded Devic- es in IoT and suggest a specific security profile for them. The presented approach makes use of the Cyber- Security Framework version 1.0 by NIST. Abstract Abbreviations SI. NO Acronyms Fullform 1 2 3 4 5 IoT NIST DoS M2M OEM Internet of Things Original Equipment Manufacturer Denial of Service National Institute of Standards and Technology Machine to Machine
  4. 4. Today there are some 6 billion subscriptions to mobile networks, mostly people, but the next 6 billion users will mainly be devices (Machine-to-Machine or M2M).This trend will revolutionize and disrupt the operations of many industries beyond telecommunications and make device security increasingly more important. Now security is considered in different domain where the devices need to communicate and authenticate each other thus increasing the risk of cybercrime. According to a survey the likely annual cost to global economy from cybercrime is more than $400 billion. According to Gartner, Risk Based Security/ Self Protec- tion is one of the ten technology trends to be observed in 2015. Main challenges in device security for con- nected devices are - • Connected devices are controlled and operat ed remotely. • Robust authentication and authorization is required to prevent access to malicious users. Market Trends and Challenges UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS • Dos attack exhausts device resources and prevent valid users from accessing device services. • Launching a DoS attack is easier on embedded devices. DOS ATTACK • Untrusted code, such as worms, viruses, spy ware, and other malware installed on a device compromise the device. • Firmware modification attacks can affect entire families of devices. UNTRUSTED CODE EXECUTION • Device contains stored and received Data. Both types of data are sensi tive to the consumer and should not be accessible to any mali cious user. DEVICE DATA SECURITY • Device needs to be updated online, man aging secure firmware upgrade for remotely deployed devices is a prime requirement for OEMs REMOTE FIRMWARE UPGRADE • The data in a public network passes through a number of untrusted intermediate points. Therefore the secure data must be scrambled and sent ensuring the authenticity and authori zation of communcat ing party INSECURE COMMUNICATIONS
  5. 5. Security Goals Connected devices poses a severe security threat. There is an urgent need for a Security Framework that use proven security technology to address the security goals for connected devices, the primary security goals for connected devices are - DEvice security goals 24 Confidentiality Ensure that information is not disclosed unless authorized Non-Repudiation Ensure that communicating parties have authenticated and authorized themselves for the transaction Availability Ensure that the system is always available and the sysytem data is safe Integrity Verify that data sent between the appliance and utility cannot be altered for destroyed
  6. 6. With the security goals identified and considering the embedded nature of the device there is a need to find the optimal security requirements of the device. The optimal security requirement can be identified using the details of system hardware, software, deployment scenario and threats to device. A security mechanism is incomplete without proper analysis of device capabilities, threats and vulnerabilities. An Ideal Security Solution for embedded devices in IoT should focus on security goals, hardware capabilities and threat profile of the device. There should also be a mechanism to identify the right amount of security or the appropriate security level for the device on the basis of processing, memory requirements and the level of security achieved. It should be customizable so that OEMs can pick and choose the desired security profile for their device on the basis of device capability (Processing, memory etc.). We propose a Framework for Embedded Device Security i.e. FEDS. It is a framework that evaluates the Security /Vulnerability of embedded devices and suggests a Security Profile for them. The suggested profile can be applied to the device using the Components and APIs provided by the Framework. It is a comprehen- sive end to end Device Security Framework that Identifies and detects the Security requirements for an Embedded Device and then protects it using its own library of Security Components. FEDS is based on the suggestions of Cybersecurity Framework and supports IDENTIFY, DETECT and PRO- TECT core functions of the framework. It executes these functions in a cyclic manner as shown in the figure 1 Our Solution Core Functions Identify Protect Detect Identify the security goals. List the assets to be protected like device software, hardware, data, interfaces etc. Implement the appropriate safeguards to limit the security risk. This functionality protects the data at rest and data in transit. Discover the occurrence of threats and attacks by malicious code, monitor unauthorized access and perform vulnerability scans.
  7. 7. Interactive Interface Block Diagram of FEDS is shown in the figure 2. The main components of the FEDS architecture are User interface captures device and application inputs. The inputs captured in this layer includes device capa- bility in terms of processing speed, memory, device deployment details, application installed on the the device, OS, version, type of connectivity and Security goals identified by OEMs as primary security requirements. Some of the inputs are taken directly from user interface and others can be automatically detected using system tools. Threat Detection Module This module is responsible for generating the threat profile of the device. It uses device specific data and standard threat database to get device specific threats. These threats are verified by threat assessment tools and collection of attack scripts specific to the threats. The verified threats form the threat profile of the system. Security Goal Identifier This component is used to identify the absolute security goals namely authentication, confidentiality, integrity, availability, non-repudiation for the device on the basis of threats and security requirements as captured in the Input layer. Security Profile Generator This component generates the security profile on the basis of threat profile and security requirement of the device. The generator generates two types of profile one is basic security profile and the other is advanced security profile. The basic security profile consists of the components that are required to provide the bare minimum security to the system considering only the OEMs security requirements. The advanced security profile consists of components that are required to provide the desired security goals and the ones that protect the system from the likely threats detected by threat detection module.
  8. 8. This component is the repository of libraries implementing security protocols and optional modules like access control module, logging module and identity management module. The components are managed in a database containing the list of vulnerabilities that can be averted/minimized using the components. The database also contains the processing and memory requirement for each component and the level of securi- ty achieved in terms of low, medium and high. Security engine comprises of open source and COTS compo- nents. This layer works as an abstraction layer for Open source and COTS components. It enables FEDS to switch between various protocols implementations. The abstraction layer abstracts the implementation and provides a uniform API layer. Security Engine Security API Abstraction Layer FEDs UI Security profile generator Threat detection module Security goal identifier Security Engine Security API Abstraction Layer Custom Vulnerability DB Standard Vulnerability DB Security Management layers (Access Control, Audit Logging, Trust Mechanism) Communication Security Layer (Firewall, SSL, TLS, IPSec, Bluetooth, ZB Security Protocols Device Security Layer (Secure OS, Secure file System, System Boot Secure Chip (Cryptographic Engine, TPM Module, Secure Storage) Update
  9. 9. FEDS Use Case The framework performs a list of sequential operations to evaluate the Security Requirements of an Embedded Device. Let’s consider the case when FEDS is used to generate security profile for an embedded device part of M2M and sends intermittent data over the network to the cloud the user wants to ensure the confidentiality of the data sent.
  10. 10. Identify the security requirement of the device using questionnaire for device assessment. User inputs for this sensor device could be OS – RTOS, Connectivity TCP/IP, Application – Client, Processing – Low, and Memory – Low. Gather User Inputs ISecond step for vulnerability detection and threat profile generation comprising of a set of possible threats considering the common weaknesses of the OS, network protocol, application type etc. Generate Threat Profile Security Profile containing the list of Security Components required for securing the Device. Basic Profile( Based on User Requirements) - Confidentiality Component Advanced Profile (Based on User Requirements and Threats to Device) – Confidentiality and Authentication Component. Generate Security Profile This step provides the list of APIS to be integrated in the device for securing the Device. Generate API List
  11. 11. Solution Benefits Framework identifies the real security risk to device by correlating the device threats and vulnerability information with the device capability. Risk Based Security The framework provides a complete end to end and scalable platform giving holistic view of the security requirment of the device Scalable Framework The security profile generated by FEDS provides just the right type and amount of securi- ty to defend against the real threats Appropriate Security OEMs can pick and choose the desired configuration fro their device and get device spe- cific profile Modular Framework is based on NIST based cybersecurity framework and provides FIPS compli- ant open source components. Standards Based
  12. 12. Best Practices Security processes as part of SDLC Including security planning in the life cycle management of device is critical. Embedded systems designers and developers must adopt the following product life cycle design aspects to include security as an integrated part of product development life cycle. SDLC Phases Security Processes Requirements Design Coding and Unit Testing Integration and System Testing Deployment Support Security analysis for requirements and Security Policy definition to check abuse/misuse cases Architectural Assessment, Security Scenario Identification, Attack Surface Analysis and Threat Modeling Adherence to Secure Coding Standards, introduction of security components, bug fixes for security holes. Penetration Testing, Static and Dynamic Security Testing, Integration and Fuzz Testing Reduce Attack Surface, Update Default Configuration, Configuration management, Access Policy Updation Build Integrated Security Patch Updation, and impact analysis of Patch application.
  13. 13. Conclusion Reference Security attacks underline the need for stronger protective measures in critical embedded systems. Embedding security in an embedded device need to be considered throughout the product life cycle—from- design and inception, through development and testing, to delivery and maintenance and also at every layer of the product from hardware platforms and virtualization technologies to the operating system, the network stack, or other communications middleware, packets of data being sent across the network, and purpose- built applications required to support device functionality. Security has to be an exercise built into the product development process instead of adding as an add-on feature. [1] Srivaths Ravi , Anand Raghunathan , Paul Kocher , Sunil Hattangady, Security in embedded systems: Design challenges, ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), v.3 n.3, p.461-491, August 2004 [2] Nachiketh R. Potlapally, Srivaths Ravi, Anand Raghunathan, Niraj K. Jha, "A Study of the Energy Con sumption Characteristics of Cryptographic Algorithms and Security Protocols," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128-143, February, 2006 [3] Fengyuan Xu; Zhengrui Qin; Tan, C.C.; Baosheng Wang; Qun Li, "IMDGuard: Securing implantable medi cal devices with the external wearable guardian," INFOCOM, 2011 Proceedings IEEE , vol., no., pp.1862,1870, 10-15 April 2011 [4] “Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity” Version 1.0 National Institute of Standards and Technology February 12, 2014 [5] Simin Nadjm-Tehrani and Maria Vasilevskaya, “Towards a Security Domain Model for Embedded Sys tems”, 2011, The 13th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE), Boca Raton, November 2011 [6] J. Wan, C. Zou, and J. Liu, "Security in the Internet of Things: A Review," in Computer Science and Elec tronics Engineering (ICCSEE), 2012 International Conference on, vol. 3, 2012, pp. 648-651. [7] L. Khelladi, Y. Challal, A. Bouabdallah, N. Badache, "On Security Issues in Embedded Systems: Challeng es and Solutions", International Journal of Information and Computer Security 2008, Vol. 2, No.2, pp. 140-174.
  14. 14. [8] S. Zhang, X. Ou, and J. Homer. “Effective network vulnerability assessment through model abstraction. In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Detection of intrusions and malware, and vulnerability assessment”, DIMVA’11, pages 17–34, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011. Springer-Verlag [9] http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/10/cyber-attacks-on-us-companies-in-2014[10]http://w ww.techrepublic.com/blog/10-things/gartners-top-10-technology-trends-for-2015-all-about-the-cloud/ Shivani Tomar HCL Engineering and R&D Services Author Info
  15. 15. ABOUT HCL Our propositions include: • Global deployment • Instance consolidation • Fundamental cost reduction • Target operating model transformation • Benefits delivery • Large program management • Applications development • Design, build and run services TRUE GLOBAL DELIVERY HCL operates as a single global organization, allowing us to deploy consulting teams that leverage proven industry and solution best practices from our offices and delivery centres around the world. With revenues of $6.5 billion, employing 100,000 technology experts and operating in 31 countries worldwide, HCL is a leading global technology services provider. HCL helps its clients transform their business and IT assets, deliver complex Digital Systems Integration programs and operate their application and infrastructure estates. HCL’s Digital Systems Integration business works with its clients to drive business outcomes through large IT program delivery. HCL employ 15,000 systems integration experts and are established partners with leading enterprise application providers—SAP, Oracle and Microsoft. Hello there! I am an Ideapreneur. I believe that sustainable business outcomes are driven by relationships nurtured through values like trust, transparency and flexibility. I respect the contract, but believe in going beyond through collaboration, applied innovation and new generation partnership models that put your interest above everything else. Right now 105,000Ideapreneurs are in a Relationship Beyond the Contract™ with 500 customers in 31 countries. How can I help you? TM

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