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HCLT Whitepaper: Effective Web Hosting on Z/Linux


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Many IT organizations are now going for cloud based technology through Virtualization concepts and hosting web based application data which overcomes reduction in TCO costs through server consolidation and also results in better utilization of hardware resources.

The purpose of this document is to describe the Web-Hosting on Z/Linux through Virtualization Practice to be followed on System Z /Linux and eventually results in Cloud based environment in future. The guidelines cover the following areas that need to be considered when hosting the application on the web in a Z/Linux environment.

Infrastructure Planning for Virtualization on System Z explained.
Preparing Z/VM and SUSE Linux on System Z.
Web-hosting on Z/Linux – Server Consolidation, its approach and benefits. Benefits of Web-hosting applications over the internet. Infrastructure planning for web-hosting applications on Z/Linux platform. Guidelines for Web-hosting applications on System Z which includes enabling the SSL.

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HCLT Whitepaper: Effective Web Hosting on Z/Linux

  1. 1. July 2012 Effective Web-hosting on Z/LinuxUnderstand the Virtualization Better
  2. 2. 2Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2PURPOSE 3BACKGROUND 3INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING FOR VIRTUALIZATION ON SYSTEM Z 4PREPARING Z/VM & Z/LINUX ON SYSTEM Z 6WEB-HOSTING ON Z/LINUX – SERVER CONSOLIDATION APPROACH 7WEB-HOSTING ON Z/LINUX – FEW SNAPSHOTS OF THE WEBSITE 8WEB-HOSTING ON Z/LINUX – APPROACH AND STEPS [1] 9WEB-HOSTING APPLICATIONS ON THE INTERNET – GUIDELINES 12WEB-HOSTING APPLICATIONS ON THE INTERNET – BENEFITS [2] 12END NOTE 15REFERENCES 16ABOUT THE AUTHOR 16EXECUTIVE SUMMARYWeb-hosting on IBM managed platform (System Z/Linux)through virtualization is an e-business on-demand solution thatoffers cost effective managed server capacity on an on-demandbasis. This whitepaper gives a closer look at how virtualization isdone on System Z and thereafter how web-hosting is done on theZ/Linux platform. It also helps in understanding how virtualizationand work load management enable server consolidation on themainframe by running distributed servers.Web-hosting in an IBM managed solution on Z/Linux allows theend customer to replace their physical web, database and applicationservers with virtual servers running on Linux called as ‘Images’under System Z which helps in achieving high utilization levelsof 85% or more. This is done through the mainframe “specialityengines” for improving the server consolidation by connectingdifferent distributed servers in one box and we call it as “DataCentre in a box”.The main benefits and the reason for web-hosting on IBM managedplatform on System Z/Linux is that it helped us:• Enable the infrastructure on server consolidation on the mainframe system by consolidating UNIX-based applications on Linux on a mainframe that will help in eliminating numerous UNIX servers (and corresponding human-related management costs)© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  3. 3. 3Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012• Greatly improve the system availability, reliability and security for the applications running on this platformThe following activities on Z/Linux were implemented as a partof POC in our Mainframe CoE lab. We have developed a kind ofcompetency which is not found in other companies and is very rare.• Each of the virtual images running on System Z/Linux will utilize all the resources such as servers, routers, processors and network in the most efficient way• All the virtual Linux Images are completely isolated from within one another on the System Z platform even though they are networked together virtually by Z/VMPURPOSEThe purpose of this document is to describe effective web-hosting on Z/Linux platform and explain how it helped us in theserver consolidation we did as part of POC in our CoE and haveimplemented the same. The guidelines cover the following areasthat can be referred during the implementation phase:• Infrastructure planning for virtualization on System Z explained• Preparing Z/VM and SUSE Linux on System Z• Infrastructure planning for web-hosting applications on Z/Linux platform• Guidelines for web-hosting applications on System Z which includes enabling the SSLBACKGROUNDWeb-hosting on Z/Linux platform includes having the teamunderstand the “what”, “how” and “why” in the Z/Linuxenvironment; why the users need to work in a certain way, whyprocessing must occur in a certain way, how this helps in Z/Linuxserver consolidation etc. It is important to recognize that users(The Z/OS and Z/VM System Administrator) should have basicadministration knowledge on System Z and Linux platform andtypical hardware and software information on System Z is needed.Most of the knowledge to be acquired is possessed by the mainframesystem administration team who had actually implemented thesolutions on the above said platform, thereby gaining more practicalknowledge by building this competency through POC in our ownHCL mainframe CoE lab. Therefore, it is essential that companiesdevelop an in-depth plan to acquire the information and includethe detailed identification and documentation of this knowledgethroughout the process.© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  4. 4. 4Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING FORVIRTUALIZATION ON SYSTEM ZWhy the mainframe is a good strategic platform forvirtualization?Most of the world’s leading financial institutions run on mainframesdue to their best-in-the-industry reliability, availability and securitycharacteristics.The following are the pre-requisites and the infrastructure setupdone prior to the installation of Z/VM and Linux Images whicheventually led to the virtualization on System Z/Linux:• IFL (Integrated Facility for Linux workloads) is an IBM processor dedicated to running the Linux operating system with z/VM. It is installed and activated for Linux workloads in one of the new LPAR. The reason for having a dedicated LPAR is to ensure that Z/LINUX should not have access to other LPARs on the existing mainframe system• Z/LINUX LPAR is created and activated through a new name, PAR partition number, PAR channels and devices are allocated to that LPAR• Allocate the memory (RAM) in the new LPAR for Z/Linux and do the allocation of hardware resources through the capacity planning• Capacity planning was done in such a way that the Z/Linux Image is a Linux-only mode and has been allocated 6MB for the Linux Image• The channel path and TCP /IP are activated through IOCDS (I/O Control Data Set) activation and the profile on System Z• Dedicated OSA device with the existing channel port were applied to Z/VM to avoid performance issues and Z/Linux Images were created on top of these OSA channel ports. Each Linux Image will have a dedicated IP on the same network segment where Z/VM resides upon• We used dedicated formatted DASD of type MOD3 for storage allocation to Z/VM and Z/Linux• Gateway IP, DNS needs to be configured during the infrastructure set up of Z/VM and Z/Linux© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  5. 5. 5Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012 Network Gateway Server z/VM Linux1 Linux2 TCP/IP z/VM Fig 1.1: Network Architecture of Z/VM and Z/LINUX L L L L LINUX I I I I z/VM z/OS z/OS N N N N OSA U U U U ETHERNET Z/VM X X X X CHANNELS z/OS version 5.4 z/VMz SUSE z/VM LINUX LPAR LPAR LPAR 64 BIT zAAP CP CP CP CP IFL IFL Z9BC IBM Machine zIIP IIP SMC HMC HCLZ9BC MAINFRAME SYSTEM Fig 1.2: HCL Mainframe Architecture involving Z/VM, Z/LINUX and Z/OSThe above mentioned diagram is part of the HCL mainframeInfrastructure diagram and was done by the HCL mainframesolutions COE team.• We have used OSA express card which is of device type OSD and the link type is QDIOETHERNETFrom the infrastructure to the operating system, System Zvirtualization is done on multiple layers of security that offersprotection to the virtual environment. Dedicated firewalls androuters are part of every customer’s environment providingisolation from other customers, allowing only necessaryinternet traffic.As shown in the diagram below, each customer has a dedicatedfirewall/ router to support their individual security needs:© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  6. 6. 6Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012 Fig 1.3: Linux Instances under Virtual Network FirewallPREPARING Z/VM & Z/LINUX ON SYSTEM ZZ/VM is implemented on System Z to run multiple Linux Imageson the existing infrastructure to support various applications tousers in a virtualized environment.• After IFL (Integrated Facility for Linux) processor is activated on the new LPAR, Z/VM will be installed• Z/VM will reside on a separate dedicated IP segment on a dedicated OSA device and OSA channel• The new LPAR, named as ZNLA, can have multiple Linux Images residing on the dedicated IPs• Open the 3270 console on HMC (Hardware Management Console) and load the Z/VM CD from the CD-ROM by giving /CPDVD command which will take around 6 minutes to Z/VM to boot up from memory and the installation is started• All the necessary components of Z/VM are installed during this process as mentioned below in the installation components type Installation Component Type LPAR Name OSA Device Name OSA Device Channel Address Subnet Mask Network Device Type Port Name Gateway IP Address DNS server IP IP Address for FTP server User Name for FTP method Password for the FTP method Z/Linux DASD Volumes Table 1: Installation Components for Z/Linux© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  7. 7. 7Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012WEB-HOSTING ON Z/LINUX – SERVERCONSOLIDATION APPROACH64% of the Top100 System Z clients are running Linux onmainframes and more than 3000 applications are available for Linuxon System Z. Fig 1.4: Z/Linux server consolidations on System ZIn one of our practical experiences, web-hosting Java-basedapplications on System Z/Linux was done through the virtualizationon Z/VM and it eventually lead to server consolidation onSystem Z.The Linux web server offers the power and bandwidth forhosting the web-based applications on the internet without anycost involved. We have added additional security features such asanti-virus scanner for Linux which detects all vulnerabilities forthe application hosted on internet and SSL-based encryption byprotecting customer data and their transactions. The Linux webserver is based on the Apache Plat web server.What were the tools used for porting the web-basedapplications on System Z/Linux?• Apache Tomcat – An open source software implementation of the Java Servlet and Java Server pages technologies. Download the Apache Tomcat from the open source and install the version applicable to System Z on the type of Linux-based OS (For Example: SUSE / Red Hat) and install the software• We installed the SSH Client, Putty telnet software to connect to the Linux Image© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  8. 8. 8Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012• Installation of Java (SDK – Software Development Kit) is needed to have Java Run-time Environment (JRE) to run Java-based applications and applets through Apache Tomcat web server. Moving Java applications to Linux platform is quite straightforward as mentioned below• The latest version of JAVA SDK is available on Sun’s Java website• CLAM AV product – An anti-virus open source tool kit for Linux-based applications designed especially for e-mail scanning on mail gateways. It provides a number of utilities including a flexible and scalable multi-threaded daemon, a command line scanner and advanced tool for automatic database updatesThe following procedures need to be done for running Java-basedapplications on Apache Tomcat web server in the Linux OS:Step 1: JAVA_HOME=”/path/to/your/java/installation/directory”Step 2: export JAVA_HOMEStep 3: Start Tomcat, go to /home/tomcat/tomcat/conf/catlina.shStep 4: If setup is fine then your telnet to port 8080 should connectby browsing through http://localhost:8080 and the defaultwelcome page will appear. Tomcat by default runs on port 8080Step 5: As a final test, see if you can login to the Tomcat managerapplication, which lets you manage your application by goingthrough http://localhost:8080/manager/html and login using thecredentials of the admin user that was added in the tomcat-users.xml file• Installation of VS FTP – VSFTP is a licensed FTP server for Linux and its secure and extremely fast. It uses normal, unencrypted usernames and passwords for authenticationWEB-HOSTING ON Z/LINUX – FEW SNAPSHOTS OFTHE WEBSITE Snapshot of the website hosted on the internet© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  9. 9. 9Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012WEB-HOSTING ON Z/LINUX – APPROACH ANDSTEPS [1]The https certificate needs to be deployed on the URL which isbeing hosted on the internet. The SSL certificate needs to be anauthorized for the certified vendor such as VeriSign. The SSLprotocol aims to provide solutions to two simple security problems:• How can we securely transmit data between two parties in such a way that only the two parties can read it?• How can one (or more) of the parties involved prove that they are actually the entity we want to grant the ability to decrypt our encrypted transmission?Setting up SSL for Tomcat can be divided into two main tasks:• Creating a functional key store• Configuring the Tomcat connectors and applicationsStep 1: Creating a key storeA key store is a place where the cryptographic keys and certificatescan be stored. It is created as a file and can be used to store the SSLkeys and certificates for Tomcat for SSL communications. You cancreate a new key store using the program called key tool whichcomes along with the JDK.Issue the following command (highlighted in yellow) to create anew key store:$JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -alias [youralias] -keyalgRSA -keystore [/preferred/keystore/path]Note:• Before issuing the command set appropriate paths needed (highlighted in blue)• Remove the [] brackets while issuing the above command• Ensure whether the path of program key tool is correct• In the preferred key store path you should enter the filename with the extension .jks as shown below• Use an alias and path of your choiceEx: /opt/ibm/java-s390x # jre/bin/keytool –genkey –alias tomcat–keyalg RSA –keystore /opt/ibm/java-s390x/keystore.jks© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  10. 10. 10Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012Step 2: Once you issue the above command it will ask for the keystore password• Enter a password of your choice (Do not forget it)• After this it will ask for the information like NAME, COMPANY NAME, CITY, STATE etc.• Fill in whatever details is needed. Please give the accurate details as you have to submit this to CA to obtain the certificate. NAME should be the name of the URL which you like to host under https protocol. In our case, we gave• Finally it will ask for key password. Press Enter without entering anything• Check for the key tool program and if it resides in JRE/bin folder specify the same and it will be created in the path specified as shown below:Creating a Certificate Signing Request (CSR):As discussed earlier, you can use the same key tool program togenerate a CSR file too.Issue the following commands:$JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -certreq -keyalg RSA -alias [youralias]-file [yourcertificatname].csr -keystore [path/to/your/keystore]Note:• Enter an alias and certificate name of your choice• Remove [] brackets• Specify key store path along with filename and extension© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  11. 11. 11Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012On successful execution, you will get a file called modernmf.csr inthe path specified above. This file is submitted to CA (CertificationAuthority) for obtaining the certificate.CA will provide the certificate files with extension .cer which hasthe root certificate as well.Importing the certificate to local key store and installing thenew certificate:• As we now have both the new certificate and CA certificate, FTP both the certificates into Linux• From the new certificate export the root certificate and issue the following command: keytool -import -alias root –keystore [path/ to/your/keystore]-trustcacerts-file [path/to/the/root certificate]Note:• Remove [] brackets• Specify the keystore path with filename and extension• Specify the root certificate path with extensionExample:/opt/ibm/java-s390x # jre/bin/keytool -import -alias rootca-keystore /opt/ibm/java-s390x-60/keystore.jks -trustcacerts -file /opt/ibm/java-s390x-60/rootcert.cer• It will prompt for SSL password. Give the password which you gave earlier• It will ask a message to trust the certificates. Type Yes• The certificate will be updated once it is done© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  12. 12. 12Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012WEB-HOSTING APPLICATIONS ON THE INTERNET –GUIDELINESFollowing are the guidelines used for the web-hosting applicationson the internet and the applications that reside on the Z/Linuxplatform:• A valid SSL certificate needs to be deployed on the URL• The latest web server, application server and DB server is suggested to be used• Log Information on User accounting, IP accounting and application access to be tracked per session and must be available• Log forwarding to log correlation unit is mandatory for Security Incident Management• Session time-out to be kept for the web page as default when it is idle for some time• Authentication mechanism to be made available in the application for the web page which is being hosted on the internet for security reasons• Implementation of password policy for all user accounts that exists in the application must be implemented• Application needs to be secured before it is being hosted on the internet and hence testing the application (Vulnerability Testing) plays a major role here. The contents of the application need to be thoroughly verified and to make sure that not much companies confidential data are being shared• The necessary bandwidth needs to be allocated for the application which is hosted on the internetWEB-HOSTING APPLICATIONS ON THE INTERNET –BENEFITS [2]The following are the benefits for web-hosting applications on theinternet as well as on the server consolidation approach. Accordingto the study done by IBM, It has helped them in server consolidationon the mainframe system by consolidating Linux based workloadsfor the applications running on a mainframe platform. This studydone by IBM was taken from IBM case studies and success stories.• IBM had done some marketing and research on server consolidation with 62 Linux servers and consolidated to one IFL which resulted in reduction in licensing costs, labour costs. The below details were taken by IBM’s findings on “Mainframe Total Cost of ownership issues”© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  13. 13. 13Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012Example:62*@ $5,000 = $310,000  this is for 62 Linux ServersFor one IFL processor with high Utilization, 1@ $125,000= $125,000• It also helps in eliminating numerous LINUX/ UNIX servers (and corresponding human-related management costs) which involves system administration tasks on the Linux servers• It will greatly improve the system availability, reliability and security for the applications running on this platform• Optimized for Linux environment to have open source tools on System Z environment with good management interface• Maintenance is easy for handling various issues in a single box (System Z/Linux) since it is developed under the virtualization concept• Support for z/Linux administration to support all the open source products for web-hosting is easy• High Availability since it is under System Z hardware without down-time and no threats to security• Lower TCO in terms of infrastructure setup and other software licensing costs as wellHow other speciality engines make server consolidation moreattractive and their advantages are:Speciality Engines – zIIP, zAAP and IFL reduce the operatingcosts to a great extent as IBM does not charge any license fees forMIPS consumption on these processors. As z/LINUX runs on IFL,there is no recurring MIPS cost for the applications running onz/LINUX.Special assist processors for System Z are:• For Java workloads (zAAP) – The Web Sphere application server using zAAP processor on the mainframe is cheap when used in the distributed environment along with the software licensing costs and server maintenance costs• For example, consolidating at least up to 85% new Web Sphere applications and Java workloads on the mainframe lowers the cost of acquisition such as operating costs, hardware, MIPS and TCO costs.For selected DB2 workloads, (zIIP) processor is used in parallel queries (Data Warehouse scenario) where we can have up to 40% workloads to be zIIP-able. Also, in Database server scenarios where workloads are high it can be zIIP–able for queries received via DRDA remote access protocol• Offloads to speciality processors reduce software load and charges on general purpose processors© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  14. 14. 14Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012Economics of OffloadingThe following considerations contribute to server proliferationwhen they are offloaded:• De-multiplexing of applications to dedicated servers: –– One application workload per server group –– Peak-to-average provisioning yields low utilization –– Additional provision for expected growth in out years (no capacity on demand) –– Batch workload may stress I/O capabilities –– Separate servers for production, failover, development/test, disaster recovery –– Infrastructure servers for systems management• Processing comparisons: –– Language expansion (CICS/COBOL path lengths are highly optimized) –– Conversion factor (MIPS to TPM-C or RPE) worsens as I/O rates increase –– Oracle RAC inefficiencies compared to DB2• Other TCO considerations• 3–5 year lifetime for distributed servers requires repurchase• Dual environments during migration• Partial offloads eliminate the lowest cost MIPS firstAs mentioned below, the table shows how the customers have beenbenefited while consolidating to z/Linux and this is taken fromIBM’s success stories and case studies. All information from table 2has been obtained from IBM website.© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  15. 15. 15Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012 Benefits achieved on Customer consolidating to z/Linux US-based bank Moving to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server on System Z, helped achieve US$1.8 million in the first year and an estimated US$9.6 million through 2011. US-based insurance and finan- Achieved US$15 million cost savings over cial services company with three years by consolidating workloads onto revenue of US$21 billion its virtualized infrastructure. Bank in Russia By consolidating to IBM System Z 9 EC run- ning z/OS and z/Linux, the bank saves $400 million per year. An IT Corporation with rev- Running multiple Linux environments on a enue of EUR 6 billion single ELS can potentially reduce the TCO by up to 80%, compared to a traditional distrib- uted x86 environment. Europe’s leading independent The ELS can host thousands of virtual provider of IT infrastructure Linux environments within a single physical services with revenue of GBP footprint – improving energy efficiency by up 2 billion to 90% and supporting Green IT objectives. Powerful IBM Integrated Facility for Linux (IFL) processors reduce the cost of per-proces- sor licensed software (such as Oracle) by up to 97%. IBM z/VM enables new Linux environ- ments to be provisioned in minutes with no need to procure new hardware, increasing enterprise agility. Table 2: IBM customer success stories on Z/Linux server consolidationEND NOTEDefining a long-term vision and the roadmap for its execution arethe utmost priorities for any CIO. This can be achieved only if theCIOs and IT managers outsource the IT work of legacy applicationsto a service provider. This gives them more bandwidth to workon strategic things. To make the outsourcing model successful forlegacy applications, knowledge acquisition by the service providerbecomes an important activity in outsourcing. It should be plannedand executed to ensure that coverage is complete and the model isrisk free and cost effective.© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  16. 16. 16Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012REFERENCESFigure 1.1 – –The online z/VM LibraryFigure 1.2 – The source is taken from HCL Mainframe SolutionsCOE teamFigure 1.3 – 1.4 – –The online z/VM LibraryTable 1 – – This source is takenfrom the red book of IBM: Linux for IBM zSeries and S/390:DistributionsTable 2 –[1] – Web-hosting on Z/Linux – Approach and Steps –[2] – Web hosting Applications on the internet – Benefits – THE AUTHOR Praveen Edward Jaikumar is part of the Mainframe Solution CoE team, leading the team in Modern Mainframe and Administration. He has 12 years of experience in various areas of System Administration on Z/OS, Z/VM and Z/Linux. In the past, he has worked in several large engagements on Mainframe Infrastructure planning, administration of the project in Systems operations and administration sort projects across various technologies.© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  17. 17. 17Effective Web-hosting on Z/Linux | July 2012About HCLAbout HCL TechnologiesHCL Technologies is a leading global IT services company,working with clients in the areas that impact and redefinethe core of their businesses. Since its inception into theglobal landscape after its IPO in 1999, HCL focuses on‘transformational outsourcing’, underlined by innovationand value creation, and offers integrated portfolio ofservices including software-led IT solutions, infrastructuremanagement, engineering and R&D services and BPO. HCLleverages its extensive global offshore infrastructure andnetwork of offices in 26 countries to provide holistic, multi-service delivery in key industry verticals including FinancialServices, Manufacturing, Consumer Services, Public Servicesand Healthcare. HCL takes pride in its philosophy of‘Employees First, Customers Second’ which empowers our82,464 transformers to create a real value for the customers.HCL Technologies, along with its subsidiaries, has reportedconsolidated revenues of US$ 4.0 billion (Rs. 19,412 crores),as on 31 March 2012 (on LTMbasis). For more information,please visit www.hcltech.comAbout HCL EnterpriseHCL is a $6.2 billion leading global technology andIT enterprise comprising two companies listed in India -HCL Technologies and HCL Infosystems. Founded in 1976,HCL is one of India’s original IT garage start-ups. A pioneerof modern computing, HCL is a global transformationalenterprise today. Its range of offerings includes productengineering, custom & package applications, BPO,IT infrastructure services, IT hardware, systems integration,and distribution of information and communicationstechnology (ICT) products across a wide range of focusedindustry verticals. The HCL team consists of over 90,000professionals of diverse nationalities, who operate from31 countries including over 500 points of presence inIndia. HCL has partnerships with several leading global1000 firms, including leading IT and technology firms. Formore on HCL, please visit© 2012, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.