Understanding “Just Enough”       Computer Users:Motivation Style and Proficiency    December 2012                       D...
Unfamiliar Task in                    The Question                              familiar software &                       ...
What Is a Just Enough (JE) User?                                                                  Predominantly           ...
The Hypothesis                        We hypothesize that                      extrinsically motivated                 pro...
Who Cares?                          HCI is the main                                                               computer...
Study Design Overview                                                               Find people to study                  ...
Adapting                           Change “this activity” to “using computers”                                            ...
Who Took the Inventory? Everybody!• Ages 13 to 87 from FIVE continents• 9 countries: USA, China, Turkey, Australia, Sweden...
Important that extrinsics not different from                   Inventory T Test Results  intrinsics for                   ...
Not Significantly Different                                                     See how                                   ...
Participant Hesitation Wording                                                Fun                                         ...
For Prompting the Participant                                                               Example of how                ...
Rubric for Coding Observations                   Took 32 hours of recordings of 16 observed                     participan...
Transcript Example                                            Fun to see example                                          ...
Most of the                                                                  stumbles etc are    Occurrences for Each Code...
All Occurrences of Stumble & Fall               Intrinsics on left and Extrinsics on right       Left intrinsics had      ...
JE User vs. Intrinsic: Marsha & Rebecca                           Exter: 4.5                                     Exter: 4....
Resist was the most                                  Resist                                                entertaining  •...
Another Type of Resist        Instead of resist to a      task, this is resist against              “The Man”  Marsha shar...
Just Enough User Alice (1/9)                                                     Cool example  “I don’t do ANYTHING that I...
Just Enough User Lucy (3/9)                                                     Cool example  “Why would I Google it? I wo...
Just Enough User Walter (8/9)                                                     Cool example  “You are … confronting an ...
Future Work                                   Re-analyze for digital literacy,                             misunderstandin...
Guess which oneCONCLUSIONS     is intrinsic?                                24 of 27
They are competent,                                                              they do fail, they do            Statisti...
They look like anyone      Observed Phenomena                                       else, there are “Just                 ...
A HaikuThank               Just Enough is cool you!          till unfamiliar and new               safe routine un-do.    ...
Just Enough User Lilly (2/9)             A few more examples because they’re interesting  When asked during the test about...
Just Enough User Marsha (4/9)             A few more examples because they’re interesting  Marsha says, “I like to sign ou...
Just Enough User Mary Ann (5/9)             A few more examples because they’re interesting  “When I’m at work, I’m so bus...
Just Enough User Miranda (6/9)             A few more examples because they’re interesting  “It seems stupid and why shoul...
Just Enough User Molly (7/9)             A few more examples because they’re interesting  “This all is stupid. This is rid...
Just Enough User Olivia (8/9)             A few more examples because they’re interesting  “[it] is really annoying not to...
“Just Enough Users”, a poem      Just enough is satisficing, works out fine till new and strange.      Computer changes ma...
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Harriet just enoughcomputerusersfamily

  1. 1. Understanding “Just Enough” Computer Users:Motivation Style and Proficiency December 2012 Dr. Chuck Wallace (CS) , Dr. Karla Kitalong (Humanities), Dr. Paul Ward (cognitive Psych), Dr. By Harriet King Robert Pastel (CS) Masters Candidate in Computer Science 1 of 27
  2. 2. Unfamiliar Task in The Question familiar software & system AND routine task in unfamiliar software & system Why do some proficient daily computer users, stumble over the unfamiliar and others easily adapt?Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 2 of 27
  3. 3. What Is a Just Enough (JE) User? Predominantly • Daily computer user Externally regulated (driven by ends, • Competent external requirements or • Extrinsic Motivation rules)Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 3 of 27
  4. 4. The Hypothesis We hypothesize that extrinsically motivated proficient daily computer users have difficulty with unfamiliar computer Intrinsic(internal, tasks and skill transfer, whereas interest, choice) intrinsically motivated daily users have noproblem accomplish unfamiliar tasks readily.Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 4 of 27
  5. 5. Who Cares? HCI is the main computer science field that my thesis • Software designers falls under • Human Computer Interactions (HCI) Stakeholders include • Software Users government, education, industry • Stakeholders for computer literacy who want productive workforce Instead of “Lest we wish to change our field’s name to“human” student-computer interaction we should make effort to find more representative participants” (Barkhuus and Rode 2012) Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 5 of 27
  6. 6. Study Design Overview Find people to study by giving motivation questionnaire Unfamiliar task in home system, routine task in Statistics! OUTPUT unknown INVENTORY system Write scores & statistics thesis! group descriptors OBSERVATIONS Coded & analyzed attitudes & actionsIntroduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 6 of 27
  7. 7. Adapting Change “this activity” to “using computers” Questions from two sets of psych Questions researchers, professionally validated Precedent: (Shroff and Vogel 2009). Confirmed Inventory with two pilot studies. 32 questions, randomized, six factors measuredIntroduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 7 of 27
  8. 8. Who Took the Inventory? Everybody!• Ages 13 to 87 from FIVE continents• 9 countries: USA, China, Turkey, Australia, Sweden, U.K., South Africa, India, and France And family, thank• 130+ total completed questionnaire you!• Used 66 for total respondents• 16 participants observed (7 intrinsics, 9 extrinsics) Community Classmates Faculty InternetIntroduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 8 of 27
  9. 9. Important that extrinsics not different from Inventory T Test Results intrinsics for Significant Differences in Inventory age, grew upon computers, Scores, Age, & Digital Nativeor competence * Asterisk indicates non parametric Mann-Whitney U test All other are Independent Samples T-test Factor Different Age* NOT different Digital Native* NOT different Perceived Competence* NOT different Amotivation* Different External Regulation Different Interest/Enjoyment Different Perceived Choice DifferentIntroduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 9 of 27
  10. 10. Not Significantly Different See how close the Age and Perceived Competence means are? Mean Age with error bars for Mean Perceived Competence with standard deviation error bars for standard deviation 90.00 7.00 Mean Perceived Competence 80.00 6.00 70.00 5.38 60.00 55.67 5.00 50.00 46.57 3.70Age 4.00 40.00 30.00 3.00 20.00 2.00 10.00 0.00 1.00 9 Extrinsics 7 Intrinsics 9 Extrinsics 7 Intrinsics Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 10 of 27
  11. 11. Participant Hesitation Wording Fun example “uhhhh” looked in there” promising” of “think “I’m looking for a way to “I think I can just... click on [sigh] aloud” do...” this here, and... that didn’t “no, thats not it” “maybe if I go here” work” “maybe this” “what’s this?” “ok, that didn’t work” “so, were not doing that” “I can’t...” “I looked at the bottom but “I wouldnt think itd be “ummm” there’s nothing there” under that” “let’s go back here” “I saw this click to ... but “Im going to try right click [giggling] that isn’t it” again” “aaaaannnnnnnd” “hmmm” “I forgot what you said to “I could try like..” “contacts....contacts.... do” “no I can’t drag that..” contacts” “this damn mouse” “I’ll look in here, no I just “that doesnt look veryIntroduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 11 of 27
  12. 12. For Prompting the Participant Example of how qualitative ethnographic techniques enrich “go ahead and tell me what you’re seeing” quantitative methods by getting more information “please tell me what you’re thinking” about the participants “Are you trying to decide something, can you tell me about it?” “did that work?” “what seems odd about this?” “what are you thinking?” “you’re giggling, …you’re sighing…you sound angry, what are you feeling?”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 12 of 27
  13. 13. Rubric for Coding Observations Took 32 hours of recordings of 16 observed participants, turned it into 100 pages of transcripts, coded it with this rule set, then statistically analyzed it CODE RULE Stumble [action] >= 20 seconds Fall [action] >= 1 minute Persist [action] >= 3 minutes Quit attitude towards a task Resist attitude towards a taskIntroduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 13 of 27
  14. 14. Transcript Example Fun to see example stumble persist resist quit falltime OLIVIA [action] “quote” (time on video) analysisb 7:58 [while looking for spam, stumbles across trash 7:58 and says I’ll empty the trash 1 1 1e 9:08 instead, I say go ahead] Participant: “I have no idea how to do that. It’s already IN the trash” me: “Look around. ...you can empty the trash.” (8:10) Participant: “It’s already IN trash. Where do you empty trash to? I’m thinking that I never empty my trash because there’s no way to empty trash because it’s already trash.” (8:25) me: “no, there is a way to empty trash.” Participant: “There’s no trash emptying.” [ask about her agitation] Participant: “I’m not agitated at all. You’re just wrong. There’s no trash emptying.” [ask what she’s feeling] Participant: “I think it’s dumb that the trash doesn’t have an empty.” (8:40) me: “It does actually” Participant: “I don’t see it. If I click on something in my trash, all I can do is trash something in my trash, which is silly because it’s already in my trash” (9:08) me: “Ok, we’ll come back to this. Let’s look at your spam” [so resistant that I stop this task on test. Never does trash]b 9:10 Participant: “I don’t know if I have spam” (9:10) me: “You do have spam.” “No. Really!? 1 1e 9:45 I’m looking at all my folders and I do not have one called “spam”” (9:20) me: “Did you find “more” at the bottom?” “There’s a more. Oh look at that, there’s spam.” (9:45)b 9:50 [directed to delete all spam at once, (9:50), giving her hints] me: “It’s not that tricky, it 1 1e 11:10 has words and I can see them, I’m looking at it right now” (10:37) (11:10) found “delete all messages now”b 11:20 [11:20 Go to address book] Participant: “I’m not fully sure where my address book is, I 1e 12:10 think I have to go to my calendar”, then found contacts 12:10Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 14 of 27
  15. 15. Most of the stumbles etc are Occurrences for Each Code extrinsics, statistics say the two groups are different • Asterisk indicates statistically significant difference for this code between extrinsic and intrinsic. Total occurrences with percent of total in parentheses. • There was no significant difference between Unfamiliar Task compared to Near Skill Transfer for either intrinsics or extrinsics. Stumble* Fall* Persist* Quit* Resist JE Users 91 56 15 9 13 (81%) (84%) (88%) (90%) (87%) Intrinsics 21 11 2 1 2 (19%) (16%) (12%) (10%) (13%)Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 15 of 27
  16. 16. All Occurrences of Stumble & Fall Intrinsics on left and Extrinsics on right Left intrinsics had little trouble, right extrinsics stumble fall stumbled Extrinsics Intrinsics201510 5 0 MoreIntroduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 16 of 27
  17. 17. JE User vs. Intrinsic: Marsha & Rebecca Exter: 4.5 Exter: 4.0 Int/En 2.57 Int/En 5.57 2 completely similar people with Similar: different motivation style have different 1. both Amotivation = 1.0 performance 2. Both digital non-native Different: 3. similar experience level 1. Performance 4. similar self rate and perceived competence 2. Different motivation styles 5. similar age 6. Appeared to cruise through unfamiliar tasks 7. Responsible community leaders 8. Professional womenIntroduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 17 of 27
  18. 18. Resist was the most Resist entertaining • Only 5 out of 16 resisted 8 • 4 extrinsic & intrinsic Mike 7 • Olivia had 7 resists Total Occurrences of Resist 6 1. Can’t empty trash 2. there is no spam 5 3. doesn’t “add” to group but 4 insists she did 4. says “check mail” button is 3 broken 2 5. won’t remove attachment, 6. says used wrong address but 1 was sent folder issue 0 7. says did not spell a word Lucy Mike* Miranda Marsha Olivia correctly when did spell correctlyIntroduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 18 of 27
  19. 19. Another Type of Resist Instead of resist to a task, this is resist against “The Man” Marsha shares, “I never use the google calendar. I’m not telling them what I’m doing every day. Forget that!” “Passionate?...I am. I’m not MAD at them [MS Word], I’m frustrated with them. … they’re leaving out the average person. And maybe that’s what open office is for. I don’t know.”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 19 of 27
  20. 20. Just Enough User Alice (1/9) Cool example “I don’t do ANYTHING that I’m not taught. And that is a big drawback in my learning.” “I know enough to get what I want, most of the time. And it definitely is not a pleasure for me to try to figure out things on my own. N-O-T AT A-L-L… Maybe everyone thinks they are a “Just Enough” user.”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 20 of 27
  21. 21. Just Enough User Lucy (3/9) Cool example “Why would I Google it? I wouldn’t, because it’s a bunch of teenagers who can’t spell right, who don’t use punctuation, all lower case.” “I am fine using the computer only for what I need. I think they are ruining the world quite frankly, and am slightly proud I find them somewhat repulsive machines.”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 21 of 27
  22. 22. Just Enough User Walter (8/9) Cool example “You are … confronting an unbelievably unfamiliar system, with all the scariness of being surrounded by REAL fully paid, fully trained, card carrying life member geeks … I got spooked by the surroundings. I got intimidated by my high level of geekitude surroundings.” “People do get on without a computer at all, so perhaps ‘No Computer’ (or ‘The Computer They Make You Use At Work’) is the true ‘Just Enough Computer’.”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 22 of 27
  23. 23. Future Work Re-analyze for digital literacy, misunderstanding of novice, aging, and more • So much data! • Bigger sample Find out percent of population that is this or that • “Just Enough” term? • Gender, socioeconomic status, years of experience, aversion to change? • Separating work and play in motivation study External motivation more common with • Less frequent users? infrequent computer users? • What if a “consequence” element? • Hand held computers? Probably unethical, oh well.Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 23 of 27
  24. 24. Guess which oneCONCLUSIONS is intrinsic? 24 of 27
  25. 25. They are competent, they do fail, they do Statistical Results exist, they are not an insignificant number, it’s not • Confirmed competency of JE users their age or growing up on computers. • Extrinsic proficient daily users stumble, fall, persist and quit significantly more than intrinsics • AND it is not explained by age, perceived competence, or being digital native • JE users account for over 80% of performance difficulties in our study • Just Enough users exist in all age groups and experience levels (18% in our sample)Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 25 of 27
  26. 26. They look like anyone Observed Phenomena else, there are “Just Enough” in all experience levels. Are you one? • Impossible to differentiate JE user from any other competent user, until faced with the unfamiliar • Just Enough users shed competencies as they become unnecessary • Wide range of attitudes and experience related to exploring and performance • Sense of “not belonging”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 26 of 27
  27. 27. A HaikuThank Just Enough is cool you! till unfamiliar and new safe routine un-do. Intrinsic novice, 87 years old 27 of 27
  28. 28. Just Enough User Lilly (2/9) A few more examples because they’re interesting When asked during the test about her feelings, Lilly shares, “ohhh, why am I so stupid? How can I not know how to do this? I dread asking one of my kids because they have no patience.” “I really want computers to be as unobtrusive in my daily life as can be. Just Enough term sounds a bit lazy.”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 28 of 27
  29. 29. Just Enough User Marsha (4/9) A few more examples because they’re interesting Marsha says, “I like to sign out, because then they, THEORETICALLY, aren’t watching me, but you know they are because advertisements for something I just looked at turn up on the *weirdest* pages.” “My feelings are that I would like to be more than that [JE user]. I would consider a "just enough" user to be one who uses only email, or only cruises the web for news, or only uses one application.”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 29 of 27
  30. 30. Just Enough User Mary Ann (5/9) A few more examples because they’re interesting “When I’m at work, I’m so busy, that I don’t have time to play around... I always have to do things in the fastest way possible, which doesn’t allow exploration.” “My feelings are that I would like to be more than that. I do not want to be a "dinosaur. I sometimes can do a little more than just enough if I get up my courage to try."Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 30 of 27
  31. 31. Just Enough User Miranda (6/9) A few more examples because they’re interesting “It seems stupid and why should I waste my time staring at the computer.” “My feelings are, why would I spend any more time at the computer? Id rather read a book or take a walk. Just enough is a perfect name.”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 31 of 27
  32. 32. Just Enough User Molly (7/9) A few more examples because they’re interesting “This all is stupid. This is ridiculous. I don’t know why anyone uses computers. … I don’t really care. I can basically do anything I need to do and I have [IT worker] and if I can’t do anything I just call [IT worker] and cry.” “The term "Just Enough" is kind. I dont feel judged or "less than" (stupid).”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 32 of 27
  33. 33. Just Enough User Olivia (8/9) A few more examples because they’re interesting “[it] is really annoying not to be able to find these things that you’re CLAIMING it’s on here. And it’s like, how are you supposed to know where it is.....[I’m] irritated.” “Very proud that I can do it enuf [sic]. People should make more things easy for us.”Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions 33 of 27
  34. 34. “Just Enough Users”, a poem Just enough is satisficing, works out fine till new and strange. Computer changes make life messy, Would not be a then it’s struggle stumble quit. Harriet project without a poem. Those interest people cruise along, Enjoy! probably nothing ever wrong. Curse you easy flexing user. Why can’t I just find my cursor? Just Enough left me so helpless, when the web changed all my favorites. I just want to stay so lazy, stay low interest, stay low effort. OK sometimes then I stumble. Just Enough was not effective. Who to blame and who to curse? Designers! They must be the worst.Conclusion 34 of 27

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