Maxillary and Mandibular Canines

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Maxillary and Mandibular Canines

  1. 1. The CaninesThe Canines Howard Chi, D.M.D.Howard Chi, D.M.D.
  2. 2. Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives Generals of canines, including function andGenerals of canines, including function and class traitsclass traits Anatomy of maxillary caninesAnatomy of maxillary canines Anatomy of mandibular caninesAnatomy of mandibular canines
  3. 3. Generals of CaninesGenerals of Canines
  4. 4. TheThe CaninesCanines There are four canines:There are four canines: numbers 6, 11, 22, 27numbers 6, 11, 22, 27 They are the longest ofThey are the longest of the permanent teeththe permanent teeth 6 11 2227
  5. 5. Called cornerstones of theCalled cornerstones of the archesarches Also known as cuspids,Also known as cuspids, eyeteeth, or fangseyeteeth, or fangs The CaninesThe Canines
  6. 6. The CaninesThe Canines Frequently the last teeth toFrequently the last teeth to be lost to dental diseasebe lost to dental disease Term is greek in originTerm is greek in origin Hippocrates stressed theHippocrates stressed the intermediate nature of caninesintermediate nature of canines (between incisors and molars)(between incisors and molars)
  7. 7. FunctionFunction ofof CaninesCanines In dogs, cats, and other animals for catchingIn dogs, cats, and other animals for catching and tearing food and defenseand tearing food and defense Essential to their survivalEssential to their survival
  8. 8. FunctionFunction ofof CaninesCanines In humans the canines function with incisors to:In humans the canines function with incisors to: a) Support the lip and facial musclesa) Support the lip and facial muscles b) Cut, pierce, or shear food morselsb) Cut, pierce, or shear food morsels c) Guide occlusionc) Guide occlusion d) Good anchors due to size and length ofd) Good anchors due to size and length of rootsroots
  9. 9. Class TraitsClass Traits ofof CaninesCanines Longest teeth inLongest teeth in the mouththe mouth Long thick roots that help anchor them inLong thick roots that help anchor them in the alveolar processthe alveolar process
  10. 10. Class Traits of CaninesClass Traits of Canines The incisal ridge is dividedThe incisal ridge is divided into two inclines or slopesinto two inclines or slopes The mesial cusp ridge isThe mesial cusp ridge is shorter than the distalshorter than the distal They do not have mamelonsThey do not have mamelons
  11. 11. Class TraitsClass Traits of Caninesof Canines The labial surface isThe labial surface is prominently convex withprominently convex with a vertical labial ridgea vertical labial ridge They are the only teethThey are the only teeth with a labial ridgewith a labial ridge Distal #6
  12. 12. Class Traits of CaninesClass Traits of Canines Greater labiolingually than mesiodistallyGreater labiolingually than mesiodistally Root is oblongRoot is oblong faciolingually infaciolingually in cross sectioncross section Distal contact area isDistal contact area is more cervical thanmore cervical than the mesialthe mesial
  13. 13. Class TraitsClass Traits of Caninesof Canines Canines are wedge shapedCanines are wedge shaped proximallyproximally Lingual height of contour is inLingual height of contour is in the cervical thirdthe cervical third Remaining outline is convexRemaining outline is convex on the lingual in the incisal thirdon the lingual in the incisal third Distal #6
  14. 14. Arch TraitsArch Traits Maxillary From MandibularMaxillary From Mandibular Maxillary canine cuspMaxillary canine cusp tip is labial to the longtip is labial to the long axis of the rootaxis of the root This is best way toThis is best way to distinguish maxillarydistinguish maxillary from mandibularfrom mandibular
  15. 15. Occasionally moreOccasionally more than one rootthan one root may appearmay appear Class Traits of CaninesClass Traits of Canines Actual Extracted Teeth #6 and #22 Demonstrating Multiple Roots
  16. 16. Maxillary CanineMaxillary Canine
  17. 17. Maxillary CanineMaxillary Canine Labial AspectLabial Aspect Facial is made of three lobesFacial is made of three lobes Cingulum is a fourthCingulum is a fourth
  18. 18. Mesial outline is broadly convexMesial outline is broadly convex and flat in the cervical thirdand flat in the cervical third Mesial contact is at theMesial contact is at the junction of the incisaljunction of the incisal and middle thirdsand middle thirds Maxillary CanineMaxillary Canine Labial AspectLabial Aspect
  19. 19. Maxillary CanineMaxillary Canine Labial AspectLabial Aspect Distal aspect makes a shallow "s"Distal aspect makes a shallow "s" and convex in the middle thirdand convex in the middle third Slightly concave in theSlightly concave in the cervical thirdcervical third Distal contact is in theDistal contact is in the middle thirdmiddle third Distal cusp ridge is usuallyDistal cusp ridge is usually longer than the mesiallonger than the mesial
  20. 20. Maxillary Canine - Labial AspectMaxillary Canine - Labial Aspect The crown is as long asThe crown is as long as a maxillary central incisora maxillary central incisor The root is approximatelyThe root is approximately 3.5 mm longer than a central3.5 mm longer than a central
  21. 21. The root bendsThe root bends distally in thedistally in the apical thirdapical third Maxillary CanineMaxillary Canine Labial AspectLabial Aspect
  22. 22. Maxillary Canine - Lingual AspectMaxillary Canine - Lingual Aspect Crown and root narrower linguallyCrown and root narrower lingually than labiallythan labially Lingual ridge from incisal toLingual ridge from incisal to cingulum presentcingulum present Has two shallow fossae on eitherHas two shallow fossae on either sideside
  23. 23. Maxillary Canine - Lingual AspectMaxillary Canine - Lingual Aspect Cingulum and tip of the cusp areCingulum and tip of the cusp are usually centered mesiodistallyusually centered mesiodistally Lingual ridge more prominent than theLingual ridge more prominent than the mesial and distal marginal ridgesmesial and distal marginal ridges Distal marginal ridge more prominentDistal marginal ridge more prominent that the mesialthat the mesial
  24. 24. Maxillary Canine - Lingual AspectMaxillary Canine - Lingual Aspect Mesial marginal ridgeMesial marginal ridge longer than the distallonger than the distal The root is narrower onThe root is narrower on the lingual than the facialthe lingual than the facial
  25. 25. Maxillary Canine - Proximal AspectMaxillary Canine - Proximal Aspect Labial height of contourLabial height of contour is in the cervical thirdis in the cervical third Labial surface moreLabial surface more convex than incisorsconvex than incisors Cervical line dips incisallyCervical line dips incisally 2.0mm on the mesial2.0mm on the mesial
  26. 26. Maxillary Canine - Proximal ViewMaxillary Canine - Proximal View Facial and lingual outlineFacial and lingual outline of the root is convexof the root is convex Quite broad faciolinguallyQuite broad faciolingually
  27. 27. Mesial and distal rootMesial and distal root depressions are presentdepressions are present Distal is more distinctDistal is more distinct Maxillary Canine - Proximal ViewMaxillary Canine - Proximal View Mesial View Distal View
  28. 28. Maxillary Canine - Incisal AspectMaxillary Canine - Incisal Aspect Striking feature - asymmetry of crownStriking feature - asymmetry of crown Line drawn from cusp tipLine drawn from cusp tip through cingulum will yieldthrough cingulum will yield a greater distal half with aa greater distal half with a marked concavity labiallymarked concavity labially D M
  29. 29. Facial aspect quite convexFacial aspect quite convex Mesial half roundedMesial half rounded Distal half flat or concaveDistal half flat or concave Three distinct lobes - middle is most prominentThree distinct lobes - middle is most prominent Maxillary Canine - Incisal AspectMaxillary Canine - Incisal Aspect
  30. 30. Mandibular CanineMandibular Canine
  31. 31. Mandibular Canine - Labial AspectMandibular Canine - Labial Aspect Smooth and convexSmooth and convex with labial ridgewith labial ridge Labial ridge not asLabial ridge not as pronounced as maxillarypronounced as maxillary
  32. 32. Crown surface in incisalCrown surface in incisal third slightly flat mesial tothird slightly flat mesial to labial ridgelabial ridge More flattened distal toMore flattened distal to labial ridgelabial ridge Mandibular Canine - Labial AspectMandibular Canine - Labial Aspect
  33. 33. Mandibular Canine - Labial AspectMandibular Canine - Labial Aspect The mesial side of crown isThe mesial side of crown is slightly convex to flatslightly convex to flat Distal is slightly concaveDistal is slightly concave in the cervical thirdin the cervical third
  34. 34. Mandibular Canine - Labial AspectMandibular Canine - Labial Aspect Distal is convex in theDistal is convex in the incisal two thirdsincisal two thirds More tooth structureMore tooth structure on the distal halfon the distal half
  35. 35. Mandibular Canine - Labial AspectMandibular Canine - Labial Aspect Mesial slope of cusp isMesial slope of cusp is shorter than the distalshorter than the distal Cusp tip is centered onCusp tip is centered on the long axis of the rootthe long axis of the root
  36. 36. Mandibular Canine - Labial AspectMandibular Canine - Labial Aspect Mesial contact is wellMesial contact is well within the incisal thirdwithin the incisal third Distal contact is at theDistal contact is at the junction of the incisaljunction of the incisal and middle thirdsand middle thirds
  37. 37. Mandibular Canine - Labial AspectMandibular Canine - Labial Aspect Root is convex on theRoot is convex on the facial surfacefacial surface Tapers to a blunt apexTapers to a blunt apex
  38. 38. Root is shorter thanRoot is shorter than the maxillarythe maxillary canine and lackscanine and lacks curvaturecurvature Mandibular Canine - Labial AspectMandibular Canine - Labial Aspect
  39. 39. Mandibular Canine - Lingual AspectMandibular Canine - Lingual Aspect Crown and root taper linguallyCrown and root taper lingually making the lingual narrowermaking the lingual narrower than the facialthan the facial Lingual ridge and fossae not asLingual ridge and fossae not as prominent as maxillaryprominent as maxillary Cingulum is lower and lessCingulum is lower and less prominent than maxillaryprominent than maxillary
  40. 40. Mandibular Canine - Lingual AspectMandibular Canine - Lingual Aspect Pits and grooves rarely ever presentPits and grooves rarely ever present Marginal ridges not prominentMarginal ridges not prominent surface appears smoothsurface appears smooth Distal marginal ridge moreDistal marginal ridge more prominent than lingual andprominent than lingual and mesial ridgesmesial ridges
  41. 41. Mandibular Canine - Lingual AspectMandibular Canine - Lingual Aspect Facial outline of root isFacial outline of root is visible from the lingualvisible from the lingual
  42. 42. Mandibular Canine - Proximal AspectMandibular Canine - Proximal Aspect The crown is wedge shapedThe crown is wedge shaped but thinner in the incisalbut thinner in the incisal aspect than the maxillaryaspect than the maxillary Incisal ridge is lingual or onIncisal ridge is lingual or on the long axis of the rootthe long axis of the root
  43. 43. Mandibular Canine - Proximal AspectMandibular Canine - Proximal Aspect Distal incisal angle is moreDistal incisal angle is more lingual than the cusp tiplingual than the cusp tip
  44. 44. Mandibular Canine - Proximal AspectMandibular Canine - Proximal Aspect The CEJ curves more incisallyThe CEJ curves more incisally on the mandibular canineon the mandibular canine than the maxillarythan the maxillary Height of contour on facialHeight of contour on facial more cervical than maxillarymore cervical than maxillary
  45. 45. The cingulum isThe cingulum is low and flattenedlow and flattened There are clear mesialThere are clear mesial and distal rootand distal root depressions (distaldepressions (distal more prominent)more prominent) Mandibular Canine - Proximal AspectMandibular Canine - Proximal Aspect Mesial View Distal View
  46. 46. Mandibular Canine - Incisal AspectMandibular Canine - Incisal Aspect Labiolingual measurement isLabiolingual measurement is greater than the mesiodistalgreater than the mesiodistal Outline is more symmetricalOutline is more symmetrical than the maxillary caninethan the maxillary canine
  47. 47. Mandibular Canine - Incisal AspectMandibular Canine - Incisal Aspect Similarity between caninesSimilarity between canines more convex on mesialmore convex on mesial half of crownhalf of crown Flat or concave on theFlat or concave on the distal halfdistal half
  48. 48. Mandibular Canine - Incisal AspectMandibular Canine - Incisal Aspect The crown is twisted on theThe crown is twisted on the incisal edge to the distalincisal edge to the distal The cingulum is centeredThe cingulum is centered or slightly distal to theor slightly distal to the long axislong axis

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