Chapter 2. ob


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Chapter 2. ob

  1. 1. Chapter 2Foundations of Individual Behavior
  2. 2. Foundations of Individual BehaviorThere are three foundations on which thebehavior of an individual is built.1). Ability2). Biographical characteristics3). Learning leads to behavior what management can do to shape thebehaviors of organizational members.
  3. 3. AbilityAbility: An individual’s capacity to perform thevarious tasks in a job.An individuals abilities can be categorized into twosets:1. Intellectual Abilities: the capacity to do mental activities-thinking, reasoning, and problem solving.2. Physical Abilities: the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
  4. 4. Intellectual Abilitiesthere are seven most cited abilities are:1. Number aptitude- speedy , accurate arithmetic.2. Verbal Comprehension- understand what is read or heard and relationship of words.3. Perceptual speed- ability to identify visual similarities.4. Inductive reasoning-Identify logical sequence in a problem and solve the problem.5. Deductive reasoning- using logic and assess the implications of an argument6. Spatial Visualization- How object would look if its position in space is changed7. Memory- ability to retain and recall past experiences.
  5. 5. Physical Abilities (PA) There are three categories of PA:STRENGTH FACTORS1). Dynamic Strength: Muscular force exerted repeatedly or continuously.2). Trunk Strength: Using abdominal muscles.3). Static Strength: exert force against external objects.4). Explosive Strength: expend a maximum energy in one or series ofexplosive acts.FLAXIBILITY FACTORS5). Extent Flexibility: To move trunk and back muscles as far as possible.6). Dynamic Flexibility: To make rapid and repeated flexing movementOTHER FACTORS:7). Body Coordination: Simultaneous actions of different parts of the body.8). Balance: Maintaining equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance.9). Stamina: Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time.
  6. 6. Biographical Characteristics The second foundation of human behavior are:age, gender, race, and length of service with an organization.AGE: there are three groups on the basis of age.Young: new entrants in the workforceMiddle aged: the most important in the organization.Old aged: most experienced and with tremendous patience.Gender: Male and female working together gives rise to numerousproblems.Glass Ceiling: women are not promoted to higher ranks.Sexual Harassment: starring, commenting, trying to abuse mentally orphysically and creating such environment that challenges the safetyand security of woman at workplace.
  7. 7. Biographical Characteristics (continues)RACE: People coming from different ethnicgroups. Favoritism, attitudes, and workplacedecision are made on this base. OTHERS REASONS:Tenure- Seniority is also reason and predictor ofperformance and behavior to work.Religion- Difference in religion also effects thebehavior towards the work and workplace.
  8. 8. Learning The third foundation of human behaviorDefinition: A relatively permanent change in behaviorthat occurs as a results of experience.Following are three theories of learning:1). Classical Conditioning- a type of conditioning in whichan individual responds to some stimulus that would notordinarily produce such a response.2). Operant Condition- a type of conditioning in whichdesired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or preventsa punishment. (Behaviorism– a theory that argues thatbehavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner.
  9. 9. Learning (continues)3).Social Learning: The view that people can learnthrough observation and direct experience: there arefour processes found that influence on an individual.They are as follows:a). Intentional processes– people learn when they payattention i.e. attractive, important to us, repeatedlyavailable or similar to us in our estimation.b). Retention Processes– how well the individualremembers the model action.c).Motor reproduction processes– watching must beconverted to doing. Individual can perform modeledactivities